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BSF Study Questions Romans Lesson 5, Day 4: Romans 3:24-26. Summary of passage: God granted us redemption through Jesus’s death on proofreading uk the cross through his blood in order to demonstrate his justice. 9) Part personal Question. My answer: To atone is to bismarck of germany essay, reconcile. Atonement is a cleansing of sins. Proofreading! It is the central doctrine of faith and can properly include all that Jeses accomplished for us on the cross. Jesus stands as our substitute/sacrifice that satisfies the righteous wrath of dbq essay causes God.
Without this, we#8217;re all destined for eternal punishment. It doesn’t. Proofreading Service Uk! I don’t need assurance. God said so. Done. God loved us so much He sent Himself (Jesus, Holy Trinity) as the only thing to justify us. 10) Part personal Question. Education The Democratic Importance Of Foundational! All of our answers are mere guesses. Love. Proofreading Service! I would say God loved his creation, mankind, so much He sent His perfect Son to us to help us, guide, us, and cleanse us so we can be with Him for all of two kinds amy tan eternity.
Jesus was the only perfect human and thus the only one worthy to be our final atoning sacrifice.. Service Uk! There are no words of thanks large enough for writing services, this. Conclusions : I don’t like the “assured” questions. For me, I shouldn’t have to be assured of anything. If you have faith, you don’t need assurance because you don’t question or doubt. God in His mercy and love gives us proof and proofreading uk assurance because of our humanity. But we shouldn#8217;t need it.
End Notes : Christ was our substitute sacrifice/atonement/propitiation so God could demonstrate His righteousness in judgment. Bismarck Essay! Propitiation is in all cultures. It#8217;s the act of appeasing the gods and the gods#8217;s anger against mankind through a sacrifice of some kind. Aztecs, Mayas, Greeks, Romans, Egyptians, Native Americans, etc. The ancient Greek word for propitiation ( hilasterion ) is also used in the Septuagint for the mercy seat , the lid covering the Ark of the proofreading service, Covenant, upon which sacrificial blood was sprinkled as an atonement for sin. While it might be said that this passage means “Jesus is our mercy seat,” it probably has the critical in career education importance, more straightforward idea of propitiation – a substitute sacrifice. Inside the Ark of the Covenant was the evidence of man’s great sin: the tablets of law; the manna received ungratefully; the budded rod of proofreading service uk Aaron, showing man’s rejection of God’s leadership.
The Ark was decorated with golden cherubim as symbols of dbq essay revolution God#8217;s holy presence. In between the cherubim stood the mercy seat, and as sacrificial blood was sprinkled on the mercy seat on the Day of Atonement (Leviticus 16), God’s wrath was averted because a substitute had been slain on behalf of sinners coming by faith. Jesus is our “mercy seat,” standing between guilty sinners and the holiness of God. God willingly gives His Son. He wants us with Him! God no longer passed over sin with the temporary OT sacrifice of proofreading service animal blood. He freed us forever from amy tan, sin with Jesus#8217;s sacrifice. Jesus paid the uk, price. At the cross, God demonstrated His righteousness by offering man justification (a legal verdict of “not guilty”), while remaining completely just (because the righteous penalty of sin had been paid at the cross). College Essay For Sale! Clarke states: God #8220;Of his justice , in requiring a sacrifice , and absolutely refusing to proofreading service, give salvation to a lost world in any other way; and of his mercy , in sarah lawrence mfa creative providing the uk, sacrifice which his justice required.” BSF Study Questions Romans Lesson 5, Day 3: Romans 3:23-24.
Summary of passage: All are sinners and are justified freely through God’s grace through Jesus’s work on the cross. 6) We are all sinners. Thesis Services Philippines! No one’s perfect. Paul is a great example. I think everyone knows they are sinners. This is not the proofreading, hurdle to Christianity. The hurdle is admitting you need someone to save you from the sins we all commit. Overcoming pride and self-reliance.
7a) According to Webster’s Dictionary, justified means, #8220;to prove or show to be just, right or reasonable; to judge, regard, or treat as righteous and worthy of salvation, to show sufficient.#8221; Zondervan#8217;s Illustrated Bible Dictionary has the college, definition as #8220;judicial act of God by which, on proofreading service the basis of the meritorious work of Christ, imputed to the sinner and in career received through Faith, God declares the sinner absolved from proofreading service, sin, released from its penalty, and unification of germany essay restored as righteous. Proofreading Service! Simply put, being placed by God in a right relationship with himself.#8221; Justification is writing, accomplished through faith in Jesus Christ as Savior when he died on the cross for uk, our sins.. Essay Two Kinds! The Good News is you get to spend eternity with God! Link with previous post on in my blog. b) Part personal Question. My answer: We were all fallen into Hell until Jesus came to pull us out with his death and bloodshed. He is full of grace and mercy. Uk! 8 ) Personal Question. My answer: We didn’t do anything to earn His gift. He has to have infinite love to tuition, bestow this upon us. Deeper gratitude.
Conclusions : Because Romans is such a short book we will probably be studying few verses every day. Which is good and bad. We will probably be answering several similar personal questions as well such as how these verses impact your thinking, response, etc. End Notes : Paul uses 3 major themes in Romans which we see here in one verse: 1) Justification or the law 2) Redemption from slavery 3) Propitiation or atonement from the religious need for sacrifice. Justification rids us of guilt. Redemption saves us from proofreading service, slavery. Propitiation ensues we don#8217;t offend our Creator. Justification is free. It is given to us as a gift by the desire of God. Freely is the ancient Greek word dorean. It means with no strings attached.
We are only righteous through Jesus. Period. Redemption: Jesus bought us with the cost of his life. Thus, we belong to God (1 Corinthians 6:20). Fun Fact : Paul uses the Greek verb for #8220;justified#8221; 27 times, mostly here in Romans and Galatians.
It is translated #8220;justify#8221; in all cases except 2 (2:13; 3:20 where it is translated #8220;declared righteous.#8221; This describes what happens when people believe in Christ as their Savior: God declares them to be not guilty and dbq essay causes righteous. Service! He debits the guilt of their sin and dbq essay causes credits righteousness (for all you accountants/finance/math people out proofreading uk, there!). Paul#8217;s points: 1) No one lives a perfectly, good, holy, righteous life. (v 10). All have sinned (v 23). 2) Even though we are sinners, God declares those who trust in Jesus righteous. Thesis! This is valid because Christ died to pay the penalty for our sin and because he lived a life of perfect righteousness he imputes (ascribes) that to us. THIS IS THE CENTRAL THEME OF ROMANS AS STATED IN 1:17. Justification : the central thought of justification is albeit people clearly and totally deserve to be declared guilt (v 9-19), God declares them righteous because of their faith in Christ. Paul states this idea in several ways: freely by his grace (v 24) and faith (v 25). Redemption : This word is from the service uk, slave marketbasically obtaining release by payment of a ransom.
It refers to release from guilt, judgement, and delivery from slavery to sin, because Christ in his death paid our ransom to set us free. Etymology: mid-14c., #8220;deliverance from sin,#8221; from Old French redemcion (12c.) and directly from Latin redemptionem (nominative redemptio ) #8220;a buying back, releasing, ransoming#8221; (also #8220;bribery#8221;), noun of action from past participle stem of redimere #8220;to redeem, buy back,#8221; from red- #8220;back#8221; + emere #8220;to take, buy, gain, procure#8221;. The -d- is critical thinking the democratic of foundational, from the proofreading service uk, Old Latin habit of using red- as the form of re- before vowels. Fun Fact : Paul is the one who formulates the doctrine of justification mainly in Galatians and Romans. Essay Amy Tan! Breakdown of Justification : A declarative act by which the sinner is declared to be free from guilt and the consequences of service sin A judicial act in which the idea of judgement and salvation are combined to represent Christ fulfilling the law on behalf of the sinner A remissive act in which God remits sin in complete forgiveness A restorative at by which the causes, forgiven sinner is service, restored to favor through the imputation of Christ#8217;s righteousness. Faith is the condition of revolution justification by proofreading, which the meritorious work of of germany essay Christ is accepted by the sinner. Christ#8217;s work on the cross is sufficient. BSF Study Questions Romans Lesson 5, Day 2: Romans 3:21-23. INTRODUCTORY NOTE : This lesson is PACKED with the crux of Christianity: righteousness, justification, atonement, and redemptionall through Christ. Some have called Romans 3:21-31 #8220;the central theological passage in the Bible#8221; (BSF devotes 2 weeks to proofreading service, this!). I spent over 10 hours on this lesson.
Take your time and absorb it. BSF gives us a whole week. Use it. Pray over bismarck unification, it. Ponder. Meditate. Because if you get this lesson, you get Christ! What is more important to spend your time on than this?! Summary of passage: Paul now explains how righteousness is service uk, attained only by faith in Jesus Christ, which the Law and Prophets testify to.
All are sinners and equal before God. 3) According to Webster’s Dictionary, righteousness means #8220;acting in accord with divine or moral law; free from guilt or sin.#8221; Zondervan#8217;s Illustrated Bible Dictionary states it as #8220;morally right behavior or character. Critical In Career The Democratic Importance! In general, any conformity to a standard. God always acts in righteousness or has a right relationship with people and His action is to maintain that relationship.#8221; It comes from God and is received by proofreading service, all believers through faith in Christ. That’s how I understand it. Zondervan has an amazing explanation of righteousness in the gospel: #8220;Paul tells us in Romans 1:16-17 that #8216;a righteousness from God is revealed, a righteousness that is by faith from first to last.#8217; The gospel is effective because a righteousness goes forth which is the provision of a right relationship with himself through the causes american revolution, saving work of Jesus. Proofreading Service Uk! To receive this gift is to be justified by faith. Those who receive the gift then are to live as righteous people, devoted to the service of college essay what God declares to be right.#8221; 4) Before Jesus, all those who obeyed the proofreading, law had righteousness. Here, Paul says apart from the law, meaning the law cannot save us nor can keeping the in career the democratic, law save us, but God reveals a righteousness that will save us, which is God’s plan of salvation in Jesus Christ. It is a salvation that is offered apart from the law, apart from our own earning and deserving, apart from uk, our own merits. Dbq Essay Revolution! 5a) God granted righteousness to those He deemed worthy, which is apart from the law.
He made a covenant with Israel and put the proofreading service, law in their minds and wrote it on their hearts. He forgave Israel’s wickedness and remembered their sins no more. God granted them cleansing from their impurities and gave them a new heart and spirit and saved them. Israel was chosen to be in God#8217;s covenant, in right relationship with Him through faith and were expected to live in right relationship with others. It matters because it was the only way to God before Jesus. It also shows God#8217;s faithfulness to His people and how He keeps His promises to us. Other OT references: Psalm 32:1-2. Paul actually will quote this in Romans 4:6-8 as he continues to explain how God must credit righteousness based on faith. Habakkuk 2:4 which Paul quotes in Romans 1:17.
This OT verse quoted by Paul is the verse Martin Luther read that changed his life and sarah lawrence mfa creative righteousness by faith became the rallying cry of the Protestant Reformation . b) Part personal question. My answer: Anyone who believes in their heart Jesus died for their sins and God raised him from the dead and confesses Jesus as their Lord. Service! Gratitude is thesis, my response. Conclusions : I love how Paul packs a lot of power into proofreading service, few words. Two Kinds Amy Tan! And it’s simple. Righteousness is easy: believe in Jesus. End Notes : Paul just spent the first part of his letter showing us how all (Jews and Gentiles) are unrighteous (1:18-3:20). Now, he will show how God provides us with a way to service, be righteous. #8220;But now#8221;: This either means 1) Time. And the now is the period righteousness from God has been made known or 2) Logical.
Between the thinking in career education, righteousness gained by observing the law (which is impossible v 20) and the righteousness provided by God. Proofreading! Paul didn#8217;t invent righteousness; it#8217;s been around since the Prophets as always part of God#8217;s plan. We can#8217;t earn merit before Him by following the unification of germany essay, law. This is apart from the law. Righteousness is something not earned, but received, through faith in proofreading Christ.
There is no other way to obtain righteousness. It#8217;s all trust. Everyone must receive this gift because all sin and fall short. We fail in so many ways: fail to give Him glory in our words, thoughts and actions. We reject His glory. Thus, justification through faith and grace is offered#8230;. BSF Study Questions Romans Lesson 4, Day 5: Romans 3:19-20. Summary of in career the democratic of foundational passage: The whole world is accountable to God and His Word. His Word makes all conscious of sin and merely observing the law does not make you righteous.
11) The whole world is accountable to God and uk His Word. His Word makes all conscious of sin and critical thinking the democratic importance of foundational merely observing the law does not make you righteous. 12a) Just that: To silence every critic, God is making it clear ALL are guilty before Him. b) So far, it hasn’t really. I’ve learned more about the importance of it, but it hasn’t had an concrete effects on identifying and confessing sins. It#8217;s Week 4. Conclusions : Unsure why we need a whole day on these two verses (besides the obvious that Romans only has 16 chapters for service uk, a 30 week study), which in my mind only bismarck of germany essay, emphasizes the facts we’re not righteous just because we obey the law, which is what we’ve been talking about all week. Uk! End Notes : The law cannot save you. It gives you knowledge of your sins, not salvation. In fact, it condemns you, not saves you. Essay Two Kinds! Yes, God wants you to keep His laws and walk in His ways. But that alone will not give you eternal life.
Only the purifying blood of Jesus can do so under the New Covenant. J.B. Service Uk! Phillip’s paraphrase of #8220;through the law we become conscious of sin#8221; is sarah lawrence tuition, striking. He writes, “ it is the straight-edge of the Law that shows us how crooked we are. “ BSF Study Questions Romans Lesson 4, Day 4: Romans 3:9-18. Summary of passage: Paul says we are all sinners and no one is righteous, quoting from the Old Testament. 8a) Part personal Question. My answer: No one understands God. No one seeks Him. All turn away and become worthless. Uk! No one does good.
Their throats are open graves, their tongues full of deceit, and they speak poison. They curse and two kinds are bitter. They are swift to shed blood. They bring ruin and misery. They do not know peace. They do not fear God. We all have sin in our lives and are surrounded by sinners.
People are mean. They fall away from God. Wars. Flippant attitude towards God and uk sinning. Personally, sticking to God#8217;s path is the hardest and dealing with my own sin. b) Part personal Question. My answer: Tongues are full of deceit. The poison of vipers is on their lips.
Their mouths are full of cursing and bitterness. The tongue can corrupt the whole person. Critical Thinking Education The Democratic! It is full of evil and poison. Speak more words of encouragement and praise. There#8217;s enough complaining and tearing down in this world. 9) No one fears God. Well, Paul quotes from the Old Testament here and service uk he is living in New Testament times. Regardless, man#8217;s nature doesn#8217;t change with time. He is a sinner and is prone to turn away from God and not fear Him.
God thus judges and punishes as we see all throughout the Old and New Testament. So will it be until the Second Coming. Lawrence Mfa Creative! 10) Think before you act. Repent. Ask for forgiveness. Put others first. Follow God#8217;s laws. Worship Him. Treat God and Jesus with the respect they deserve.
Both lie in your heart and you do everything in your power to keep them there. Conclusions : Paul again is emphasizing how we are all the proofreading uk, same no matter what our backgrounds. God treats us equally. He takes it further here by saying we are all sinners and listing ways in which we sin. He wraps up with how no one fears God when we should. Good lesson on keeping us all humble. Causes! Least we get on our high horses, read Romans. End Notes : Again, Paul says all are under sin and deserve condemnation (Jews, pagans, Gentiles, everyone). #8220;Under sin#8221; literally means sold under sin or a slave to service, sin. Services Philippines! We are all born in service sin. Causes American Revolution! Paul then quotes the proofreading, Old Testament (mainly Psalm and Isaiah) as proof of our sinhood.
Paul uses parts of the body to emphasize our complete helplessness to save ourselves. Sarah Writing Tuition! Adam before the Fall wasn#8217;t even righteous. He was merely innocent. Proofreading Uk! The throat, tongue, lips, mouth, feet, and eyes are filled with sin and rebellion against God. God calls all of us.
On our own we would not seek out college admission, Him. We sin because we do not have the proper respect (or fear) of God. Proofreading Service Uk! Side Note : If you were to look up these verses, you would find Paul does not quote them verbatim. There are several reasons for this: New Testament authors sometimes gave the general sense and not a direct quote. Quotation marks were not used in ancient Greek. Citations were often taken from the pre-Christian Greek translation (the Septuagint) of the Hebrew OT because Greek readers were not familiar with the dbq essay, Hebrew Bible. Sometimes this was done on purpose by the NT writer in uk order to thesis, drive home his point.
Under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, the writer would enlarge, abbreviate or adapt an OT passage or combine them.
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HealthSouth Fraud Investigation Essay Sample. Introduction and Background. Richard Scrushy founded HealthSouth, formerly known as Amcare, Inc., in 1984 in proofreading uk, Alabama. Thinking Education Importance Of Foundational? HealthSouth is a provider of medical rehabilitation services, as well as outpatient surgery and occupational medical services. The company experienced rapid financial growth and numerous mergers and service uk acquisitions in the mid-1990s, which continued to escalate until the fraudulent activity surfaced in 2002. It was at dbq essay causes, this time that the proofreading service Enron and WorldCom scandals were discovered and the Sarbanes-Oxley Act was created.
Pressure to in career education the democratic importance meet Wall Street expectations pushed Scrushy and other senior management to “cook the books”. Income was artificially inflated, numbers were manipulated, and proofreading service uk false accounts were created. Numerous red flags occurred but were not investigated such as: disproportionate analytical ratios, exponential earnings growth, letters of concern sent to the auditors, and consistently meeting market expectations. Collusion, lies, employee unawareness, disregard for red flags, and hiring CFO’s from the auditing firm helped ensure the fraud remained undetected. Auditors failed to follow their legal duties and lacked professional scepticism in the process. Causes? When the scheme began to unravel, HealthSouth was faced with a financial crisis.
An investigation took place and PwC was hired for audit and reformation. Alvarez and Marsals, a restructuring firm, was crucial to HealthSouth’s continued existence. Service? Charges were made, jobs were lost, and many legal battles arose from the HealthSouth scandal. The fraud at HealthSouth began with small ethical compromises which grew into bismarck unification of germany essay larger, more aggressive schemes that later became fully intentional fraudulent activity. HealthSouth had numerous areas of financial misstatement. Assets and proofreading service uk income were immensely overstated, expenses were understated and the revenue account was subject to “fraudulent reporting of fictitious sales, inaccurate timing of revenue recognition, and improper valuation of revenue,” (Weld, Bergevin, Magrath, 2004). HealthSouth’s fraud resembles the fraud at Enron because both were motivated to meet Wall Street expectations, and did so by falsifying revenue. The stock option fraud at HealthSouth further resembles what happened at mfa creative writing tuition, Enron. Scrushy allegedly abused stock options and was tried but ultimately acquitted of insider trading.
Why it occurred. HealthSouth attempted to meet Wall Street expectations by means of overstating income, which in turn created a snowball effect of proofreading, other erroneous transactions. This type of fraud involved collusion between the CEO, Richard Scrushy, and other senior management who referred to themselves as “The Family” (Wang, Lin, Ju, 2009). HealthSouth was growing and prosperous for the first decade. It expanded original operations by sarah mfa creative writing tuition, acquiring and merging with other organizations. Unfortunately, after the proofreading uk expansions revenue no longer exceeded expenses, leaving the company in a deficit.
Management was determined to essay amy tan meet market expectations. HealthSouth was very important to service Ernst and Young because they were a significant client. This provided management with control over the auditors. Admission Essay For Sale? Management used its power to proofreading ensure the auditors did not find out about the fraud (William, 2003). Scrushy pressured employees to commit fraud because earning targets were not being met. Wall Street expectations needed to be reached in order to sarah mfa creative writing tuition uphold the service company’s reputation. Scrushy told the accountants to do whatever they could to ensure earning targets were met (William, 2003). He utilized coercive and legitimate power over his accounting employees. The company had the opportunity to commit fraud because many HealthSouth employees had previously worked at Ernst and sarah lawrence writing tuition Young, including William Owens and Weston Smith, who were once CFOs (Stuart, 2005).
These men knew what ratios would be completed, as well as the value of transactions that would trigger investigations. By having this knowledge, they were able to service uk fix the bismarck unification of germany books in proofreading uk, a way the auditors would never notice. Employees involved in sarah mfa creative, the fraud rationalized the fraud by telling themselves it would only happen once. Aaron Beam, former CEO, said, “I rationalized that this was a one- time rough spot in the road and that it would help the company” (New Perspectives, 2012). Another rationalization was that it was okay because Scrushy and other upper management said to service do it. The negative culture at the top of the dbq essay causes revolution organization was a significant reason the uk fraud was committed.
How it occurred. Scrushy was determined to be profitable and essay amy tan meet market expectations. Uk? He accomplished this by getting his accountants to “fix” the books. Earnings were overstated by unification of germany essay, $1.4 billion and assets were matched to proofreading uk earnings (SEC charges HealthSouth Corp., CEO Richard Scrushy with $1.4 Billion Accounting Fraud, 2003). Top executives oversaw financial reports before they were published to confirm actual earnings met expectations. If they did not meet expectations, the accounting staff would manipulate the in career the democratic of foundational results.
The auditors did not look at transactions over $5,000, so management made certain they were under that value. It is estimated that there were about 2 million journal entries and falsified documents created in order to meet expectations (Hamilton). The fraud began to occur in mid-1996 when the net income was about 60% below expectations. During the final trial, one of the accountants confessed that revenue was placed into “contractual adjustments” (William, 2003). Contractual adjustments are accounts that “estimate the difference between the uk amount billing to the patient and the amount paid by insurance” (William, 2003). Revenues were overstated because accountants would also have to credit this contra-revenue account. Bad debt reserves were another tool used in this fraud. In the fiscal year of 1999, the critical organization took a “big bath” and wrote off $342 million of accounts receivable followed by only $98 million in proofreading service, 2000 (William, 2003). These large doubtful account balances did not directly correlate with the increase in sarah writing tuition, accounts receivable.
In 1999, the proofreading service company was certain to miss earning targets. Writing off a large amount of bad debts in the current period allowed them to recognize greater net income in subsequent years (Appendix A). In 1994 and 1995, the allowance for doubtful accounts had gross receivables of writing tuition, about 40%, which was significantly overstated (William, 2003). Appendix B shows that allowance for doubtful accounts was notably higher in comparison to revenue in service uk, 1999. Earnings overstatement ensured share prices would continue to grow. Thinking In Career The Democratic Importance? Appendix C outlines an example of the income before interest and uk taxes from 1999-2002. Scrushy made millions of dollars by abusing company stock options. He also received annual bonuses based on these significantly overstated earnings. Amy Tan? (SEC charges HealthSouth Corp., CEO Richard Scrushy with $1.4 Billion Accounting Fraud, 2003). A 2001 report says Scrushy was paid $4 million for salary and got a bonus of $6.5 million (Solomon, Carrns, Terthune, 2003). Scrushy was granted options on service uk, 11 dates, often when stock prices were at yearly, quarterly or monthly lows.
He was never charged with backdating stock options, but the act was heavily scrutinized (Forelle Bandler, 2009). The issue of potential insider trading arose in 2002 regarding Scrushy’s stock sellbacks (Appendix D). Scrushy sold over lawrence writing, $75 million of his HealthSouth stock back to the company in May and an additional $25 million in June. In August stock prices fell by more than 50% because of an announcement regarding a reimbursement change in Medicare payment policy (Barry, 2009). Proofreading Service? Scrushy’s early trading is evidence of essay, stock option abuse. In order to keep the balance sheet balanced, assets were overstated and (to a lesser extent) liabilities were understated.
Senior accountants chose to primarily misstate the fixed asset accounts to match the equity increase. Non-existent property, plant and equipment were recorded as “AP Summary” on proofreading uk, a sub-ledger at varying amounts and kept within specific thresholds to avoid questioning (Barry, 2009). Additionally, disclosure notes were brief and lacked information regarding undesirable operations and prospects. Red Flags of the Fraud. There were several red flags in HealthSouth’s fraud that were either disregarded or discounted by the internal and lawrence writing tuition external auditors. The company’s net income had increased nearly 500% from 1999-2001, while actual revenues grew only 5% (Bloomberg Businessweek, 2003).
Significant changes in bad debts were another red flag that went unnoticed by proofreading service, auditors. Thesis Writing Philippines? In 1999, when the company wrote off extreme amounts of bad debt, auditors should have investigated further. Service? During this same period of 1999-2001, cash on hand rose by only 40% (Williams, 2003). Cash flows failed to meet the company’s requirement for sustainable operations (Weld, 2004). Services Philippines? The company should have been questioned about how it was actually paying for its operations (Appendix E). HealthSouth had also purchased significant amounts of capital items such as rehabilitation clinics and outpatient surgery centers. However, these expenditures did not translate into greater returns of investments of or additional sales (Williams, 2003). Appendix F identifies the changes in return on investment throughout 1996-2001.
A key red flag should have been that the company earnings consistently and precisely met analysts’ expectations. The organization’s earnings had met Wall Street’s expectations for 48 consecutive periods (Weld, 2004). Proofreading? “The US economy began to sour at two kinds, the end of 1999, yet HealthSouth’s books showed strong profit growth into proofreading service uk 2000 and 2001,” (William, 2003). This should have been a major concern for both the auditors, as well as investors, because not only were earnings consistently growing, they also continued to grow when the economy was suffering. Why the Fraud Continued Undetected. In the HealthSouth fraud, two main types of people were involved.
First, there were people who were fully aware and participated in the fraudulent acts. Scrushy used coercive and legitimate power to essay force management into uk committing reporting fraud. College Admission? When the first CFO, Aaron Beam, was on trial he stated that he learned not to question or criticize Scrushy if he wanted to service uk keep his job, and that financial results could be manipulated without discovery or negative consequences (Hamilton). Secondly, there were individuals who were unaware of the impact of their acts and that they were committing fraud. These individuals got dragged into the scheme without fully understanding the circumstances. Management used calculated manipulations and falsification of documents in order to deceive auditors (Williams, 2003). Due to the large amount of false entries and thinking education importance of foundational documentation, it is evident that the proofreading knowledge of the fraud eventually became widespread within the company.
If the unification essay auditors questioned any of the employees about proofreading he fraudulent entries or documentation, they would lie for their job security as well as their co-workers’. Michael Vines, a HealthSouth bookkeeper, resigned after trying to warn several members on management that assets were being fraudulently overstated. After resigning, he sent an email to the auditors informing them of three accounts that contained fraudulent entries. The auditors only investigated this information to the extent of bismarck unification, calling the service CFO, who replied that Vines was a disgruntled employee (Hamilton). The auditors essentially turned a blind eye. If they would have checked into the accounts, they would have uncovered the fraud. Another explanation regarding why the fraud went undetected is that Scrushy hired two CFO’s who were previously EY auditors (William, 2003).
Past work experience with an critical thinking in career of foundational, accounting firm gave Owen and Smith knowledge about how to hide the fraud within reporting records. The Auditors Roles and Responsibilities. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act was non-existent prior to 2002. Before this time, management chose who performed the audit. If the proofreading audit was not done the way management wanted, they had the right to fire the auditors. Having the ability to fire the auditors gave management legitimate and education importance coercive power over the audit procedures and findings. Associated Press (2005) states: EY either intentionally and knowingly turned a blind eye to the accounting fraud, manipulation and misconduct perpetrated by Scrushy and the pleading officers and employees, or EY negligently, recklessly, wantonly breached its agreements and service uk duties implied in law in failing to discover the accounting fraud and to report the fraud to HealthSouth’s board of directors and audit committee. The auditors were given tips by employees who had left the company but choose to not investigate. If the auditors had performed simple calculations, ratios, and analytics it would have been evident that accounting records were overstated.
Gross margin is a key ratio to calculate, as well as comparing the company performance to others in the same industry. Regardless of whether they turned a blind eye, or truly did not know there was a fraud, the auditors were not performing their duties correctly. If they had done their duties implied by law, the fraud would not have developed as immensely as it had. Fate of Parties Involved. Richard Scrushy was charged with 36 counts, including fraud, money laundering, and conspiracy charges (Crawford, 2005). He was the first CEO to be charged under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act since it was enacted. College Essay? Scrushy was acquitted on all 36 charges (Pavlo, 2012).
After Scrushy was found not guilty of the HealthSouth charges, he was impeached on political corruption accusations in 2005, which included money laundering, obstruction, racketeering and bribery. Scrushy was found guilty and sentenced to 82 months in prison, which was later reduced to 70 months (Pavlo, 2012). Proofreading? In 2009 Scrushy was brought to sarah mfa creative writing tuition civil court and sued by service, the shareholders of HealthSouth. He was found guilty of the fraud and ordered to pay approximately $2.9 billion to shareholders (Associated Press, 2009). Being tried under the critical the democratic importance Sarbanes-Oxley Act, along with Scrushy, were fifteen other executives including five previous CFO’s. Among them were Aaron Beam, the first CFO of HealthSouth, and William Owen, the last CFO before the fraud investigation. Owens received the heaviest conviction, a 5 years prison sentence, while the other 4 CFOs received less than 3 years (Johnson, 2005). All had to pay substantial fines and proofreading service uk ended up losing the majority of assets they personally held.
EY paid $109 million to HealthSouth shareholders as a part of a settlement stemming from the accounting scandal. The accounting firm neither admitted nor denied their part in the fraud. HealthSouth replaced their auditors with PwC. Thesis Services? HealthSouth shareholders also sued the proofreading service United Southern Bank, one of their investment banks, for not discovering the fraud that nearly bankrupt the company. Thesis Services Philippines? USB settled and paid $100 million for its part in the scandal. (Harris Taub, 2009). Effect of service uk, Fraud on dbq essay american revolution, HealthSouth.
Immediately after the fraud came to light and the FBI was brought in to investigate, trading on proofreading service, HealthSouth stock was suspended from the SP 500 for two days, and delisted the following week. Following the FBI announcement of investigation, the Board of Directors placed Scrushy and Owens on administrative leave. The board formed a Special Investigative Committee because of the fraudulent accusations. They also hired accounting firm, PwC, to lead the audit and restructuring firm, Alvaraz Marsals (HealthSouth Press Release, 2003). HealthSouth faced bankruptcy as J.P. Morgan cut off the unification essay company’s access to its $1.25 billion line of credit. Only $400 million of the line of uk, credit had been accessed at the time of the fraud and a payment of $354 million for convertible bonds was due within the next month (Atlas, 2003).
HealthSouth defaulted on the bond payment but managed to pay investors $60 million for sarah writing, interest payments, sending an indication that they were willing to fight to proofreading avoid bankruptcy (Alvaraz Marsal, 2005). In the next few months, Alvaraz Marsals cut expenses by bismarck of germany, approximately $110 million and saved cash reserves of approximately $345 million by July 2003. Proofreading? They did this by selling off assets such as airplanes and land plots (Vogt, HealthSouth Working to Avoid Bankruptcy, 2003). They also sold off under-performing units and renegotiated equipment leases, all while upgrading the accounting and receivables system. HealthSouth managed to receive a loan from Credit Suisse First Boston for the amount of $355 million to pay the failed bond payment from 2003 (Alvaraz Marsal, 2005). Bismarck Unification Of Germany Essay? HealthSouth faced several legal battles stemming from the accounting fraud. Uk? They settled several lawsuits by paying over $445 million, and an additional $200 million to the SEC over two years for civil charges (Harris Taub, 2009). HealthSouth avoided bankruptcy through the help of Alvaraz Marsals and an overhaul of the whole organization.
A monumental point in their recovery was the filing of their first audited financial statements in July of 2005 for the four years ending December 31, 2003 (HealthSouth Press Release, 2005). As a part of college admission for sale, corporate streamlining, HealthSouth sold its surgery center, outpatient rehabilitation division, and diagnostic division with a plan to focus solely on inpatient rehabilitation (Vogt, HealthSouth Pares Down to Inpatient Rehabilitation Care, 2006). Since the accounting scandal, HealthSouth has managed to turn their situation around and service uk become an ethical and successful company. They seek to continue to thesis writing services philippines improve and provide quality service. The HealthSouth fraud provided short term benefits, but resulted in the near failure of the company.
HealthSouth management faced pressure from service Scrushy to meet expectations. Writing Services? Opportunity arose from the service auditing firm and procedures, as well as through accounting methods that were largely subject to management discretion. Rationalizations varied among the people involved. Some wanted to appear successful, while others didn’t want to lose their jobs. The tone set by Scrushy acted as a gateway to commit the crime. If red flags had not been ignored, it is highly probable this scheme would have unravelled earlier, and critical thinking in career the democratic importance of foundational would not have reached the extent that it had. HealthSouth’s existence is able to be continued today because of replacements, tighter controls, and a completely restructured foundation. HealthSouth Press Release. (2003, March 20). Retrieved from HealthSouth: http://apps.shareholder.com/sec/viewerContent.aspx?companyid=HLSSdocid=2212626 SEC charges HealthSouth Corp., CEO Richard Scrushy with $1.4 Billion Accounting Fraud. (2003, March 20).
Retrieved from U.S. Securities and service uk Exchange Commission: http://www.sec.gov/litigation/litreleases/lr18044.htm HealthSouth Press Release. Essay Two Kinds? (2005, July 27). Retrieved from HealthSouth Corporation – Annual Report: http://files.shareholder.com/downloads/HLSS/2167424725x0xS1193125%2D05%2D131361/785161/filing.pdf Alvaraz Marsal. (2005, February). HealthSouth: The Road to Recovery. Retrieved from proofreading service uk Alvaraz Marsal: http://www.alvarezandmarsal.com/en/industries/healthcare/related_info/documents/HealthSouthWhitepaperUS.pdf Associated Press. (2009, June 2009). Scrushy Ordered to Pay Investors $2.9 Billion. Retrieved from MSNBC U.S. Business: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/31427676/ns/business-us_business/t/scrushy-ordered-pay-investors-billion/#.UKLag6X3Ds0 Atlas, R. College Admission Essay For Sale? (2003, March 22). HealthSouth Is Scrambling to Arrange Financing to Avert Bankruptcy. Retrieved from The New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/2003/03/22/business/healthsouth-is-scrambling-to-arrange-financing-to-avert-bankruptcy.html Barry, K. Uk? (2009, June 9). HealthSouth’s Corporate Accounting Scandal.
Retrieved from Scribd.: http://www.scribd.com/doc/16379247/Accounting-Fraud-at-HealthSouth Bloomberg Businessweek. (2003, April 13). Missing the Red Flags. Retrieved from bismarck Businessweek: http://www.businessweek.com/stories/2003-04-13/missing-the-red-flags Crawford, K. (2005, June 28). Proofreading? Former HealthSouth CEO Found Not Guilty on critical thinking, All Counts. Retrieved from proofreading CNN Money: http://money.cnn.com/2005/06/28/news/newsmakers/scrushy_outcome/index.htm Forelle, C., Bandler, J. (2009, May 31). At HealthSouth, an Options Issue. Dbq Essay Causes Revolution? Retrieved from The Wall Street Journal:
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Still having trouble finding a topic? Try looking up an issue you are interested in on bismarck essay YouTube. Uk. You might get some good ideas just browsing around. Sometimes the title of a video can give you a main idea and title. Especially look for ideas that can be turned into critical of foundational questions that you can argue pro or con. Whether you go online or look at a paper copy, you can use the news to give you an idea of what to write about. Uk. Just remember that if you are doing a research paper that you will need to cite any sources that you use, so make sure you keep a copy. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. 100 Expository Essay Topic Ideas, Writing Tips, and Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 22.
How to Write an Evaluation Paper with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 15. Critical In Career Education. 100 Easy Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas with Research Links and Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 32. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 109. Proofreading Service Uk. Easy Words to Use as Sentence Starters to thinking education of foundational Write Better Essays. by proofreading service uk, Virginia Kearney 129. Virginia Kearney 2 weeks ago from United States. Hi Rosie--You have a good topic and an interesting personal connection. I'd suggest that you do a frame story introduction and conclusion.
Start with your situation and critical thinking in career of foundational then stop part-way through and ask the question: should you call CPS? Then do your answer and tell why or why not. Finish with telling the end of your story. See my articles on How to write an argument paper and How to service write a position paper for full instructions. Writing Tuition. Wondering how to write a position essay.
Topic should you call Child Protective Services. In my personal life we are going through a situation where we called the child protective services but much is not being done. Was thinking if I choose this topic I could write some of our family's frustration about the situation, don't know how to go about writing this essay. Virginia Kearney 5 weeks ago from proofreading, United States. Khen--You can find help if you look for my articles about how to essay two kinds amy tan write different kinds of proofreading service uk position or argument papers.
I have several different articles that can lead you step by dbq essay american, step through the uk process. Can you please help me in my position paper? Virginia Kearney 2 months ago from bismarck essay, United States. Roami, You have an interesting idea. I think one way for you to proofreading get some good information to start your paper is to research why local languages are not included in college for sale the instruction first. Proofreading. Next, you might want to interview some people to find out their positions and to get some quotes on this topic. Finally, you might want to get some research articles which show whether or not using a local or home language of a student helps them to learn better.
In the United States, research has shown that students who receive some instruction in critical thinking education importance their own language at proofreading least at thesis writing first often do better in the long run than a child who is fully immersed in English. In my own experience as a teacher, I discovered that children who came to service an all-English classroom before grade 2 or 3, generally was very competent in essay two kinds amy tan that language by age 12. However, if they entered an proofreading all English school later, they were often not able to bismarck catch up. However, that only service uk, works if the child is in admission essay a school where no one else speaks their native language (as is often true in the U.S. but not true in a school where all the children speak their local language together). You have a wonderful topic and one that is service very important for your country to consider. I wish you great success in your paper. pls, i need u to look into this position topic for sarah lawrence tuition me. Should local languages be made as compulsory as religious languages in uk schools. Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from amy tan, United States. Hi Sam, you might want to try my article about uk Funny Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas, or else do the negative of any idea here or in one of my many other argument essays.
In a devil's advocate paper, you want to go against what most people think. Here are a few ideas just to in career the democratic of foundational get you thinking: Why Trump will be regarded as one of proofreading uk our top 5 presidents. Why we should leave ISIS alone. Why race is less a problem in essay two kinds amy tan America than Europe. Why the leader of North Korea isn't really crazy. Proofreading Uk. I have this assignment of lawrence mfa creative writing tuition playing the role of devil's advocate and I can't think of a good topic! ( I personally prefer a political related topic).
Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Proofreading Service Uk. Aidyn-You add a very interesting position topic. I had not thought about schools making rules against fasting but it certainly could hurt a child's performance in school if they were fasting for a longer period than a day or two. That could cause a school to be concerned. Thanks for your comment and idea. Aidyn Krikorian 6 months ago. Unification. I greatly appreciate your website, and I have a suggestion for uk a topic. Should we allow fasting or other religious acts in schools? This topic facsinates me and I do hope you will consider it. I have chosen a topic to use for a paper from this webpage and will be returning. Thank you, Aidyn.
Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Rose--You did not mention what aspect of culture you are writing about which makes it hard to help you. However, for example, if you are writing a paper arguing to dbq essay causes american people that only like modern music that classical music is service worth listening to, you could start by talking about what you agree with about modern music and acknowledge why people of your generation might prefer to listen to it. Then you could explain why they would actually enjoy classical music if they gave it a try or explain how they could grow to appreciate that kind of music. I need help on admission my regerian Argument eassy on culture. I dont now how to service start it, Does anyone knows how.thanks. Preston Heard 8 months ago. These are great topics for the upcoming research essays.
I will definitely be using one of them. College Essay. Thank you for this resource! Aaron Gibson 8 months ago. Excited for proofreading uk your class this semester! Matt Hartman 8 months ago. This article along with many of the unification of germany essay other articles you have written will be very helpful this semester! I'm looking forward to proofreading your class! Virginia Kearney 11 months ago from United States. Look for my articles about how to write argument or position essays for lots of ideas on how to introduce essays and find sources. Luckily, Google Scholar has lots of excellent peer-reviewed essays that are good sources, but you can also find many good sources that come from government, Universities or published journals that post online (look for .gov, .edu or a journal that also appears in print).
One easy way to start your introduction is to tell a story about thesis a student who is generally shy (or maybe bullied) but gets excited (and more included by others) when they are able to share about service their own culture during a multiculturalism unit. I am doing an Apa essay on in career the democratic importance of foundational should schools be required to teach multiculturalism any idea on how I should start my intro and what sources I should use? Virginia Kearney 11 months ago from United States. Bebe--You don't tell me whether your paper is a research paper or not, but I've written many articles on proofreading uk how to write different sorts of essays. Lawrence Mfa Creative Tuition. You can use the proofreading service uk search engine on HubPages to find them, or look at the links that usually appear when you pull up one of my articles. Search Argument essays or How to Write a Position Essay or just type in VirginiaLynne. To start a paper on essay two kinds your topic, I think I would use a story in proofreading service the introduction showing a miscommunication when people don't talk face to dbq essay face. Hey . Proofreading Uk. Can you please help me in my position paper . I dont how to start . My topic is thinking the democratic of foundational cellphone,texts and emails are not as good as talking face to face . It is from yours sample :) thank you. I think that is video gaming good or bad is service uk a great topic to essay choose. Virginia Kearney 19 months ago from service, United States.
Yes Alsaifl, I think that What is beauty? could be a topic. You are right that your answer would be a definition claim. Jumanah Alsaif 19 months ago. Is the topics What is true beauty? (definition) a good topic for a position paper? I was thinking of writing how the definition of beauty is different for each individual. Writing. Brittany Adams 14 2 years ago. Thank you so much for proofreading service uk posting! This helps a lot with my writing! Tariq Ali Khan 2 years ago. Excellent work buddy!
Thank you so much ! Kristen Howe 2 years ago from Northeast Ohio. Great topics for a variety of essays for dbq essay everyone who needs to be inspired. Voted up for useful! That Tom Hanks video is proofreading uk hilarious. These ideas are very thought-provoking and inspiring! Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. College Essay For Sale. Cindy A. So glad I was able to give you some good information! Unbelievable. You have helped me enormously. Thank you so much. Proofreading. Thank you for sarah lawrence mfa creative tuition these great topics.
VJG 2 years ago from service uk, Texas. This would be an sarah lawrence interesting article for school students. They always seem to struggle for essay ideas. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from proofreading, United States. Hi Safa--Here are the main steps: 1. Choose a question you are going to write about. American Revolution. Then think about what your answer to proofreading uk the question is dbq essay causes american revolution going to be. Proofreading Uk. 2. Decide what you want your reader to think, do or believe after they read your essay. That is your thesis (the answer to your question). 3. Decide who you want to persuade to sarah lawrence mfa creative tuition believe this (that is your reader or audience).
Think about what that reader already knows and believes about your topic. That will help you develop your arguments. The reader should not be someone who already believes what you do. Uk. If they do, you aren't really arguing are you? 4. Think of at least 3 reasons why your reader should believe your thesis. Those reasons will be the main body part of your essay. 5. Admission Essay For Sale. Think of examples or evidence which supports each of those reasons. Proofreading. That is lawrence what you will use to support those three reasons.
6. What objections will your reader have? Write those out and also your answers to those objections. This will be a paragraph after your reasons. 7. For your conclusion think of proofreading uk what good will come if your reader believes you. Essay Amy Tan. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Hi katha- if you look at proofreading service the bottom right blue box I have the links to college essay for sale sample essays. These are student essays so they are published by my students under their own names here on hubpages. Proofreading Service Uk. Maybe I should move these up on the page so you can find them more easily. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from critical thinking in career education importance of foundational, United States. Samarah--Yes I think that vaccinating children is a very good topic.
You can also narrow that to proofreading particular types of vaccinations that are new like the chickenpox vaccine or the HPV. Another possible argument on this topic is whether or not it is true that vaccines are the main reason for essay two kinds better health in people today than in proofreading service the past. Is the right to vaccinate children a good topic? Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. I think you can do something related to critical thinking the democratic obesity or how different types of food are good or bad for your health. Service Uk. Or you can talk about GMO foods or organic or locally grown produce. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Xstatic--I love the fact that you do have a position on everything--I like to look at all sides of things and that is great as an instructor teaching positions, because I can play the devils advocate, but sometimes I do need to just nail down my own point of view! Jim Higgins 5 years ago from Eugene, Oregon.
A great how to for position papers. I have not written one for years, though I have a position on almost everything. Useful Hub and well done as usual. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and bismarck of germany essay respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc.
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essay film history Doing Film History. Nearly everybody loves movies. We aren’t surprised that people rush to see the latest hit or rent a cult favorite from the video store. But there are some people who seek out old movies. And among those fans there’s a still smaller group studying them. Let’s call “old movies” anything older than twenty years. This of uk, course creates a moving target. Baby boomers like us don’t really consider The Godfather or M*A*S*H to sarah lawrence writing tuition be old movies, but many twentysomethings today will probably consider Pulp Fiction (1994) to service uk be old maybe because they saw it when they were in their teens. Our twenty-year cutoff is arbitrary, but in bismarck unification essay, many cases that won’t matter.
Everybody agrees that La Grande Illusion from 1935 is an old movie, though it still seems fresh and vital. Now for the real question. Why would anyone be interested in watching and studying old movies? Ask a film historian, professional or amateur, and proofreading uk you’ll get a variety of answers. For one thing, old films provide the education the democratic of foundational, same sorts of insights that we get from watching contemporary movies. Some offer intense artistic experiences or penetrating visions of human life in proofreading uk, other times and places. Dbq Essay. Some are documents of everyday existence or of extraordinary historical events that continue to reverberate in service, our times.
Still other old movies are resolutely strange. They resist assimilation to our current habits of for sale, thought. They force us to acknowledge that films can be radically different from what we are used to. They ask us to adjust our field of view to accommodate what was, astonishingly, taken for granted by people in earlier eras. Another reason to study old movies is that film history encompasses more than just films. By studying how films were made and received, we discover how creators and audiences responded to their moment in history. By searching for social and cultural influences on films, we understand better the ways in which films bear the traces of the societies that made and consumed them. Film history opens up a range of important issues in politics, culture, and the artsboth “high” and “popular.” Yet another answer to our question is this: Studying old movies and the times in which they were made is intrinsically fun. As a relatively new field of service, academic research (no more than sixty years old), film history has the excitement of a young discipline. Over the past few decades, many lost films have been recovered, little-known genres explored, and neglected filmmakers reevaluated.
Ambitious retrospectives have revealed entire national cinemas that had been largely ignored. Even television, with some cable stations devoted wholly to sarah tuition the cinema of the past, brings into proofreading our living rooms movies that were previously rare and little-known. And much more remains to services be discovered. Proofreading Uk. There are more old movies than new ones and, hence, many more chances for fascinating viewing experiences. We think that studying film history is bismarck unification, so interesting and important that during the late 1980s we began to write a book surveying the field.
The first edition of Film History: An Introduction appeared in 1994, the second in 2003, and the third will be published in spring of 2009. In this book we have tried to introduce the history of cinema as it is conceived, written, and taught by its most accomplished scholars. But the book isn’t a distillation of all film history. We have had to rule out certain types of cinema that are important, most notably educational, industrial, scientific, and pornographic films. We limit our scope to theatrical fiction films, documentary films, experimental or avant-garde filmmaking, and proofreading service uk animationrealms of filmmaking that are most frequently studied in college courses.
Researchers are fond of saying that there is no film history, only film histories. For some, this means that there can be no intelligible, coherent “grand narrative” that puts all the facts into place. The history of avant-garde film does not fit neatly into the history of color technology or the development of the Western or the life of John Ford. For others, film history means that historians work from various perspectives and bismarck essay with different interests and purposes. We agree with both points. There is no Big Story of Film History that accounts for all events, causes, and proofreading service uk consequences. And the variety of historical approaches guarantees that historians will draw diverse conclusions. We also think that research into film history involves asking a series of questions and searching for evidence in order to answer them in the course of an thesis writing services philippines argument.
When historians focus on proofreading service uk, different questions, turn up different evidence, and two kinds formulate different explanations, we derive not a single history but a diverse set of proofreading service uk, historical arguments. What Do Film Historians Do? While millions are watching movies at this moment, a few thousand are studying the films of the past. One person is trying to essay two kinds ascertain whether a certain film was made in 1904 or 1905. Another is tracing the fortunes of proofreading service, a short-lived Scandinavian production company. Another is college, poring over proofreading service, a 1927 Japanese film, shot by shot, to find out how it tells its story. Some researchers are comparing prints of an sarah mfa creative tuition obscure film to determine which one can be considered the original. Other scholars are studying a group of proofreading uk, films signed by writing the same director or set designer or producer. Some are scrutinizing patent records and technical diagrams, legal testimony, and production files.
And still others are interviewing retired employees to discover how the Bijou Theater in their hometown was run during the 1950s. One reason is service, evident. Most film historiansteachers, archivists, journalists, and writing services philippines freelancersare cinephiles, lovers of cinema. Like bird-watchers, fans of 1960s television, art historians, and other devotees, they enjoy acquiring knowledge about the object of service, their affection. Movie fans may stop there, regarding the accumulating of thesis writing, facts about their passion as an end in itself. But whatever the service uk, pleasure of amy tan, knowing the names of all the Three Stooges’ wives, most film historians are not trivia buffs.
Film historians mount research programs , systematic inquiries into the past. A historian’s research program is proofreading service uk, organized around questions that require answers. Lawrence Writing Tuition. A research program also consists of assumptions and proofreading service uk background knowledge. For a film historian, a fact takes on significance only in american revolution, the context of a research program. Consider this image, from a film of the silent era. A film archivistthat is, someone who works in a library devoted to service uk collecting and preserving motion picturesoften comes across a film that is unidentified.
Perhaps the title credit is missing or the print carries a title that differs from that of the original film. The archivist’s research program is, broadly, identification. The film presents a series of questions: What is the date of production or of essay, release? In what country was it made? What company and proofreading uk personnel made the film? Who are the actors? Our mysterious film carries only the thesis services, French title Wanda l’espione (“Wanda the Spy”)most likely a title given to it by a distributor.
It was probably imported rather than made in Belgium, where the service uk, print was discovered. Fortunately there are some clues in the print itself. The lead actress, seated in admission, the foreground, is a famous star, Francesca Bertini. Identifying her makes it almost certain that the film is Italian. But Bertini was a star from 1907 into the 1930s. How can we narrow the dates further? The film’s style helps. The camera points straight toward the back wall of the service, set, and the actors seldom move closer to bismarck of germany the camera than they are seen here. Service Uk. The editing pace is slow, and the action is staged so that performers enter and exit through a rear doorway.
All these stylistic features are typical of European filmmaking of the mid-1910s. Such clues can be followed up by referring to a filmography (a list of films) of two kinds, Bertini’s career. A plot description of a 1915 film in proofreading service, which she starred, Diana l’affascinatrice (“Diana the Seductress”), matches the action of the unidentified print. Note that the identification depended on critical thinking in career the democratic importance of foundational, certain assumptions. For example, the researcher assumed that it’s extremely unlikely for a modern filmmaker to service uk create a fake 1915 Italian film, just to baffle archivists. (Film historians need not worry about in career education importance of foundational, forgeries, as art historians must.) Note, too, that the proofreading service uk, researcher needed some background knowledge. She had reason to believe that films staged and cut a certain way are characteristic of the mid-1910s, and american she recognized a star from proofreading service other films of the period. Most historians go beyond identification and tackle broader subject areas. Consider another common situation. An archive holds many films made by the same production company, and it also has numerous filing cabinets bulging with documents concerning that company’s production process.
Its collection also includes scripts in various drafts; memos passed among writers, directors, producers, and other staff; and sketches for sets and costumes. This is critical in career education, a rich lode of datatoo rich, in fact, for one researcher to tackle. The historian’s problem is now selecting relevant data and proofreading service salient facts. What makes a datum relevant or a fact salient is the historian’s research program and its questions. One scholar might be interested in tracing common features of the company’s production process; he might ask something like, “In general, how did this firm typically plan, execute, and market its movies?” Another historian’s research program might concentrate on the films of a certain director who worked for the company. She might ask, “What aspects of essay two kinds, visual style distinguish the service, director’s films?” Some facts would be central to one program but peripheral to another. The historian interested in the company’s business routines might not particularly care about a daring visual innovation introduced by college the director who is the focus of the other historian’s inquiry. In turn, the stylistic historian might be uninterested in proofreading uk, how the bismarck, company’s producers promoted certain stars. Again, assumptions exert pressure on the researcher’s framing of questions and pursuit of information. The company historian assumes that he can trace general tendencies of production organization, largely because film companies tend to make films by following fairly set routines.
The director-centered researcher assumes that her director’s films do have a distinct style. And both historians would mobilize background knowledge, about how companies work and how directors direct, to proofreading uk guide their research. Historians in any discipline do more than accumulate facts. No facts speak for themselves. Facts are interesting and important only as part of research programs. Facts also help us ask and answer questions. Film History as Description and Explanation. Inevitably, a historian needs at least a little information, along with background knowledge and assumptions, to prod her to writing services philippines ask questions.
But the historian does not necessarily sift through mountains of facts and then judiciously ask a question. A historian may begin with a question, and sometimes that question might be better described as a hunch or an intuition or even just an itch. For example, one young historian saw a few of the “anarchic” American comedies of the 1930s and noticed that their vulgar gags and absurd situations were very different from the more sophisticated comedy of the period. Suspecting that stage comedy might have been a source, he framed a question: “Might vaudeville and its performance style have shaped these particular comedies of the early 1930s?” He began to gather information, examining films, reading coverage of the comedians in the Hollywood trade press, and studying shifts in American taste in humor. Service Uk. The process of sarah, research led him to proofreading service uk refine his question and to mount a detailed account of how comedians introduced a vaudeville aesthetic into sound films but then muted it in accord with Hollywood’s standards of taste. Causes. 1. Nonhistorians often visualize the historical researcher as a cousin to Indiana Jones, braving library stacks and crawling through attics in quest of the treasure-lode of documents that overturn popular opinion.
Certainly new documentation has a key role to play in historical research. One scholar gained entry to the long-inaccessible files of Hollywood’s self-censorship agency, the Hays Office, and she was able to put forth a new account of the service uk, office’s procedures and functions. 2 Similarly, the increasing availability of films from cinema’s earliest era has created an entire subfield of cinema history. 3. Still, many research programs rely more on asking new questions than on unearthing new data. Bismarck Unification. Sometimes the research question seems to have been answered by previous historians, but another researcher comes along and suggests a more complete or complex answer. For example, no historian disputes the uk, fact that Warner Bros. was quick to invest in talking pictures in dbq essay causes american revolution, the mid-1920s. For a long time most historians believed that Warners took this risky step because it was on the verge of bankruptcy and was desperate to save itself. Proofreading. But another historian with economic training concluded that the evidencewhich had long been publicly available to researcherspointed to revolution a quite different conclusion. Service Uk. Far from two kinds facing bankruptcy, Warners was quickly expanding and proofreading investing in sound films was part of a carefully planned strategy for breaking into the ranks of the major studios. Critical In Career Education. 4.
Our examples all indicate that the historian’s research program aims to do at least two things. First, the historian tries to describe a process or state of affairs. She asks What and who and where and when. What is this film, and who made it, and where and when? In what ways does this director’s work differ from that of others? What was the vaudeville comedic style?
What evidence is there that a studio was nearly bankrupt? Who is the actor in proofreading service, this shot? Who was responsible for bismarck of germany, scripts at this company? Where was this film shown, and proofreading service uk who might have seen it? Here the historian’s problem is largely one of finding information that will answer such questions. Accurate description is causes, indispensable for all historical research. Scholars have spent countless hours identifying films, collating versions, compiling filmographies, establishing timelines, and creating reference works that supply names, dates, and the like. The more sophisticated and long-lived a historical discipline is, the richer and more complete its battery of descriptive reference material will be. Second, the proofreading service uk, historian tries to explain a process or state of affairs.
He asks, How does this work? and Why did this happen? How did this company assign tasks, lay out responsibilities, carry a project to completion? How did this director’s work influence other films from the company? Why did Warners pursue talkies when larger companies were reluctant to do so? Why did some sound comedians adopt the vaudeville comedic style while others did not? The film historian, like a historian of art or politics, proposes an dbq essay american explanatory argument . Uk. Having asked how or why, she puts forward an answer, based on an examination of evidence in light of assumptions and background knowledge. Lawrence Mfa Creative Writing Tuition. In reading historical writings, we need to recognize that the proofreading service, essay or book is sarah lawrence writing tuition, not just a mass of facts but an argument.
The historian’s argument consists of evidence marshalled to create a plausible explanation for an event or state of affairs. That is, the argument aims to answer some historical question. Most arguments about film history rely on service, evidence. Dbq Essay American Revolution. Evidence consists of information that gives grounds for believing that the argument is sound. Evidence helps us judge whether the historian has presented a plausible answer to the original question.
Film historians work with evidence of many sorts. For many historians, copies of the films they study are central pieces of evidence. But this data set is partial. Although the cinema is a relatively young medium, invented only a little over a century ago, many films have already been lost or destroyed. For decades, movies were seen as products with temporary commercial value, and companies did little to ensure their preservation. Even when film archives began to be founded in the 1930s, they faced the daunting task of collecting and sheltering the thousands of films that had already been made. Archivists had to choose what they could afford to retain. Moreover, the nitrate film stock, upon service uk which most films up to the early 1950s were shot and printed, was highly flammable and deteriorated over time. Deliberate destruction of services philippines, films, warehouse fires, and the gradual decomposition of nitrate stored in bad conditions have led to the loss of many titles. Proofreading. In the frame below, from Willy Reilly and His Colleen Bawn , an Irish film from 1918, severe nitrate deterioration has obliterated the most important figures. According to rough estimates, only about 20 percent of silent films are known to survive.
Many of services, these are still sitting in proofreading service uk, vaults, unidentified or unpreserved due to critical thinking the democratic importance of foundational lack of funds. More recent films may be inaccessible to the researcher as well. Films made in some small countries, particularly in Third World nations, were not made in many copies and proofreading uk did not circulate widely. Dbq Essay Revolution. Small archives may not have the facilities to preserve films or show them to proofreading researchers. In some cases, political regimes may choose to suppress certain films and promote others. Finding reliable copies to study is a major challenge for the historian whose questions center on the films. Historians also rely on dbq essay, print sources. These may be published sources, such as books, magazines, trade journals, and newspapers, or unpublished ones, like memoirs, letters, notes, production files, scripts, and court testimony. Historians of film technology scrutinize cameras, sound recorders, and proofreading service other equipment. A film studio or an important location might also serve as a source of evidence.
Usually historians must verify their evidence. Often this depends on using the sort of descriptive research we have already mentioned, such as combing primary documents, checking filmographies and reference works, and the like. The problem of verification is particularly acute with film prints. Services Philippines. Films have always circulated in differing versions. In the 1920s, Hollywood films were shot in two versions, one for the United States and proofreading one for export.
These could differ considerably in length, content, and even visual style. To this day, many Hollywood films are released in Europe in more erotic or violent versions than are screened in the United States. Causes American. In addition, many old films have deteriorated and been subject to cutting and revision. Even modern restorations do not always reproduce the original release version. Often, then, the historian doesn’t know whether the print she is seeing represents anything like an original, if indeed there can be said to be a single original version. Historians try to be aware of the proofreading service, differences among the versions of the films they are studying. Thesis Writing Services. The fact that there are different versions can itself be a source of questions. Historians generally distinguish between primary and secondary sources. As applied to film, primary usually refers to sources the people directly involved in whatever is being studied. Proofreading Service. For example, if you were studying Japanese cinema of the 1920s, the surviving films, interviews with filmmakers or audience members, and contemporary trade journals would count as primary material.
Later discussions concerning the period, usually by another historian, would be considered secondary. Often, though, one scholar’s secondary source is another’s primary source, because the thinking, researchers are asking different questions. A critic’s 1966 essay about a 1925 film would be a secondary source if your question centered on the 1925 film. Service Uk. If, however, you were writing a history of film criticism during the 1960s, the critic’s essay would be a primary source. Explaining the bismarck, Past: Basic Approaches. There are distinct types of explanation in film history. A standard list would include:
Biographical history: focusing on an individual’s life history. Industrial or economic history: focusing on business practices. Aesthetic history: focusing on film art (form, style, genre) Technological history: focusing on the materials and machines of film. Social/cultural/political history: focusing on the role of cinema in the larger society. This sort of proofreading service, inventory helps us understand that there is not one history of film but many possible histories, each adopting a different perspective. Typically, the researcher begins with an sarah writing interest in one of these areas, which helps him to formulate his initial question.
Nevertheless, such a typology shouldn’t be taken too rigidly. Not all questions the historian may ask will fall neatly into only one of these pigeonholes. If you want to know why a film looks the way it does, the proofreading service uk, question may not be purely aesthetic; it might be linked to the biography of the filmmaker or to lawrence mfa creative the technological resources available when the film was made. A study of uk, film genres might involve both aesthetic and cultural factors. A person’s life cannot easily be separated from his or her working conditions within a film industry or from the contemporary political context. We propose that the student of film history think chiefly in terms of questions, keeping in causes, mind that some interesting questions are likely to service uk cut across categorical boundaries. Explaining the Past: Organizing the Evidence. Finding an critical in career answer to a historical question may involve both description and explanation, in different mixtures.
The techniques of service uk, descriptive research are specialized and require a wide range of background knowledge. For example, some experts on early silent cinema can determine when a film copy was made by essay two kinds examining the stock on which it is printed. The number and shape of the sprocket holes, along with the uk, manner in thesis writing services, which a manufacturer’s name is printed along the service, edge of the film strip, can help date the print. Knowing the age of the lawrence writing, stock can in turn help narrow down the film’s date of service uk, production and country of amy tan, origin. Historical explanation also involves concepts that organize the evidence produced by specialized knowledge. Here are some of them. Chronology Chronology is essential to historical explanation, and descriptive research is an indispensable aid to establishing the sequence of events. The historian needs to know that this film was made before that one or that event B took place after event A. But history is not mere chronology. A chronology stops short of explanation, just as a record of high and low tides gives no hint as to service uk why tides change.
History, as we have already seen, centrally involves explanation. Causality Much historical explanation involves cause and dbq essay american effect. Historians work with conceptions of various kinds of causes. Individual Causes People have beliefs and proofreading service uk desires that affect how they act. In acting, they make things happen. It is often reasonable to explain a historical change or a past state of affairs in light of the attitudes or behavior of individuals. This is not to say that individuals make everything happen or that things always happen as people originally intended or that people always understand just why they did what they did.
It is simply to say that historians may justifiably appeal to what people think and college admission essay for sale feel and do as part of an proofreading service uk explanation. Some historians believe that all historical explanation must appeal to sarah lawrence mfa creative tuition person-based causes sooner or later. This position is usually called methodological individualism. A different, and even more sweeping, assumption is that only individuals, and exceptional individuals at that, have the uk, power to create historical change. This view is sometimes labeled the Great Man theory of history, even though it is dbq essay american, applied to service uk women as well.
Earlier generations of causes, film historians, for example, were inclined to treat D.W. Griffith as the most important figure in the U.S. silent cinema because it seemed that he invented a number of editing techniques that became widespread. More recent historians have developed a counterargument, thanks to the greater availability of films by other directors and a more comparison-based method. These scholars claim that Griffith developed certain tendencies that were already present, pushing them to a new level of expression. Moreover, his most original techniques were not picked up by others, so in some respects other directors had more influence on standard editing practice. As an individual Griffith remains important, but he is proofreading service uk, probably not the Great Innovator that people once considered him. Group Causes People often act in groups, and at times we speak of the essay two kinds amy tan, group as having a kind of existence over and above the individuals who compose it. Groups have rules and roles, structures and routines, and often these factors make things happen. Proofreading. We speak of a government’s declaring war, yet this act may not be reducible to critical thinking in career education the democratic importance more detailed statements about what all the individuals involved believed and did.
When we say that Warner Bros. Service. decided to adopt sound, we are making a meaningful claim, even if we have no information about the beliefs and desires of the individual decision makers at the company; we may not even fully know who they were. Some historians assert that any historical explanation must, sooner or later, ground itself in group-based causes. This position is usually called holism, or methodological collectivism, as opposed to methodological individualism. Several sorts of groups are important to the history of cinema. Throughout our book we talk about institutions government agencies, film studios, distribution firms, and other fairly formal, organized groups. We also talk about more informal affiliations of filmmakers. These are usually called movements or schools, small assemblies of filmmakers and critics who share the same interests, beliefs about cinema, conceptions of film form and style, and the like. The Soviet filmmakers of the essay amy tan, 1920sLev Kuleshov, Sergei Eisenstein, V.I. Pudovkin, and many othersare a classic instance of a movement. Despite their individual differences, these men held in common a commitment to proofreading service editing, often disjunctive editing, as central to a movie’s effects on a viewer.
Less well-defined cases of a movement would be German Expressionist film of the bismarck unification of germany, 1920s, Italian neorealism after World War II, and French New Wave filmmaking during the 1960s. In these instances, the filmmakers often insisted that they shared no consciousness of belonging to a movement. Still, historians often find common trends in the films, in the production circumstances, and in the local film culture, and these factors justify treating the filmmakers as a group, even if not a full-fledged movement. Influence Most historians use some notion of influence to explain change. Influence describes the inspiration that an individual, a group, or a film can provide for others. Members of a movement can deliberately influence a director to make a film a certain way, but a chance viewing of a movie can also influence a director. Influence does not mean simple copying. Proofreading Service. You may have been influenced by a parent or a teacher, but you have not necessarily mimicked his or her behavior. In the arts, influence is often a matter of one artist’s getting ideas from other artists’ work but then pursuing those ideas in lawrence writing, a personal way. The result may be quite different from the initial work that stimulated it.
The contemporary director Jean-Luc Godard was influenced by proofreading uk Jean Renoir, although their films are markedly different. Sometimes we can detect the admission essay for sale, influence by examining the films; sometimes we rely on proofreading service, the testimony of the filmmaker. A body of work by a group of dbq essay causes american revolution, directors may also influence later films. Service. Soviet cinema of the 1920s influenced the two kinds amy tan, documentary director John Grierson. The Hollywood cinema, as a set of films, has been enormously influential throughout film history, although all the directors influenced by it certainly did not see exactly the same films.
Influences are particular kinds of causes, so it is not surprising that influences may involve both individual activity and group activity. Trends and Generalizations Any historical question opens up a body of data for investigation. Once the historian starts to look closely at proofreading uk, the datato go through a studio’s records, examine the american, films, page through the trade pressshe discovers that there is much more to explore than the initial question touches on. It’s like looking into proofreading a microscope and discovering that a drop of water teems with organisms of confounding variety, all going about very different business. Every historian omits certain material. Thesis Services Philippines. For one thing, the historical record is already incomplete. Many events go unrecorded, and many documents are lost forever. Further, historians inevitably select. They unweave the tangles of history and service uk create a more coherent pattern. A historian simplifies and streamlines according to the question he is thesis writing services philippines, pursuing. One principal way historians go about such simplification is by postulating trends.
Lots of things are going on, they admit, but “by and proofreading large” or “on the whole” or “for the college admission for sale, most part,” we can identify a general tendency. Proofreading Uk. Most Hollywood films of the 1940s were made in black and white, but most Hollywood films today are in writing philippines, color. On the whole, there has been a change, and we can see a trend toward the increasing use of service, color film stock between the 1940s and the 1960s. Our task is to two kinds explain how and why this trend occurred. By positing trends, historians generalize. Service Uk. They necessarily set aside interesting exceptions and amy tan aberrations. Uk. But this is critical in career the democratic importance, no sin, because the answer to proofreading uk a question is necessarily pitched at a certain level of generality. All historical explanations pull back from the throbbing messiness of reality.
By recognizing that tendencies are “for-the-most-part” generalizations, the scholar can acknowledge that there is more going on than she is trying to college admission essay for sale explain. Periods Historical chronology and causation are without beginning or end. The child who incessantly asks what came before that or what made that happen soon discovers that we can trace out a sequence of events indefinitely. Historians necessarily limit the proofreading service, stretch of time they will explore, and they go on to divide that stretch into meaningful phases or segments. For example, the historian studying American silent cinema already assumes that this period within film history ran from causes revolution about 1894 to around 1929. The historian will probably further segment this stretch of time. She might break it down by decade, treating the 1900s, the 1910s, and the 1920s. Instead, she might divide it with respect to changes external to filmsay, preWorld War I, World War I, and postWorld War I. Another possibility is service, creating periods that mark phases in the development of storytelling style, such as 18941907, 19081917, and 19181929.
Every historian marks out periods according to the research program he adopts and the question he asks. Historians recognize that periodization can’t be rigid: trends do not follow in neat order. It is illuminating to think of the American “structural” film of the early 1970s as a response to the “lyrical” film of the 1960s, but lyrical films were still being made well in two kinds, the 1970s and afterward. Proofreading. Histories of genres often mark off periods by innovative films, but this is not to deny that more ordinary movies display a great deal of continuity across periods. Rosemary’s Baby (1968) brought Satanic horror into the A-picture realm, but in the years that followed, most horror films continued to be low-budget product. Similarly, we ought not to expect that the history of technology or styles or genres will march in step with political or social history. Admission For Sale. The period after World War II was indeed distinctive, because this global conflict had major effects on film industries and proofreading service uk filmmakers in two kinds amy tan, most countries; but not all political events demarcate distinct periods in relation to changes in film form or the uk, film market.
The assassination of President Kennedy was a wrenching event, but it had little effect on bismarck unification of germany essay, activities in the film world. Here, as ever, the historian’s research program and central question will shape her sense of the relevant periods and parallel events. This is, again, one reason that scholars often speak of film histories rather than a single film history. Significance In mounting explanations, historians of proofreading uk, all arts make assumptions about the significance of the artworks they discuss. Critical In Career Education Importance Of Foundational. We might treat a work as a “monument,” studying it because it is a highly valued accomplishment. Service Uk. Alternatively, we might study a work as a “document” because it records some noteworthy historical activity, such as the state of a society at a given moment or a trend within the critical thinking education the democratic, art form itself. Most historians assume that the films they discuss have significance on any or all of the following three criteria: Intrinsic excellence: Some films are, simply, outstanding by proofreading service uk artistic criteria.
They are rich, moving, complex, thought-provoking, intricate, meaningful, or the like. At least partly because of their quality, such films have played a key role in the history of cinema. Influence: A film may be historically significant by virtue of its influence on other films. It may create or change a genre, inspire filmmakers to try something new, or gain such a wide popularity that it spawns imitations and tributes. Since influence is an important part of historical explanations, this sort of two kinds amy tan, film plays a prominent role in most histories. Typicality: Some films are significant because they vividly represent instances or trends. Service Uk. They stand in for many other films of the same type. The three criteria don’t have to combine. An influential film doesn’t have to be excellent or typical, and an excellent film may never exert much influence.
The films of Robert Bresson are usually considered exceptionally good, but for a long time they influenced no other filmmaking. Services. But of course in some cases the criteria can combine. A highly accomplished genre film, such as Singin’ in service uk, the Rain or Rio Bravo , is often considered both excellent and causes revolution highly typical. Many acclaimed masterworks, such as The Birth of a Nation or Citizen Kane, were also very influential, and some also typify broader tendencies. The preface to Film History: An Introduction , third edition, outlines the questions we focus on, but it’s probably worth mentioning them here as well. Although the book surveys the history of world cinema, we could hardly start with the question What is the history of service, world cinema?
That would give us no help in setting about our research and organizing the material we find. Instead, we have highlighted three major questions. 1. Dbq Essay Revolution. How have uses of the film medium changed or become normalized over time? Within “uses of the medium” we include matters of film form: the part/whole organization of the film. Often this involves telling a story, but a film’s overall form might also be based on an argument or an uk abstract pattern. The term “uses of the critical thinking importance, medium” also includes matters of film style, the proofreading service uk, patterned uses of film techniques ( mise-en-scène, or staging, lighting, setting, and dbq essay american costume; camerawork; editing; and sound). In addition, any balanced conception of how the medium has been used must also consider film modes (documentary, avant-garde, fiction, animation) and genres (for example, the Western, the thriller, or the musical). So we also examine these phenomena. All such matters are central to most college and university survey courses in film history. A central purpose of our book is to proofreading uk survey the of germany essay, uses of the medium in proofreading, different times and places. Sometimes we dwell on the creation of stable norms of form and style, as when we examine how Hollywood standardized certain editing options in the first two decades of filmmaking.
At other times, we examine how filmmakers have proposed innovative ways of structuring form or using film technique. 2. How have the conditions of the unification of germany, film industryproduction, distribution, and proofreading uk exhibitionaffected the uses of the medium? Films are made within modes of in career education the democratic importance, production, habitual ways of organizing the service uk, labor and materials involved in creating a movie. Some modes of production are industrial; that’s when companies make films as a business. The classic instance of industrial production is the in career, studio system, in which firms are organized in uk, order to make films for large audiences through a fairly detailed division of labor. Hollywood’s studio system is the most famous, but there have been studio systems of production in many countries. Another sort of industrial production might be called the artisanal, or one-off, approach, in essay two kinds, which a production company makes one film at a time (perhaps only one film, period). Still other modes of production are less highly organized, involving small groups or individuals who make films for service uk, specific purposes. Bismarck Of Germany Essay. In all these instances, the ways in proofreading, which films are made have had particular effects on the look and essay two kinds amy tan sound of the finished products. An avant-garde films, made on a low budget by an individual filmmaker, is more likely to be a personal expression than a big-budget Hollywood blockbuster. The ways in which films are exhibited have also affected film history.
For example, the proofreading service uk, major technological innovations associated with the early 1950s wide-screen picture, stereophonic sound, increased use of color were actually available decades earlier. Each could have been developed before the 1950s, but the dbq essay causes american, U.S. film industry had no pressing need to do so since film attendance was so high that spending money on new attractions would not have significantly increased profits. Only when attendance dropped precipitously in the late 1940s were producers and exhibitors pushed to introduce new technologies to lure audiences back into theaters. 3. How have international trends emerged in the uses of the film medium and in the film market? In Film History we try to balance the consideration of important national contributions with a sense of how international and cross-cultural influences were operating. Many nations’ audiences and film industries have been influenced by proofreading service uk directors and films that have migrated across their borders. Genres are vagabond as well.
The Hollywood Western influenced the Japanese samurai film and the Italian Western, genres that in turn influenced the Hong Kong kung-fu films of the 1970s. Interestingly, Hollywood films then began incorporating elements of the martial arts movie. Just as important, the film industry itself is significantly transnational. At certain periods, circumstances closed off countries from the flow of essay, films, but most often there has been a global film market, and we understand it best by tracing trends across cultures and regions. We have paid particular attention to uk conditions that allowed people to see films made outside their own country. Each of college admission for sale, these how questions accompanies a great many why questions.
For any part of the proofreading service, processes we focus on, we can ask what conditions caused them to operate as they did. Writing Services Philippines. Why, for instance, did Soviet filmmakers undertake their experiments in disturbing, aggressive narrative? Why did Hollywood’s studio system begin to fragment in the late 1940s? Why did “new waves” and “young cinemas” arise in Europe, the Soviet Union, and Japan around 1960? Why are more films produced now with international investment than in the 1930s or 1940s? Historians are keen to know what factors made a change occur, and our general questions include a host of subquestions about causes and effects. Recall our five general explanatory approaches: biographical, industrial, aesthetic, technological, and social.
If we had to squeeze our book into one or more of these pigeonholes, we could say that its approach is predominantly aesthetic and industrial. Proofreading Service. It examines how types of sarah lawrence writing tuition, films, film styles, and film forms have changed in relation to the conditions of film production, distribution, and service uk exhibition within certain countries and within the international flow of films. But this summary of our approach is too confining, as even a cursory look at dbq essay revolution, what follows will indicate. Sometimes we invoke an individual a powerful producer, an innovative filmmaker, an imaginative critic. Sometimes we consider technology. And we often frame our account with discussions of the political, social, and cultural context of a period. Take, for example, our central question: How have uses of the film medium changed or become normalized over service uk, time? This is a question about essay two kinds amy tan, aesthetic matters, but it also impinges on service uk, factors of technology. For instance, conceptions of “realistic” filmmaking changed with the introduction of bismarck essay, portable cameras and sound equipment in the late 1950s.
Similarly, our second question How have the conditions of the film industry affected the uses of the proofreading service, medium? is at once economic, technological, and aesthetic. Finally, asking how international trends have emerged in the uses of the film medium and in the film market concerns both economic and social/cultural/political factors. In the early era of cinema, films circulated freely among countries, and viewers often did not know the nationality of a film they were seeing. In the 1910s, however, war and nationalism blocked certain films from circulating. At the same time, the growth of particular film industries, notably Hollywood, depended on access to unification essay other markets, so the degree to which films could circulate boosted some nations’ output and proofreading service hindered that of others. In addition, the circulation of U.S. films abroad served to the democratic importance spread American cultural values, which in turn created both admiration and hostility.
In sum, we have been guided, as we think most historians are, by research questions rather than rigid conceptions of the proofreading service uk, type of history we are writing. And what we take to be the most plausible answer to a given question will depend on the strength of the dbq essay causes, evidence and the argument we can make for it not on proofreading uk, a prior commitment to writing only a certain kind of history. Our answers to historical questions are, however, not simply given in importance of foundational, a list or summary. Like most historical arguments, ours takes a narrative form. Historians use language to communicate their arguments and evidence to others. Descriptive research programs can do this through a summary of findings: this film is Diana l’affascinatrice, made in service uk, Italy by Caesar-Film in 1915, directed by Gustavo Serena, and so on.
But historical explanations require a more complicated crafting. Sometimes historians frame their explanations as persuasive arguments. Bismarck Of Germany Essay. To take an example already cited, a historian investigating the development of proofreading service uk, sound by bismarck unification Warner Bros. Service Uk. might start by sarah mfa creative writing tuition considering the various explanations already offered and taken for granted. Then he might set forth the reasons for service, believing his alternative interpretation. This is a familiar form of rhetorical argument, eliminating unsatisfactory beliefs before settling on a more plausible one. More often, historians’ explanations take the form of unification, stories. Proofreading. Narrative history, as it is called, seeks to answer how and dbq essay american revolution why questions by tracing the proofreading uk, relevant circumstances and conditions over time. It produces a chain of causes and effects, or it shows how a process works, by telling a story.
For instance, if we are trying to answer the essay two kinds amy tan, question How did the Hays Office negotiate with firms to uk arrive at an agreement about an acceptable film? we can frame a step-by-step narrative of the censorship process. Or, if we are seeking to explain what led the Hays Office to bismarck unification of germany essay be created, we might lay out the causal factors as a story. As these examples indicate, the story’s “characters” might be individuals or groups, institutions or even films; the “plot” consists of the situations in service, which the players operate and the changes they initiate and sarah tuition undergo. Narrative is one of the proofreading service uk, basic ways in which humans make sense of the world, and so it’s not surprising that historians use stories to make the past intelligible. Film History: An Introduction follows tradition in creating a large-scale narrative, one that includes several stories within it. We divide film history into six large periods early cinema (to about unification essay, 1919), the service, late silent era (19191929), the development of admission essay for sale, sound cinema (19261945), the proofreading uk, period after World War II (19461960s), the period running from the 1960s to writing services the 1980s, and the contemporary era (1980s-the present). These divisions reflect developments in (1) film form and style; (2) major changes in film production, distribution, and service exhibition; and (3) significant international trends. The periodization can’t be exactly synchronized for critical thinking in career education of foundational, all three areas, but it does indicate approximate boundaries for the changes we try to trace. An alternative organizational pattern is that of the proofreading service, topical history . College For Sale. Topical history treats an idea or theme rather than a story. If you were writing a book-length history of Manhattan, for proofreading service uk, instance, you might devote one chapter to geography, another to political dynamics, another to social changes, another to causes american revolution the events of 9/11, and so on.
The chapters themselves might be organized as narratives (though maybe not), but the overall structure would give a portrait of proofreading, a city’s history from several angles. The historian must decide, at essay, various levels, between narrative organization and topical organization. Suppose your question was How did America ’s postwar occupation of Germany affect the local film industry and culture? Once you’ve done your research and proofreading come to some conclusions, you could organize your presentation narratively or topically. Sarah Lawrence Mfa Creative. That is, your chapters could proceed in chronological order to trace the changes in the industry between 1945 and the early 1950s. Or each chapter could deal with events occurring across the entire period, but in different spheres production, censorship, journalism, exhibition, and the like. In another topical layout, you could organize the book around key films or film policies that had an proofreading uk impact on different spheres of German life.
5. To suggest the flavor of bismarck unification of germany, doing historical research, we offer one of our own experiences. Here Kristin explains the process of researching a book-length study of Ernst Lubitsch’s films. Of the directors widely considered to uk be among the greatest, Ernst Lubitsch has had relatively little of substance written about sarah mfa creative writing tuition, him. The other directors of Germany’s “golden age” of the silent cinema, F. W. Proofreading. Murnau and especially Fritz Lang, have received more attention. Perhaps this has been the writing philippines, case because Lubitsch has no one thematic concern underlying his work. Murnau and service Lang also are linked to the German Expressionist movement, while Lubitsch worked outside it. His habit of moving between vast historical epics and broad comedies for his German films makes him hard to pin down. But why is dbq essay american revolution, he important? Filmmakers and cinema buffs love Lubitsch, partly for the sheer quality of his work, from the hilarious silent comedies of the late 1910s, like I Don’t Want to Be a Man and service The Doll to the masterpieces of the sound period, most notably Trouble in Paradise (1932) and The Shop around the Corner (1940).
Apart from his being a great director, though, why is Lubitsch significant? There are many things a historian could say about Lubitsch. I had been struck by how, after World War I, Germans acknowledged Lubitsch as their greatest director. After he moved to Hollywood, he quickly came to be considered the greatest director there as well. Yet Lubitsch’s style in his German films differed considerably from that we find in college, his American output. Proofreading Uk. What are these differences, and how could he achieve such stature in both countries?
A study of sarah mfa creative writing, Lubitsch could also highlight how American and German national films styles differed during these crucial years in the development of the cinema as an art. According to proofreading uk traditional historical accounts, during the 1920s, imaginative German techniques like Expressionist set design and amy tan the freely moving camera quickly influenced Hollywood films. Historians had not considered the influence might move in the opposite direction, from Hollywood to Germany. A study of how Lubitsch adapted so quickly to the American way of filmmaking could test that standard account. How long a period should the book cover? Lubitsch had begun as a silent-film comedian, directing some of his own shorts and short features during the war. He moved into features in 1918.
I decided to limit my focus to the ten-year period from 1918 to proofreading 1927, the critical thinking education, year of Lubitsch’s last surviving silent film. During this period Lubitsch made a remarkable 28 features and one short. Of these titles, seven are not known to survive. In addition, three of the surviving films are lacking significant amounts of footage. The 21 available films became the core body of evidence for my study. Before World War I, the uk, international cinema was dominated by French and Italian cinema.
American cinema was expanding domestically, but it had yet to make major inroads in most overseas markets. During the sarah lawrence writing, war, however, production declined in France and Italy, and the American firms quickly stepped in to supply theaters in many territories. Once hostilities ended, Hollywood films were firmly entrenched, and other producing countries found themselves struggling to keep a substantial share of their domestic markets, let alone to compete with America internationally. The war had, ironically, strengthened the German industry. In 1916, the government banned the import of all but Danish films. This ban was kept in place until December 31, 1920. Thus for nearly five years, German film production was free to expand, and uk the industry emerged from the war second in size and strength only to Hollywood. It was during that period of isolation that Lubitsch came into his own as a director. Institutional circumstances played a role in making him the finest proponent of the German approach to filmmaking (a style which was largely the same as that used in most European producing countries). During the mid-1910s, however, Hollywood film style was changing enormously.
What has been termed the “classical” style emerged, the underlying principle of which was to tailor film technique to tell a story as comprehensibly and unobtrusively as possible. Scenes were broken up into closer shots through analytical editing, shifting the dbq essay causes american, spectator’s eye to the most salient part of the action at each moment. Filming in proofreading service, diffused light in the open air or in american, glass-sided studios was abandoned in favor of proofreading uk, “dark” studios illuminated entirely by artificial lighting. This multi-directional lighting was designed to pick characters out against muted backgrounds and to model their bodies more three-dimensionally. Unification Of Germany Essay. The technique became codified as three-point lighting. 6 Acting styles became less broad, depending more on glances and small gestures than on pantomime. Set design evolved to make the space containing the proofreading, action simpler and hence less distracting. Two Kinds. In sum, a new trend had begun, led by American filmmaking. Once Hollywood films began screening in Germany in 1921, a new set of proofreading service, causes came into play. German filmmakers started absorbing the essay amy tan, American style, and Lubitsch was in the forefront of proofreading service uk, this change.
His German films of 1921 and 1922 reflect his new knowledge of classical technique, and he was clearly ready to make the leap into Hollywood filmmaking even before he went there. Once in America, he rapidly honed his application of classical principles, and soon he was in turn influencing the filmmakers there with a string of masterpieces, including The Marriage Circle (1924) and Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925). For example, we can see the change in Lubitsch’s approach to lighting in three frames. The first, from Carmen (1918), shows lighting coming entirely from the admission essay for sale, front; there’s no backlighting to pick out the gray uniform against the gray background. By 1921, after Lubitsch had seen Hollywood films, he used light from the front, side, and proofreading service rear in of germany essay, Das Weib des Pharao . In Hollywood, Lubitsch routinely used back lighting to make his actors stand out against the sets, as in this frame from Three Women (1923). In setting out on my project, I asked a small number of questions. How did Lubitsch’s German features reflect a more general national filmmaking style at the end of the war? How did Lubitsch’s style change over service, this decade and to what extent was the thesis writing services philippines, change a reaction to Hollywood films? What impact did the new classical Hollywood style have more generally on German filmmaking in the 1920s?
I was already familiar with American films of this period, having collaborated on The Classical Hollywood Cinema (1985, Columbia University Press) with David and with Janet Staiger. I had examined many films and gathered illustrations that I could use for the new book. To learn about the very different German style of the same era, I went to film archives in the U.S. and abroad to study Lubitsch’s films in detail, watching them on an editing table and making frame reproductions for use as illustrations. I examined Lubitsch’s context by watching about 75 films by other directors, also collecting images for illustrations. (I did not include Expressionist and Neue Sachlichkeit films, as these were avant-garde alternatives to classical Hollywood style.) I wasn’t looking at acknowledged masterpieces, for I wanted to track typical trends in German film style. In libraries I went through film-industry publications, primarily the Lichtbildbühne and Film-Kurier , and the two main technical journals of the 1920s, Die Kinotechnik and Die Filmtechnik . Cinematography manuals and service uk the memoirs of amy tan, people who had worked with Lubitsch filled in details of the director’s working methods. Legal papers in the United Artists collection of the Wisconsin Center for Film and proofreading service Theater Research shed light on Mary Pickford’s dealings with Lubitsch during and dbq essay causes american after their work on Rosita (1923) dealings about which some widely believed myths had persisted. Reviews of proofreading, Lubitsch’s films in the German and American press revealed how Lubitsch’s films were viewed and what expert viewers noticed about their look.
All this evidence allowed me to answer my initial questions. I could identify the point in Lubitsch’s career when his films began to reflect the influence of Hollywood style. Critical In Career Of Foundational. I was able to do the same with more ordinary German films of the post-war era. I showed that, contrary to the standard view of this era, Hollywood films had considerably more impact on German films than the other way round. In writing the book, I didn’t organize the chapters to give a chronological account of Lubitsch’s career during this ten-year period.
Instead, because this was to be a stylistic analysis, I broke it down topically. Proofreading. An introductory chapter laid out Lubitsch’s German career briefly and discussed the industrial and thesis social conditions in proofreading, Germany that discouraged or fostered the writing, movement of influences. The next four chapters centered on four areas of proofreading, film technique: lighting, set design, editing, and acting. Admission For Sale. These sharply revealed the proofreading uk, differences between Hollywood and thesis writing services German style in the crucial years. For each technique, I discussed Hollywood norms and contrasted these with German norms. I laid out numerous examples from ordinary German films and from Lubitsch’s. Each chapter ended with a section on Lubitsch’s Hollywood films and how closely each adhered to classical filmmaking norms. The final chapter dealt with the influences of proofreading service, Hollywood film on mainstream commercial German cinema of the era after Lubitsch had left his native country. These influences, I tried to show, were far more widespread and significant than any German techniques that might be detected in unification, Hollywood films of the same years. Within chapters the discussion was organized narratively, tracing Lubitsch’s work chronologically for proofreading service uk, each area of film technique.
The overall argument moved from dbq essay causes revolution specific to general. While the opening chapter dealt largely with Lubitsch’s career and work, the proofreading service, last one left Lubitsch and concentrated almost entirely on american, German cinema of the 1920s. When Herr Lubitsch Goes to Hollywood was published, few of Lubitsch’s silent features were widely known. Since then, DVD releases have made it possible for a broad audience to uk see some of the classic films he made in each country. Essay. The Eyes of the Mummy (1918) is service, available. The “Lubitsch in Berlin” set contains several German features: The Doll, The Oyster Princess, I Don’t Want to Be a Man, Sumurun, Anna Boleyn, and The Wildcat plus a documentary on Lubitsch’s early career. (Each is dbq essay causes revolution, available separately as well.) Lubitsch’s two most important Hollywood films are also on service, DVD: His romantic comedy The Marriage Circle (1924) is available, and a restored print of of germany, what is arguably his masterpiece of the proofreading uk, silent period, Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925), is part of the “More Treasures from American Film Archives” set.
Perhaps now readers can evaluate my answers to the questions my book seeks to dbq essay answer, and I hope that other historians will ask new ones of proofreading service, their own. We hope we’ve shown that film historians, professional or amateur, work with both ideas and dbq essay causes american information. Service. They mount projects within research programs. They don’t simply state facts; they try to ask questions. They don’t just pile up data; they make arguments. The facts and questions, data and admission essay arguments combine to make doing film history a fascinating pursuit. Historical writing about proofreading service, films will probably never be as common as film criticism; most people prefer to comment about writing, films by analyzing, interpreting, and service evaluating them. Writing an essay on film history takes a lot more time and admission for sale effort than writing a review of a current film. Proofreading Service. Nonetheless, historical study offers unique pleasures. If you want to understand the context of a film that you admire, you would enjoy reading film history. Just as important, a deeper understanding of writing services, film history introduces you to a range of new films to enjoy.
Finally, if we have any curiosity about the proofreading service uk, films that captivate us now, we can start to thesis services satisfy it by thinking historically. What happens today springs from what happened yesterday. Service. By trying to understand film history, we better understand the movies of our moment. 7. 4 : Douglas Gomery, “The Coming of Sound: Technological Change in the American Film Industry,” in Tino Balio, ed., The American Film Industry, rev. ed. (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985), pp. 22951.
6 : See David Bordwell and Kristin Thompson, Film Art: An Introduction , eighth ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008), 128-130. 7 : In our weblog, we often try to put recent films into various historical contexts. See www.davidbordwell.net/blog. have comments about the state of this website? go here.
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