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APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. An APA , American Psychological Association, style is university essay layout a standard of writing academic papers in a variety of subjects relevant to the social sciences. Dessay French Opera Arias! This allows to write essays and research papers according to the same generally accepted standard in Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and other disciplines. APA Style is notable for certain requirements related to layout, paper format, font, margins and headings, as well as referencing. We designed this page to guide you through all the peculiarities of formatting a paper in cover for senior operations, APA style . Layout! Learning about APA style will be a very rewarding experience for you, as you will be able to reply it in all of your next writing assignments. Cover For Senior Operations Manager! Quick Navigation through the APA Essay Format Page:
The Fundamentals of an APA Essay Format. What comprises the APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to referencing the sources or to whole essay? In their published guide book, the American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on the following issues: Title page. Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is university essay a must in APA essay format . It usually contains such standard elements as the title of the paper, the student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and role nco essay, the due date. The APA title page can be easily distinguished by the running header, the page number on the title page and university essay layout, two titles (a short one is followed by promotion of tourism, the full title). Abstract . Abstract is a single paragraph usually a half page long, and is written on a separate sheet. An abstract summarizing the entire paper has the same copyrights as the whole paper.
It should provide the main ideas/results of the paper and mention the methodology used to achieve them. Page format . Page format recommendations in APA style concern page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. In-text references . The format of references in APA format is the foremost subject of student#8217;s concerns. You may pick up citations, quotations and open, summaries from various sources to cover manager position, support your statements. When you use the idea or results that are not yours, they are to be referenced correctly. Essay Layout! APA style approves of in-text references. Cover Operations Position! The author and the year of publication should be included within the parenthesis in the essay. Page numbers also need to be mentioned when picking up lines from a book.
Use of quotations . University Essay Layout! APA style recommends to put short quotations in role of an nco essay, quotation marks. If the quotations used exceed the word limit of 40 words, then the writer should indent 5 spaces from the margin and it should be double spaced. Also, in case of a long quotation, quotation marks should not be used, instead it should be ended with a full stop. Headings . Open University! Though it may be not required for essay, an essay, but if you will write a research paper or thesis in APA format you#8217;ll need to structure it. Headings are used to separate and classify paper sections. Thus use different heading styles for headings of university essay layout, sections and subsequent subsections. Reference list . American! Reference list is a must when you use in-text references, for you need to open essay, present the full information about the sources used.The reference list includes all sources used in the essay writing and cited in the paper, and for senior, it is arranged according to open university layout, the alphabetical order by author. It is dbq essay american also of great importance to know how exactly different sources are cited as books, journals, magazines, and web pages are cited in a different way with certain requirements to each type of a source. You may consider how the basic APA requirements are met in APA Essay sample . APA Essay Template (Cick the open university essay layout, Image to Enlarge) When using APA style there are a few standards to essay defining love, keep in layout, mind: double spaced; have all the margins set to one inch; it’s recommended to use the font serif typeface for the text and sans serif typeface for any labels; use 10-12 for the font size; always have page numbers; a header with the title of the paper should also be used. Essay Love! So, you may either format your essay in layout, APA format yourself or download APA Template in rtf file from P rof E ssays.com . Our expert writers will format your paper for free when you place an order on our website.
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You are always on the save side with P rof E ssays.com ! Click here to place your order. References are obligatory in a body of the essay if you use some external sources, and layout, especially when you cite them in the APA essay . In-text references are used instead of role, footnotes in open essay, APA format. Causes American Revolution! The sources are indicated by the last name of an author, a year of publication and a page number (if possible). In-text references are put in parenthesis (round brackets) within the sentence. Thus the standard in-text reference in APA style will have the following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . But there may be variations: 1. If you are referring to an idea from another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the authors viewpoint you are referring to university essay, the whole book and essay, should use (Author, year) format.
Example : T. E. Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the man who was in charge of the Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924). 2. If you are quoting the source or bring in figures provided in layout, it, you need to causes american revolution, include the page number in your in-text reference. Like: (Author, year, page). Essay Layout! Example : Lawrence was compared to #8220;a caliph who had stepped out from the pages of short, #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. If the author or the year of publication is already mentioned in university layout, the sentence there is no need to repeat this information in causes, the in-text citation again. Examples: With Lawrence in Arabia was published in essay, 1924 (Thomas). Lawrence of Arabia became famous due to the book of Lowell Thomas (1924). 4. Short On Hanukkah's! Multiple authors reference . If the source is written by multiple authors, then you should state last names of all of them, at least in the first reference within the essay. Later in the essay, one can use the name of the first author with et al for university essay layout, others.
Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference. 5. In case of no author . In some cases the author may be an organization or department, so the stating of their name will complete the APA essay format . Or else the mention of the book will also fulfill the need. Titles of books in french opera, the in-text references should be italicized, titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks. Organization: (ProfEssays.com, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in open university essay layout, the course of the essay and cited in the paper. The references should always be organized in alphabetical order . Promotion Of Tourism Essay! This gives an organized look to the essay. It is also important to know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and web pages should be shown in the reference list. As certain requirements differ for open university essay, each type of source: Book : Author, A. (Year of publication). Title of promotion of tourism essay, work: SUBTITLE.
Location: Publisher. Note: if you have several books by the same author in the reference list, you should list them in chronological order. Article : Author, A. Open Essay! (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. on-line source : Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date if availiable). Title of article.
Name of the web-site. Retrieved from http://www.url/ on Year, Month Date. Readers and writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing. Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an ID – in the sense that it can provide identification on the ideas that are presented below. Headings function as a guide for your readers, as it will clue them in on dbq essay revolution, your thought flow.
The APA style allows five levels of headings when writing. Level one is the first category, while the subsequent levels are provisions for succeeding sub-categories. In the APA essay format it is of the utmost importance to use the open university layout, titles and headings appropriately. APA makes recommendations on the APA essay headings format, where information on font, punctuation and causes, position are provided, all of open university layout, which can be viewed at ProfEssays.com : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Natalie! Note : in APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and university, #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required! Only the parts of the main body should have headings! Title page should be numbered in APA format. A “running header” should be placed in the right corner at essay the top of the page next to the page number. A “running header” in layout, APA style contains a short title of the essay. The essay title should be placed one-third of the dbq essay causes american, page down from the open essay, top. APA styles requires to write a short title first, put a colon and write the full title underneath.
Author#8217;s name is usually several lines underneath. The name of the course, the name of professor, and the date of submission are printed at promotion of tourism the bottom of the APA title page. APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. You may not need it in your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. Abbreviations can be used later in open university essay layout, the essay after the full form is mention in the first time. This saves space, but makes a mention of the author, book or organization each time it is used. In APA papers both tables and figures should be presented on essay, separate pages, with the caption at the bottom of the page.
What to remember with the APA essay writing format. The main thrust of documenting guidelines is to avoid plagiarism. To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups – one of which is the American Psychological Association or the layout, APA. As with other documenting guidelines, the APA generally recommends in-text citations. For Senior Manager! These types are enclosed in a parenthesis and placed immediately after the borrowed thought or idea. When beginning with the APA essay writing format , P rof E ssays.com suggests that the student should always remember to take note of the reference material’s author(s), publication house, publication year and the page number where the idea was taken from. APA essay format may sound tricky and troublesome to some, but is actually an easy way to organize a written work.
The APA Essay Format is entirely designed to structure the open university essay, flow of thoughts throughout the essay. It is said that the citing is essay defining love complicated, but only essay has a few rules and guidelines that need to be followed. The format can be adapted depending on the nature and defining love, the topic of a custom essay. It particularly helps in cases where many writers are involved in the writing process at the same time, giving symmetry and a logical presentation without a miss to the readers. When writing an university, essay, citing your reference(s) is considered a critical part of the writing process.
This fundamental element of cover letter for senior operations manager position, writing helps students avoid plagiarism. In an academe, plagiarism is a very serious offense that can sometimes lead to expulsion. The American Psychological Association or the open university, APA style is the formatting guide that is used when writing a paper on the Social Sciences. As with all documenting styles, the APA has recommendations on essay format, headings and role of an nco essay, citing references. Information on formatting your APA essay now easier because there are a number of on-line sites, such as P rof E ssays.com , which can provide you with key points in documentation.
Anyone and any company can claim to offer its essay help, but not every company can offer high-quality and result-oriented essay help. The appropriate APA format for your manuscript. Many professors recommend strict compliance with manuscript formatting guidelines when writing any type of academic paper. Following the format not only ensures organization for each essay written by an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in layout, appearance for all students’ academic papers. In writing a paper regarding the social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and causes american revolution, guidelines on open layout, the format of essays . Though these elements may seem trivialon the use of the title page, the causes american, format of headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. Though these elements may seem trivial, P rof E ssays.com believes that compliance remains a must. College essay format: writing effectively in the collegiate level. What differentiates a college essay from a high school or a junior high school essay is the level of professionalism it exudes. As more complex topics are discussed, the need for essay layout, further research becomes a necessity. Another important factor to consider is the format of the essay. APA college essay format requires thorough referencing and citing as well as structuring of the promotion of tourism, essay . While college academic papers follow the basic essay format of introduction, body and conclusion, it is important to remember that the APA college essay format must be more encompassing and more extensive.
The APA college essay format differs from open university simple APA style so we provide specific essay help in this type of writing. P rof E ssays.com believes that many academes actually require a five paragraph essay on of an nco essay, the college level, where the body consumes 60% of the whole essay. P rof E ssays.com is professional and reliable essay writing service which provides 24/7 customer essay help. Write Effectively With the open essay layout, Right Essay Format. A standard essay format provides order to french arias, any academic paper.
Though this is merely a superficial element of essay writing, its importance is undeniable, as many established documenting styles provide recommendations for the format of any academic paper. The American Psychological Association, APA, also has suggestions for your APA college essay format .
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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Sir Francis Bacon (later Lord Verulam and the Viscount St. Open University Essay Layout! Albans) was an English lawyer, statesman, essayist, historian, intellectual reformer, philosopher, and champion of modern science. Early in his career he claimed “all knowledge as his province” and afterwards dedicated himself to a wholesale revaluation and re-structuring of defining, traditional learning. To take the layout, place of the established tradition (a miscellany of Scholasticism, humanism, and natural magic), he proposed an entirely new system based on empirical and inductive principles and french, the active development of new arts and inventions, a system whose ultimate goal would be the production of university, practical knowledge for “the use and benefit of men” and the relief of the human condition. At the same time that he was founding and promoting this new project for the advancement of learning, Bacon was also moving up the ladder of state service. His career aspirations had been largely disappointed under Elizabeth I, but with the cover letter for senior position, ascension of James his political fortunes rose. Knighted in 1603, he was then steadily promoted to a series of offices, including Solicitor General (1607), Attorney General (1613), and eventually Lord Chancellor (1618). While serving as Chancellor, he was indicted on charges of open university essay, bribery and essay traditions, forced to leave public office.
He then retired to his estate where he devoted himself full time to his continuing literary, scientific, and philosophical work. He died in 1626, leaving behind a cultural legacy that, for better or worse, includes most of the foundation for the triumph of technology and for the modern world as we currently know it. Sir Francis Bacon (later Lord Verulam, the Viscount St. Albans, and Lord Chancellor of England) was born in London in 1561 to a prominent and well-connected family. His parents were Sir Nicholas Bacon, the Lord Keeper of the Seal, and Lady Anne Cooke, daughter of Sir Anthony Cooke, a knight and one-time tutor to the royal family. Lady Anne was a learned woman in her own right, having acquired Greek and Latin as well as Italian and university essay, French. She was a sister-in-law both to Sir Thomas Hoby, the dbq essay causes american, esteemed English translator of Castiglione, and to Sir William Cecil (later Lord Burghley), Lord Treasurer, chief counselor to Elizabeth I, and from 1572-1598 the layout, most powerful man in short traditions England. Bacon was educated at home at the family estate at Gorhambury in Herfordshire. In 1573, at the age of just twelve, he entered Trinity College, Cambridge, where the stodgy Scholastic curriculum triggered his lifelong opposition to essay, Aristotelianism (though not to causes american revolution, the works of Aristotle himself). In 1576 Bacon began reading law at Gray’s Inn.
Yet only a year later he interrupted his studies in order to open university essay, take a position in letter for senior operations manager position the diplomatic service in France as an assistant to the ambassador. In 1579, while he was still in university layout France, his father died, leaving him (as the second son of french opera arias, a second marriage and the youngest of six heirs) virtually without support. With no position, no land, no income, and no immediate prospects, he returned to England and resumed the study of essay layout, law. Bacon completed his law degree in promotion essay 1582, and in 1588 he was named lecturer in legal studies at Gray’s Inn. Open University Layout! In the meantime, he was elected to Parliament in 1584 as a member for Melcombe in Dorsetshire. He would remain in Parliament as a representative for various constituencies for the next 36 years. In 1593 his blunt criticism of a new tax levy resulted in an unfortunate setback to cover letter operations, his career expectations, the Queen taking personal offense at his opposition. Any hopes he had of becoming Attorney General or Solicitor General during her reign were dashed, though Elizabeth eventually relented to the extent of appointing Bacon her Extraordinary Counsel in 1596.
It was around this time that Bacon entered the service of Robert Devereux, the Earl of Essex, a dashing courtier, soldier, plotter of intrigue, and sometime favorite of the Queen. No doubt Bacon viewed Essex as a rising star and open, a figure who could provide a much-needed boost to his own sagging career. Unfortunately, it was not long before Essex’s own fortunes plummeted following a series of military and political blunders culminating in a disastrous coup attempt. When the dbq essay revolution, coup plot failed, Devereux was arrested, tried, and eventually executed, with Bacon, in his capacity as Queen’s Counsel, playing a vital role in the prosecution of the essay layout, case. In 1603, James I succeeded Elizabeth, and Bacon’s prospects for advancement dramatically improved. After being knighted by the king, he swiftly ascended the ladder of state and from 1604-1618 filled a succession of high-profile advisory positions:
1604 – Appointed King’s Counsel. 1607 – Named Solicitor General. 1608 – Appointed Clerk of the Star Chamber. 1613 – Appointed Attorney General. 1616 – Made a member of the Privy Council. 1617 – Appointed Lord Keeper of the Royal Seal (his father’s former office). 1618 – Made Lord Chancellor. As Lord Chancellor, Bacon wielded a degree of power and short on hanukkah's, influence that he could only have imagined as a young lawyer seeking preferment. Yet it was at this point, while he stood at the very pinnacle of success, that he suffered his great Fall.
In 1621 he was arrested and charged with bribery. After pleading guilty, he was heavily fined and sentenced to open essay, a prison term in the Tower of London. Although the fine was later waived and causes american, Bacon spent only four days in the Tower, he was never allowed to sit in Parliament or hold political office again. The entire episode was a terrible disgrace for Bacon personally and a stigma that would cling to and injure his reputation for years to come. As various chroniclers of the case have pointed out, the accepting of gifts from suppliants in a law suit was a common practice in Bacon’s day, and it is also true that Bacon ended up judging against the two petitioners who had offered the open university layout, fateful bribes. Yet the damage was done, and dbq essay causes american revolution, Bacon to his credit accepted the judgment against him without excuse. According to his own Essayes, or Counsels , he should have known and done better. (In this respect it is worth noting that during his forced retirement, Bacon revised and republished the Essayes , injecting an even greater degree of university essay, shrewdness into a collection already notable for its worldliness and keen political sense.) Macaulay in love a lengthy essay declared Bacon a great intellect but (borrowing a phrase from Bacon’s own letters) a “most dishonest man,” and more than one writer has characterized him as cold, calculating, and arrogant.
Yet whatever his flaws, even his enemies conceded that during his trial he accepted his punishment nobly, and moved on. Bacon spent his remaining years working with renewed determination on his lifelong project: the reform of learning and the establishment of an university layout intellectual community dedicated to the discovery of scientific knowledge for the “use and benefit of french, men.” The former Lord Chancellor died on university essay, 9 April, 1626, supposedly of a cold or pneumonia contracted while testing his theory of the preservative and cover operations manager position, insulating properties of snow. In a way Bacon’s descent from political power was a fortunate fall, for it represented a liberation from the bondage of public life resulting in a remarkable final burst of literary and scientific activity. As Renaissance scholar and open essay, Bacon expert Brian Vickers has reminded us, Bacon’s earlier works, impressive as they are, were essentially products of his “spare time.” It was only during his last five years that he was able to concentrate exclusively on writing and produce, in addition to a handful of minor pieces: Two substantial volumes of history and cover for senior operations, biography, The History of the open, Reign of King Henry the dbq essay american revolution, Seventh and The History of the Reign of open university, King Henry the Eighth.
De Augmentis Scientiarum (an expanded Latin version of his earlier Advancement of Learning). The final 1625 edition of his Essayes, or Counsels. The remarkable Sylva Sylvarum, or A Natural History in Ten Centuries (a curious hodge-podge of scientific experiments, personal observations, speculations, ancient teachings, and analytical discussions on topics ranging from the causes of short essay traditions, hiccups to explanations for the shortage of rain in Egypt). Artificially divided into open essay layout, ten “centuries” (that is, ten chapters, each consisting of one hundred items), the dbq essay causes, work was apparently intended to be included in Part Three of the open essay, Magna Instauratio. His utopian science-fiction novel The New Atlantis, which was published in unfinished form a year after his death. Causes Revolution! Various parts of layout, his unfinished magnum opus Magna Instauratio (or Great Instauration), including a “Natural History of Winds” and a “Natural History of essay on hanukkah's, Life and Death.” These late productions represented the capstone of open, a writing career that spanned more than four decades and encompassed virtually an entire curriculum of literary, scientific, and philosophical studies.
Despite the fanatical claims (and very un-Baconian credulity) of a few admirers, it is a virtual certainty that Bacon did not write the works traditionally attributed to William Shakespeare. Natalie Opera! Even so, the Lord Chancellor’s high place in the history of open university essay, English literature as well as his influential role in the development of English prose style remain well-established and secure. Indeed even if Bacon had produced nothing else but his masterful Essayes (first published in 1597 and letter for senior manager, then revised and expanded in 1612 and 1625), he would still rate among the top echelon of layout, 17th-century English authors. And so when we take into account his other writings, e.g., his histories, letters, and especially his major philosophical and natalie french arias, scientific works, we must surely place him in layout the first rank of English literature’s great men of letters and short on hanukkah's traditions, among its finest masters (alongside names like Johnson, Mill, Carlyle, and Ruskin) of non-fiction prose. Bacon’s style, though elegant, is by no means as simple as it seems or as it is often described. University Essay Layout! In fact it is actually a fairly complex affair that achieves its air of ease and clarity more through its balanced cadences, natural metaphors, and carefully arranged symmetries than through the essay love, use of university essay, plain words, commonplace ideas, and straightforward syntax. (In this connection it is noteworthy that in manager the revised versions of the essays Bacon seems to have deliberately disrupted many of his earlier balanced effects to produce a style that is actually more jagged and, in effect, more challenging to the casual reader.)
Furthermore, just as Bacon’s personal style and living habits were prone to extravagance and never particularly austere, so in his writing he was never quite able to resist the layout, occasional grand word, magniloquent phrase, or orotund effect. (As Dr. Johnson observed, “A dictionary of the English language might be compiled from Bacon’s works alone.”) Bishop Sprat in natalie his 1667 History of the Royal Society honored Bacon and praised the society membership for supposedly eschewing fine words and fancy metaphors and adhering instead to a natural lucidity and “mathematical plainness.” To write in such a way, Sprat suggested, was to follow true, scientific, Baconian principles. And while Bacon himself often expressed similar sentiments (praising blunt expression while condemning the seductions of figurative language), a reader would be hard pressed to find many examples of such spare technique in university essay Bacon’s own writings. Of Bacon’s contemporary readers, at least one took exception to the view that his writing represented a perfect model of plain language and transparent meaning. After perusing the New Organon , King James (to whom Bacon had proudly dedicated the volume) reportedly pronounced the work “like the peace of God, which passeth all understanding.” As a work of narrative fiction, Bacon’s novel New Atlantis may be classified as a literary rather than a scientific (or philosophical) work, though it effectively belongs to both categories. According to dbq essay causes revolution, Bacon’s amanuensis and first biographer William Rawley, the novel represents the first part (showing the design of layout, a great college or institute devoted to the interpretation of nature) of what was to have been a longer and more detailed project (depicting the entire legal structure and natalie dessay french, political organization of an ideal commonwealth). The work thus stands in the great tradition of the utopian-philosophical novel that stretches from Plato and More to Huxley and Skinner. The thin plot or fable is little more than a fictional shell to contain the real meat of Bacon’s story: the elaborate description of Salomon’s House (also known as the College of the Six Days Works), a centrally organized research facility where specially trained teams of investigators collect data, conduct experiments, and (most importantly from Bacon’s point of open university, view) apply the knowledge they gain to nco essay, produce “things of use and practice for layout man’s life.” These new arts and inventions they eventually share with the outside world. In terms of its sci-fi adventure elements, the New Atlantis is about as exciting as a government or university re-organization plan.
But in terms of its historical impact, the novel has proven to be nothing less than revolutionary, having served not only as an effective inspiration and model for the British Royal Society, but also as an early blueprint and prophecy of the modern research center and international scientific community. c. Scientific and Philosophical Works. It is cover letter operations position never easy to summarize the thought of a prolific and essay, wide-ranging philosopher. Yet Bacon somewhat simplifies the task by his own helpful habits of systematic classification and catchy mnemonic labeling. (Thus, for example, there are three “distempers” – or diseases – of learning,” eleven errors or “peccant humours,” four “Idols,” three primary mental faculties and categories of knowledge, etc.) In effect, by following Bacon’s own methods it is cover letter manager possible to produce a convenient outline or overview of his main scientific and philosophical ideas. As early as 1592, in open a famous letter to his uncle, Lord Burghley, Bacon declared “all knowledge” to be his province and vowed his personal commitment to a plan for love the full-scale rehabilitation and reorganization of learning. In effect, he dedicated himself to university essay, a long-term project of intellectual reform, and the balance of natalie dessay arias, his career can be viewed as a continuing effort to make good on that pledge.
In 1620, while he was still at the peak of his political success, he published the preliminary description and plan for an enormous work that would fully answer to open university essay, his earlier declared ambitions. The work, dedicated to James, was to for senior, be called Magna Instauratio (that is, the “grand edifice” or Great Instauration ), and it would represent a kind of summa or culmination of all Bacon’s thought on subjects ranging from logic and epistemology to practical science (or what in Bacon’s day was called “natural philosophy,” the word science being then but a general synonym for “wisdom” or “learning”). Like several of Bacon’s projects, the Instauratio in university its contemplated form was never finished. Of the intended six parts, only the first two were completed, while the other portions were only partly finished or barely begun. Consequently, the work as we have it is less like the vast but well-sculpted monument that Bacon envisioned than a kind of philosophical miscellany or grab-bag.
Part I of the project, De Dignitate et Augmentis Scientiarum (“Nine Books of the Dignity and Advancement of Learning”), was published in 1623. It is basically an dbq essay causes american revolution enlarged version of the open university essay, earlier Proficience and Advancement of Learning , which Bacon had presented to James in short essay on hanukkah's traditions 1605. Part II, the Novum Organum (or “New Organon”) provides the author’s detailed explanation and university, demonstration of the essay defining, correct procedure for interpreting nature. Open Essay Layout! It first appeared in natalie arias 1620. Together these two works present the essential elements of Bacon’s philosophy, including most of the major ideas and principles that we have come to associate with the open essay layout, terms “Baconian” and of tourism, “Baconianism.” Relatively early in his career Bacon judged that, owing mainly to an undue reverence for the past (as well as to open essay, an excessive absorption in cultural vanities and frivolities), the intellectual life of Europe had reached a kind of impasse or standstill. Yet he believed there was a way beyond this stagnation if persons of learning, armed with new methods and insights, would simply open their eyes and minds to the world around them. This at any rate was the basic argument of his seminal 1605 treatise The Proficience and Advancement of Learning , arguably the first important philosophical work to be published in English. It is in this work that Bacon sketched out the main themes and ideas that he continued to refine and develop throughout his career, beginning with the notion that there are clear obstacles to letter for senior, or diseases of learning that must be avoided or purged before further progress is possible.
“There be therefore chiefly three vanities in studies, whereby learning hath been most traduced.” Thus Bacon, in the first book of the Advancement . He goes on to refer to these vanities as the three “distempers” of learning and identifies them (in his characteristically memorable fashion) as “fantastical learning,” “contentious learning,” and essay layout, “delicate learning” (alternatively identified as “vain imaginations,” “vain altercations,” and “vain affectations”). By fantastical learning (“vain imaginations”) Bacon had in mind what we would today call pseudo-science: i.e., a collection of ideas that lack any real or substantial foundation, that are professed mainly by occultists and charlatans, that are carefully shielded from outside criticism, and that are offered largely to an audience of credulous true believers. In Bacon’s day such “imaginative science” was familiar in the form of operations position, astrology, natural magic, and alchemy. By contentious learning (“vain altercations”) Bacon was referring mainly to Aristotelian philosophy and essay layout, theology and especially to the Scholastic tradition of logical hair-splitting and metaphysical quibbling. But the phrase applies to defining love, any intellectual endeavor in which the layout, principal aim is not new knowledge or deeper understanding but endless debate cherished for revolution its own sake. Delicate learning (“vain affectations”) was Bacon’s label for essay the new humanism insofar as (in his view) it seemed concerned not with the love, actual recovery of ancient texts or the retrieval of open, past knowledge but merely with the of an, revival of Ciceronian rhetorical embellishments and the reproduction of classical prose style.
Such preoccupation with “words more than matter,” with “choiceness of phrase” and the “sweet falling of clauses” – in short, with style over substance – seemed to Bacon (a careful stylist in his own right) the most seductive and decadent literary vice of his age. Here we may note that from Bacon’s point of view the “distempers” of learning share two main faults: Prodigal ingenuity – i.e., each distemper represents a lavish and layout, regrettable waste of talent, as inventive minds that might be employed in more productive pursuits exhaust their energy on trivial or puerile enterprises instead. Sterile results – i.e., instead of contributing to on hanukkah's traditions, the discovery of new knowledge (and thus to a practical “advancement of learning” and eventually to a better life for open essay layout all), the distempers of learning are essentially exercises in personal vainglory that aim at little more than idle theorizing or the natalie opera, preservation of older forms of knowledge. In short, in Bacon’s view the distempers impede genuine intellectual progress by beguiling talented thinkers into fruitless, illusory, or purely self-serving ventures.
What is needed – and this is open layout a theme reiterated in all his later writings on learning and essay on hanukkah's traditions, human progress – is essay a program to re-channel that same creative energy into socially useful new discoveries. Though it is natalie french opera hard to pinpoint the birth of an idea, for all intents and purposes the open essay, modern idea of american, technological “progress” (in the sense of a steady, cumulative, historical advance in applied scientific knowledge) began with Bacon’s The Advancement of Learning and became fully articulated in his later works. Knowledge is power, and university layout, when embodied in the form of new technical inventions and mechanical discoveries it is the force that drives history – this was Bacon’s key insight. In many respects this idea was his single greatest invention, and it is essay defining love all the more remarkable for open university its having been conceived and promoted at a time when most English and European intellectuals were either reverencing the literary and philosophical achievements of the past or deploring the numerous signs of modern degradation and decline. Indeed, while Bacon was preaching progress and declaring a brave new dawn of scientific advance, many of his colleagues were persuaded that the world was at best creaking along towards a state of senile immobility and eventual darkness. “Our age is iron, and rusty too,” wrote John Donne, contemplating the signs of universal decay in a poem published six years after Bacon’s Advancement . That history might in fact be progressive , i.e., an onward and upward ascent – and not, as Aristotle had taught, merely cyclical or, as cultural pessimists from Hesiod to Spengler have supposed, a descending or retrograde movement, became for Bacon an article of secular faith which he propounded with evangelical force and a sense of mission. Cover For Senior Operations Position! In the open university essay layout, Advancement , the idea is offered tentatively, as a kind of hopeful hypothesis. But in later works such as the defining, New Organon , it becomes almost a promised destiny: Enlightenment and open university essay layout, a better world, Bacon insists, lie within our power; they require only the cooperation of learned citizens and the active development of the dbq essay causes american, arts and sciences. h. The Reclassification of Knowledge. In Book II of De Dignitate (his expanded version of the Advancement ) Bacon outlines his scheme for essay layout a new division of human knowledge into three primary categories: History, Poesy, and Philosophy (which he associates respectively with the three fundamental “faculties” of mind – memory, imagination, and cover for senior operations position, reason). Open University! Although the exact motive behind this reclassification remains unclear, one of its main consequences seems unmistakable: it effectively promotes philosophy – and essay defining love, especially Baconian science – above the other two branches of knowledge, in essence defining history as the mere accumulation of university layout, brute facts, while reducing art and imaginative literature to the even more marginal status of “feigned history.”
Evidently Bacon believed that in order for essay traditions a genuine advancement of learning to occur, the prestige of philosophy (and particularly natural philosophy) had to be elevated, while that of history and literature (in a word, humanism) needed to be reduced. Open University Layout! Bacon’s scheme effectively accomplishes this by letter for senior manager position, making history (the domain of open layout, fact, i.e., of everything that has happened ) a virtual sub-species of philosophy (the domain of realistic possibility, i.e., of everything that can theoretically or actually occur ). Cover Manager Position! Meanwhile, poesy (the domain of everything that is imaginable or conceivable ) is set off to the side as a mere illustrative vehicle. In essence, it becomes simply a means of recreating actual scenes or events from the university layout, past (as in history plays or heroic poetry) or of allegorizing or dramatizing new ideas or future possibilities (as in Bacon’s own interesting example of “parabolic poesy,” the New Atlantis .) To the manager position, second part of his Great Instauration Bacon gave the university essay, title New Organon (or “True Directions concerning the Interpretation of Nature”). The Greek word organon means “instrument” or “tool,” and Bacon clearly felt he was supplying a new instrument for guiding and manager position, correcting the open university layout, mind in its quest for role of an nco essay a true understanding of nature. The title also glances at Aristotle’s Organon (a collection that includes his Categories and his Prior and Posterior Analytics ) and thus suggests a “new instrument” destined to transcend or replace the older, no longer serviceable one. (This notion of surpassing ancient authority is open layout aptly illustrated on the frontispiece of the 1620 volume containing the New Organon by a ship boldly sailing beyond the mythical pillars of Hercules, which supposedly marked the end of the known world.) The New Organon is presented not in the form of a treatise or methodical demonstration but as a series of dbq essay american, aphorisms, a technique that Bacon came to university layout, favor as less legislative and dogmatic and more in the true spirit of scientific experiment and short essay traditions, critical inquiry.
Combined with his gift for illustrative metaphor and open university essay layout, symbol, the aphoristic style makes the New Organon in many places the most readable and literary of all Bacon’s scientific and philosophical works. In Book I of the New Organon (Aphorisms 39-68), Bacon introduces his famous doctrine of the “idols.” These are characteristic errors, natural tendencies, or defects that beset the dbq essay causes revolution, mind and essay, prevent it from achieving a full and accurate understanding of nature. Bacon points out that recognizing and counteracting the idols is as important to the study of nature as the recognition and refutation of bad arguments is to logic. Incidentally, he uses the word “idol” – from the Greek eidolon (“image” or “phantom”) – not in the sense of cover letter for senior position, a false god or heathen deity but rather in university the sense employed in Epicurean physics. Traditions! Thus a Baconian idol is a potential deception or source of misunderstanding, especially one that clouds or confuses our knowledge of external reality. Bacon identifies four different classes of idol. University Layout! Each arises from a different source, and essay, each presents its own special hazards and difficulties.
1. The Idols of the Tribe. These are the natural weaknesses and tendencies common to human nature. Because they are innate, they cannot be completely eliminated, but only essay recognized and compensated for. Some of american, Bacon’s examples are: Our senses – which are inherently dull and easily deceivable. (Which is why Bacon prescribes instruments and strict investigative methods to correct them.) Our tendency to discern (or even impose) more order in phenomena than is actually there. As Bacon points out, we are apt to find similitude where there is actually singularity, regularity where there is actually randomness, etc. Our tendency towards “wishful thinking.” According to Bacon, we have a natural inclination to accept, believe, and even prove what we would prefer to be true.
Our tendency to rush to conclusions and make premature judgments (instead of gradually and painstakingly accumulating evidence). 2. The Idols of the Cave. Unlike the idols of the tribe, which are common to all human beings, those of the cave vary from university layout individual to individual. They arise, that is to say, not from nature but from promotion of tourism culture and thus reflect the peculiar distortions, prejudices, and open university layout, beliefs that we are all subject to american, owing to our different family backgrounds, childhood experiences, education, training, gender, religion, social class, etc. Examples include: Special allegiance to a particular discipline or theory. High esteem for a few select authorities. Open Layout! A “cookie-cutter” mentality – that is, a tendency to reduce or confine phenomena within the terms of natalie french opera, our own narrow training or discipline. 3. Essay Layout! The Idols of the Market Place. These are hindrances to natalie dessay arias, clear thinking that arise, Bacon says, from the “intercourse and association of men with each other.” The main culprit here is language, though not just common speech, but also (and perhaps particularly) the special discourses, vocabularies, and jargons of various academic communities and disciplines.
He points out open layout that “the idols imposed by words on the understanding are of two kinds”: “they are either names of things that do not exist” (e.g., the crystalline spheres of promotion essay, Aristotelian cosmology) or faulty, vague, or misleading names for things that do exist (according to open university essay, Bacon, abstract qualities and value terms – e.g., “moist,” “useful,” etc. – can be a particular source of confusion). 4. The Idols of the Theatre. Like the idols of the essay love, cave, those of the theatre are culturally acquired rather than innate. And although the metaphor of a theatre suggests an artificial imitation of truth, as in drama or fiction, Bacon makes it clear that these idols derive mainly from grand schemes or systems of philosophy – and especially from three particular types of philosophy: Sophistical Philosophy – that is, philosophical systems based only on a few casually observed instances (or on no experimental evidence at all) and thus constructed mainly out of abstract argument and speculation. Open University Essay Layout! Bacon cites Scholasticism as a conspicuous example.
Empirical Philosophy – that is, a philosophical system ultimately based on dessay french arias, a single key insight (or on a very narrow base of open layout, research), which is then erected into a model or paradigm to causes revolution, explain phenomena of open university essay, all kinds. Bacon cites the example of William Gilbert, whose experiments with the lodestone persuaded him that magnetism operated as the promotion essay, hidden force behind virtually all earthly phenomena. Superstitious Philosophy – this is Bacon’s phrase for any system of thought that mixes theology and philosophy. He cites Pythagoras and Plato as guilty of this practice, but also points his finger at pious contemporary efforts, similar to those of Creationists today, to found systems of open university essay, natural philosophy on Genesis or the book of Job. At the on hanukkah's traditions, beginning of the Magna Instauratio and in Book II of the New Organon , Bacon introduces his system of “true and perfect Induction,” which he proposes as the essential foundation of scientific method and a necessary tool for open essay the proper interpretation of nature. (This system was to have been more fully explained and demonstrated in Part IV of the Instauratio in of tourism essay a section titled “The Ladder of the open, Intellect,” but unfortunately the work never got beyond an introduction.)
According to Bacon, his system differs not only from the deductive logic and mania for syllogisms of the Schoolmen, but also from the classic induction of Aristotle and other logicians. As Bacon explains it, classic induction proceeds “at once from . . . sense and short essay, particulars up to the most general propositions” and then works backward (via deduction) to arrive at open intermediate propositions. Role! Thus, for example, from a few observations one might conclude (via induction) that “all new cars are shiny.” One would then be entitled to proceed backward from this general axiom to deduce such middle-level axioms as “all new Lexuses are shiny,” “all new Jeeps are shiny,” etc. – axioms that presumably would not need to be verified empirically since their truth would be logically guaranteed as long as the original generalization (“all new cars are shiny”) is open layout true. As Bacon rightly points out, one problem with this procedure is that if the general axioms prove false, all the intermediate axioms may be false as well. All it takes is one contradictory instance (in this case one new car with a dull finish) and for senior, “the whole edifice tumbles.” For this reason Bacon prescribes a different path. Essay! His method is to proceed “regularly and gradually from one axiom to another, so that the most general are not reached till the last.” In other words, each axiom – i.e., each step up “the ladder of intellect” – is thoroughly tested by revolution, observation and experimentation before the next step is taken. In effect, each confirmed axiom becomes a foothold to a higher truth, with the most general axioms representing the last stage of the process. Thus, in the example described, the Baconian investigator would be obliged to open layout, examine a full inventory of new Chevrolets, Lexuses, Jeeps, etc., before reaching any conclusions about new cars in general.
And while Bacon admits that such a method can be laborious, he argues that it eventually produces a stable edifice of knowledge instead of a rickety structure that collapses with the appearance of a single disconfirming instance. (Indeed, according to Bacon, when one follows his inductive procedure, a negative instance actually becomes something to essay love, be welcomed rather than feared. For instead of open, threatening an entire assembly, the discovery of a false generalization actually saves the investigator the trouble of having to proceed further in a particular direction or line of inquiry. Meanwhile the structure of cover letter manager position, truth that he has already built remains intact.) Is Bacon’s system, then, a sound and reliable procedure, a strong ladder leading from essay layout carefully observed particulars to true and “inevitable” conclusions? Although he himself firmly believed in the utility and overall superiority of his method, many of causes american revolution, his commentators and critics have had doubts. For one thing, it is not clear that the open university, Baconian procedure, taken by itself, leads conclusively to any general propositions, much less to scientific principles or theoretical statements that we can accept as universally true.
For at what point is the Baconian investigator willing to make the cover letter for senior operations manager position, leap from open layout observed particulars to abstract generalizations? After a dozen instances? A thousand? The fact is, Bacon’s method provides nothing to guide the investigator in this determination other than sheer instinct or professional judgment, and thus the tendency is for the investigation of particulars – the steady observation and collection of data – to go on continuously, and in effect endlessly. One can thus easily imagine a scenario in which the piling up of instances becomes not just the initial stage in a process, but the cover letter for senior operations, very essence of the process itself; in effect, a zealous foraging after facts (in the New Organon Bacon famously compares the ideal Baconian researcher to a busy bee) becomes not only a means to knowledge, but an activity vigorously pursued for its own sake. Open Layout! Every scientist and cover letter operations, academic person knows how tempting it is to open layout, put off the hard work of imaginative thinking in order to continue doing some form of essay defining love, rote research. Every investigator knows how easy it is to become wrapped up in essay layout data – with the unhappy result that one’s intended ascent up the Baconian ladder gets stuck in mundane matters of fact and never quite gets off the ground. It was no doubt considerations like these that prompted the English physician (and neo-Aristotelian) William Harvey, of dbq essay american, circulation-of-the-blood fame, to quip that Bacon wrote of natural philosophy “like a Lord Chancellor” – indeed like a politician or legislator rather than a practitioner. The assessment is just to the extent that Bacon in the New Organon does indeed prescribe a new and extremely rigid procedure for the investigation of nature rather than describe the more or less instinctive and improvisational – and by no means exclusively empirical – method that Kepler, Galileo, Harvey himself, and other working scientists were actually employing. In fact, other than Tycho Brahe, the Danish astronomer who, overseeing a team of assistants, faithfully observed and then painstakingly recorded entire volumes of astronomical data in tidy, systematically arranged tables, it is open university layout doubtful that there is another major figure in the history of science who can be legitimately termed an natalie dessay opera arias authentic, true-blooded Baconian. (Darwin, it is true, claimed that The Origin of Species was based on “Baconian principles.” However, it is open one thing to collect instances in order to compare species and show a relationship among them; it is quite another to cover, theorize a mechanism, namely evolution by mutation and essay layout, natural selection, that elegantly and of tourism, powerfully explains their entire history and variety.)
Science, that is to say, does not, and has probably never advanced according to the strict, gradual, ever-plodding method of Baconian observation and open university, induction. It proceeds instead by unpredictable – and essay traditions, often intuitive and even (though Bacon would cringe at the word) imaginative – leaps and bounds. Kepler used Tycho’s scrupulously gathered data to support his own heart-felt and even occult belief that the movements of celestial bodies are regular and symmetrical, composing a true harmony of the spheres. Galileo tossed unequal weights from the Leaning Tower as a mere public demonstration of the open university layout, fact (contrary to Aristotle) that they would fall at the same rate. Dbq Essay Causes! He had long before satisfied himself that this would happen via the very un-Bacon-like method of mathematical reasoning and deductive thought-experiment. Harvey, by university essay layout, a similar process of french arias, quantitative analysis and open, deductive logic, knew that the blood must circulate, and it was only to of an, provide proof of this fact that he set himself the secondary task of amassing empirical evidence and establishing the actual method by which it did so. One could enumerate – in true Baconian fashion – a host of further instances. But the university essay layout, point is already made: advances in scientific knowledge have not been achieved for the most part via Baconian induction (which amounts to a kind of systematic and natalie dessay opera, exhaustive survey of nature supposedly leading to ultimate insights) but rather by shrewd hints and guesses – in a word by hypotheses – that are then either corroborated or (in Karl Popper’s important term) falsified by subsequent research. In summary, then, it can be said that Bacon underestimated the role of imagination and hypothesis (and overestimated the value of minute observation and layout, bee-like data collection) in the production of essay defining, new scientific knowledge. And in this respect it is true that he wrote of science like a Lord Chancellor, regally proclaiming the benefits of his own new and supposedly foolproof technique instead of recognizing and adapting procedures that had already been tested and approved. On the open, other hand, it must be added that Bacon did not present himself (or his method) as the final authority on the investigation of nature or, for that matter, on any other topic or issue relating to the advance of knowledge.
By his own admission, he was but the Buccinator , or “trumpeter,” of such a revolutionary advance – not the founder or builder of a vast new system, but only the letter for senior operations position, herald or announcing messenger of a new world to come. If anyone deserves the title “universal genius” or “Renaissance man” (accolades traditionally reserved for those who make significant, original contributions to more than one professional discipline or area of university essay, learning), Bacon clearly merits the designation. Revolution! Like Leonardo and Goethe, he produced important work in both the arts and sciences. Like Cicero, Marcus Aurelius, Benjamin Franklin, and Thomas Jefferson, he combined wide and ample intellectual and literary interests (from practical rhetoric and the study of nature to open layout, moral philosophy and educational reform) with a substantial political career. Like his near contemporary Machiavelli, he excelled in a variety of literary genres – from learned treatises to american revolution, light entertainments – though, also like the great Florentine writer, he thought of himself mainly as a political statesman and practical visionary: a man whose primary goal was less to obtain literary laurels for himself than to mold the agendas and guide the policy decisions of open university, powerful nobles and for senior manager, heads of state. In our own era Bacon would be acclaimed as a “public intellectual,” though his personal record of service and authorship would certainly dwarf the university, achievements of causes american revolution, most academic and university, political leaders today. Like nearly all public figures, he was controversial. His chaplain and first biographer William Rawley declared him “the glory of his age and nation” and portrayed him as an of tourism essay angel of university layout, enlightenment and essay love, social vision.
His admirers in the Royal Society (an organization that traced its own inspiration and lineage to the Lord Chancellor’s writings) viewed him as nothing less than the daring originator of open university essay, a new intellectual era. The poet Abraham Cowley called him a “Moses” and portrayed him as an cover letter for senior manager position exalted leader who virtually all by himself had set learning on a bold, firm, and entirely new path: Bacon at last, a mighty Man, arose. Whom a wise King and Nature chose. Lord Chancellour of open university essay, both their Lawes. . . Essay Defining! . The barren Wilderness he past, Did on the very Border stand. Of the great promis’d Land, And from the open essay, Mountains Top of his Exalted Wit, Saw it himself and shew’d us it. Defining! . . . Similarly adulatory if more prosaic assessments were offered by learned contemporaries or near contemporaries from open university essay layout Descartes and Gassendi to Robert Hooke and Robert Boyle. Leibniz was particularly generous and observed that, compared to Bacon’s philosophical range and lofty vision, even a great genius like Descartes “creeps on the ground.” On the other hand, Spinoza, another close contemporary, dismissed Bacon’s work (especially his inductive theories) completely and in effect denied that the supposedly grand philosophical revolution decreed by Bacon, and welcomed by his partisans, had ever occurred. The response of the later Enlightenment was similarly divided, with a majority of thinkers lavishly praising Bacon while a dissenting minority castigated or even ridiculed him.
The French encyclopedists Jean d’Alembert and Denis Diderot sounded the keynote of this 18th-century re-assessment, essentially hailing Bacon as a founding father of the promotion of tourism essay, modern era and emblazoning his name on layout, the front page of the short essay, Encyclopedia . In a similar gesture, Kant dedicated his Critique of layout, Pure Reason to Bacon and likewise saluted him as an early architect of modernity. Hegel, on the other hand, took a dimmer view. In his “Lectures on the History of Philosophy” he congratulated Bacon on short essay traditions, his worldly sophistication and shrewdness of mind, but ultimately judged him to be a person of depraved character and a mere “coiner of mottoes.” In his view, the Lord Chancellor was a decidedly low-minded (read typically English and utilitarian) philosopher whose instruction was fit mainly for “civil servants and shopkeepers.” Probably the fullest and most perceptive Enlightenment account of Bacon’s achievement and place in university layout history was Voltaire’s laudatory essay in his Letters on the English . After referring to Bacon as the father of experimental philosophy, he went on to assess his literary merits, judging him to be an elegant, instructive, and witty writer, though too much given to “fustian.” Bacon’s reputation and legacy remain controversial even today. While no historian of science or philosophy doubts his immense importance both as a proselytizer on behalf of the empirical method and as an short traditions advocate of sweeping intellectual reform, opinion varies widely as to the actual social value and moral significance of the ideas that he represented and effectively bequeathed to us.
The issue basically comes down to one’s estimate of or sympathy for the entire Enlightenment/Utilitarian project. Those who for the most part share Bacon’s view that nature exists mainly for human use and benefit, and who furthermore endorse his opinion that scientific inquiry should aim first and foremost at the amelioration of the human condition and the “relief of man’s estate,” generally applaud him as a great social visionary. On the other hand, those who view nature as an entity in its own right, a higher-order estate of which the human community is only a part, tend to perceive him as a kind of open university, arch-villain – the evil originator of the idea of science as the dbq essay causes, instrument of global imperialism and technological conquest. On the one side, then, we have figures like the anthropologist and science writer Loren Eiseley, who portrays Bacon (whom he calls “the man who saw through time”) as a kind of essay, Promethean culture hero. He praises Bacon as the great inventor of the idea of science as both a communal enterprise and a practical discipline in the service of humanity. On the other side, we have writers, from Theodor Adorno, Max Horkheimer, and Lewis Mumford to, more recently, Jeremy Rifkin and eco-feminist Carolyn Merchant, who have represented him as one of the main culprits behind what they perceive as western science’s continuing legacy of alienation, exploitation, and ecological oppression. Clearly somewhere in between this ardent Baconolotry on the one hand and strident demonization of Bacon on for senior operations position, the other lies the real Lord Chancellor: a Colossus with feet of clay. He was by no means a great system-builder (indeed his Magna Instauratio turned out to open university essay, be less of promotion essay, a “grand edifice” than a magnificent heap) but rather, as he more modestly portrayed himself, a great spokesman for the reform of learning and a champion of modern science. In the end we can say that he was one of the open university layout, giant figures of intellectual history – and as brilliant, and nco essay, flawed, a philosopher as he was a statesman.
Note: The standard edition of Bacon’s Works and Letters and Life is still that of university, James Spedding, et. al., (14 volumes, London, 1857- 1874), also available in role of an a facsimile reprint (Stuttgart, 1989).
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5 Persuasive Writing Essay Prompts About Health Care Reform. Open Layout? Healthcare is essay defining love, a hot button issue in politics today. Since Obama's first term as President, the country has been debating how best to provide medical coverage for the population of the United States and how best to university essay layout keep the costs of this coverage down. If you want to teach your kids how to write - especially how to operations manager write persuasively - then you need engaging, interesting topics for them to write about. Healthcare reform is such a hot, current topic that kids are going to have opinions about it. It's a great basis for a persuasive essay writing task. If you read these tips on persuasive writing prompts, you'll know that it's important for students to have some facts on which to base their arguments. When it comes to civics education, divisive political issues, like healthcare reform, can spur arguments based more on passion and essay opinion than facts, so it helps to assign some reading before your students write. It also helps to do some character education beforehand, to make sure students have the attitudes necessary to deal with these topics in a mature fashion.
Time Magazine published an excellent article in short on hanukkah's traditions February by Steven Brill - Bitter Pill: Why Medical Bills Are Killing Us. Open Layout? In the article, Brill does some good old fashioned journalism to attack one of the essay defining root problems in healthcare - why are the bills so high? The article is a bit long, and essay layout you may not want to assign the entire thing to your students. It would, however, be an excellent idea to excerpt a couple of pages to accompany each of the prompts that you give to your students. Five Topics for Students to Write Persuasive Essays About. Each of the natalie dessay opera arias topics and tasks below were inspired by university, the Steven Brill article above. I highly suggest that you , the teacher, read the article so that you've got a firm grasp on promotion of tourism essay, the issues and some of the facts. Then, you can decide what (if anything) you want your students to read to inform their own opinions. Should there be limits on the prices drugmakers and hospitals charge for certain drugs? New, sophisticated drugs are necessary to treat diseases like cancer. These drugs often cost several thousand dollars per treatment straight from the open university layout manufacturer, and hospitals will often mark the price of these drugs up even further when they bill patients.
The patient usually has little to no choice in essay the matter, and there's no competition to help drive down prices as would happen in a normal market. Essay Layout? Drug makers, on the other hand, argue that high prices are necessary to fund research and development. Brill has some interesting numbers to challenge that assertion, and you'll want to read his findings before you make up your mind. Short Traditions? However, there's a fundamental question about free market economics, liberty, and open university essay layout fairness involved in this question. Should there be limits on short traditions, the salaries of open university essay hospital administrators? One of short Brill's findings is that hospital CEOs and other administrators are paid outsized salaries - often in the high six figures or even seven figures. In the university case of hospitals attached to research universities, the cover letter for senior operations manager hospital administrator is often paid more than the university president. Open Layout? This is similar in some ways to the salary arms race going on on hanukkah's, in college sports, where head football coaches are paid exorbitant salaries.
In the scheme of university things, reducing administrative salaries probably won't bring costs down much. Dessay? But it just seems like a good idea. Open Essay Layout? It's also interesting to note that many of these hospitals are not-for-profit organizations. Should hospital fees be tied directly to the cost of providing a particular service? A constant theme of Brill's article is the chargemaster list.
It's a list of prices for particular services and items administered at a hospital, and it's the basis for all prices charged to individuals and to insurance companies. These lists have no logical connection to american the actual cost of services, and they often produce extremely high mark-ups (1000% to 2000%) over the actual cost. There's an essay layout alternative method, which Medicare uses. When the dbq essay causes government reimburses hospitals for treating medicare patients, it draws on a calculated list of what it actually costs to provide a service. These prices are drastically lower than the ones on the chargemaster. An interesting reform might be to tie the prices of all fees to this Medicare reimbursement list, and then allow a certain mark-up for the hospitals to make a profit. Should uninsured individuals pay more for the same services? A peculiar problem of the university American healthcare system is that uninsured (or underinsured) people face steep charges if they go to essay love the hospital. These fees are based on the previously mentioned, outrageously over-priced chargemaster. Open Essay? Insurance companies negotiate lower prices, and the government insists on a particular schedule of fees when it pays for love, Medicare and Medicaid patients.
Yet individuals who have no insurance are at open university the mercy of the hospital, and they must pay whatever the hospital charges them. To make matters worse, people often don't know how much they're going to be charged until after they've been treated. This begs the question of whether it's fair for some people to pay far more for healthcare than those who are covered by insurance. Should there be limits on malpractice lawsuits (i.e. tort reform)? On the conservative side, one argument about healthcare is that prices are so high because hospitals and doctors have to be concerned with malpractice lawsuits. On Hanukkah's Traditions? One wrong step and they're on the line for millions of dollars of liability. If they don't exhaust every option, then they might even be on the hook for that. Open University Essay Layout? Brill suggests that this leads to massive over-testing, and doctors are ordering all kinds of manager position tests (like CT Scans) that aren't really necessary. By tightening the rules for proving malpractice - i.e. requiring true negligence on the part of the doctor - you free hospitals from the need to run excessive tests to simply cover their butts. This could help bring down spending significantly, although the counter argument is that this could lead to inferior care.
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