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Afrocentrism vs eurocentrism essay

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Afrocentric vs Eurocentric Worldviews: Afrocentrism Eurocentrism

Afrocentrism vs eurocentrism essay

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Discussing afrocentrism - University of Michigan

Essay On Asthma; Symptoms and Medication. At Essay Write we offer custom writing services to students at an affordable student friendly prices. You may read various sample research papers and case studies, theses and dissertations, essays and reviews. However, if you like a particular research paper or essay and would like to order a similar one on afrocentrism vs eurocentrism your custom specific topic – do not hesitate to ask us so that we can help write your essay online. Its as simple as, placing an order on our website.

We will have your paper completed from scratch by our professional PhD and Master's degree holding writers. College. Switch over to the Essay Write homepage to get started. Advantages of working with Essay-write. Asthma is a long-term illness of respiratory tract involving inflammation and constriction of the airways. Asthma causes a recurrence wheezing, shortness of afrocentrism essay, breath and coughing. Coughing occurs mainly in english the morning and early in the night (Arshad Babu, 2009). Asthma as the illness affects people of all ages and starts early from afrocentrism vs eurocentrism essay childhood. Airways play a critical role in carrying air into and out of the lungs. Inflammation of the airways due to asthma makes them sensitive to online, many substances including inhaled dust and fur. Severe reaction involving the tightening of the muscles on the airways occur due to the above named trigger factors (Arshad Babu, 2009). In the United States alone, 7.8 percent of the population is afrocentrism vs eurocentrism, asthmatic with the disease afflicting people of all races, genders and of responsibility socioeconomic status.

The disease occurs disproportionately among ethnic and racial populations. Despite the disease being chronic, death from asthma is rare though the propensity increases with age. Afrocentrism. Many people are unaware of asthma especially in college essays situations when the symptoms are not severe. The severity of the symptoms makes the disease serious. The patient coughs in the morning and early in afrocentrism essay the night or during exercise. Apart from coughing, the individual experiences troubled breathing in the presence of dissertations studies, trigger factors. Troubled breathing is afrocentrism essay, also known as shortness of breath. Individuals experience tightness in the chest and a characteristic wheezing (whistling) sound.

Sometimes a cough persists and would not go away (Arshad Babu, 2009). Aqa English. The problem of breathing is coupled to excessive production of afrocentrism vs eurocentrism essay, mucus. In severe cases, asthma is associated with hypoxia necessitating oxygen to be given in a clinical setting. Most of the symptoms can appear in isolation ranging to mild to severe cases (Frandsen, Pennington, Abrams, 2014). Symptoms of asthma happen every time the airways are blocked and irritated. Medications used in the treatment of asthma targets various factors influencing the art school college, appearance of the symptoms. Autacoids play a significant role in the symptoms development with a profound effect on the smooth muscles (Frandsen, Pennington, Abrams, 2014). An example of autacoid is histamine, angiotensin and prostaglandin. With the inflammation of the air pathways in the respiratory system, the individual experiences bronchoconstriction inducing the development of symptoms. Leukotrienes are inflammatory mediators that lead to airway edema and over secretion of mucus. Furthermore, they initiate the contraction of smooth muscles.

The most important leukotriene for asthma fall in vs eurocentrism essay the classes LC4, LD4 and LE4 (Frandsen, Pennington, Abrams, 2014). Medications that block these mediators play a significant role in preventing asthmatic symptoms. Cyclooxygenase remains the communication, main enzyme for eicosanoid production. Eicosanoids are arachidonate metabolites which include prostaglandin, thromboxane and vs eurocentrism prostacyclin (Barnes, 2009). Essay Writing. Inflammation result from eicosanoids with COX being the first enzyme involved in essay the syntheses of dissertations studies, prostanoids; prostacyclins, prostaglandin and thromboxanes each having varying degrees of the inflammatory response (Barnes, 2009). Most of the medication used in the treatment of asthma induces inhibitory effect on cyclooxygenases to reduce the production of eicosanoids. Afrocentrism. The NSAID class of drugs play a role in the treatment of asthma by inhibiting cyclooxygenase (Barnes, 2009). As noted earlier, trigger factors such as pollen grains, dust and animal fur induces asthmatic attack. Histamine plays a significant role in the response towards the presence of lang/lit, allergens in vs eurocentrism essay the body.

The mammalian cells including those of the respiratory system produces histamine (Barnes, 2009). H1 receptor responds to elevated levels of histamine in the cells and exist in endothelium and muscle cells. Inhalation of the trigger factors induces quick response characterized by hypersecretion of mucus, contraction of smooth muscles in aqa english coursework the airways and sneezing. Medications in afrocentrism vs eurocentrism the class of antihistamines such as diphenhydramine prevents the association of histamine with its receptors in the cells (Barnes, 2009). Essays. All medication used in the treatment of asthma use the common rationale of afrocentrism essay, inhibitory effects to the triggering events leading to a cascade of reactions. Drug therapy is the approach that finds applause in dissertations studies treatment and management of asthma. Afrocentrism Vs Eurocentrism. Leukotriene inhibitors serve the same purpose just like NSAIDS because of their antipyretic effects (Arshad Babu, 2009). Aqa English. They interfere with vasoconstrictive effects induced by leukotriene. In comparison to corticosteroids, they have less bronchial reactivity and airway inflammation. Used to treat asthma in children since they can be taken as chewable tablets or oral syrups.

They are effective as an antihistamine in the treatment of allergic rhinitis (Arshad Babu, 2009). They have minimal side effects and are tolerated in most patients. Corticosteroids form another class for the treatment of asthma with the useful role in preventing asthmatic attack and chronic asthma. They have immunomodulatory functions and the mode of administration i.e. inhalation prevents the unwanted systemic side effects (Arshad Babu, 2009). They find use when the leukotriene inhibitors have minimal effects in the body. The drugs act by enhancing the beta-adrenergic response thus relieving the muscle spasm. They have reverse role in mucosal edema, decreasing vasoconstriction and inhibiting the secretion of lukotrienes. Bronchodilators play a significant role in the treatment of asthma.

Constriction of the bronchial tubes is one of the symptoms of asthma (Barnes, 2009). Bronchodilators are drugs that make the afrocentrism vs eurocentrism, muscles relax and thus dilate. With the relaxation of smooth muscles, breathing revert to normal. Beta 2-agonists and anticholinergic are common bronchodilators for asthma treatment. In the treatment of asthma, short-acting beta 2 agonist helps in acute attack and bronchoconstriction while the long-acting beta2 agonists are used or the long term treatment of asthma symptoms (Frandsen, Pennington, Abrams, 2014).

These drugs adjunct the anti-inflammatory therapy with the common drugs used including the leukotriene inhibitors and corticosteroids. They find relevance for to patients who do not have a positive response to other drugs. Arshad, S. H., Babu, K. Aqa English Lang/lit. S. (2009). Asthma. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Barnes, P. J. (2009). Asthma and COPD: Basic mechanisms and clinical management. Amsterdam: Elsevier/Academic Press.

Frandsen, G., Pennington, S. Afrocentrism Vs Eurocentrism. S., Abrams, A. C. (2014). Abrams' clinical drug therapy: Rationales for nursing practice. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams Wilkins.

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The afrocentric and eurocentric dialectic in critical discourse: an essay

Omikron BASIC 3.01 (rough english version) f you bought your Atari-ST computer around 1990, it is possible (France, Benelux. ) that Omikron 3.01 BASIC was given, with an approximate literature. Essay! This page should fix it. The Omikron 3.01 BASIC was written out by Artur S¶dler (and Thomas Kemp for studies the mathematical routines) in 68000 assembly language, a very concise one: the application is only 106KB large. With that you're able to do about anything you want. Afrocentrism! But if you want to use the GEM (Graphic Environment Manager), in order to use menus, mouse and windows, you will have to find a very good documentation, and a resources constructor would also be useful. You don't have anymore ST, TT or Falcon? It is currently possible to use this BASIC on Atari emulation (.fr): Aranym means 'Atari runs on any machine', and so does Hatari . 2.7 Arrays and matrices. 5.1 Disks and files. 6.1 Mouse and joystick. 6.2 Alert boxes and selector. 7.5 BIOS, XBIOS and dissertations, GEMDOS.

7.7 Bugs and weaknesses. Omikron 3.01 has two editors. The first editor looks like the traditional editors such as they existed on afrocentrism, the first platforms (Commodore 64), where each line of code is prefixed by a number. Type 10 print Hulloder! (and [Return]) and your first code line is recorded. Type LIST and dissertations, 10 PRINT Hulloder! appears.

LIST lists the whole program in the order of the numbers of line. LIST -n lists the vs eurocentrism essay, program up to line n. LIST m- lists the program starting from line m. LIST m-n lists the lines of programme from m to n. RENUM renumbers the lines of the assignment of responsibility, program, 10 by afrocentrism essay, 10. RENUM m . by specifying the number of the first line. RENUM l, m, n the line m becomes l , the following ones n by n. CLS erases the screen and places the cursor in the top left corner.

CLEAR puts the mental essay, variables at afrocentrism vs eurocentrism essay, the 0, close all files, checks the loops and disconnects the conditional subroutines. NEW ! CAUTION: erase a *.BAS-file in memory. QUIT or SYSTEM leaves the interpreter. College Essays! You will be asked to confirm. RUN puts the variables at 0, checks and afrocentrism essay, runs the program. RUN 100 , RUN Aum . starting from line 100 or at the label -Aum. GOTO n runs a program from then line n without putting the variables at art school essays, 0. Keys specific to the standard editor ( †’ .fr) [Enter] or [Return] validates a line of program. [ClrHome] place the text-cursor in the left top of the screen.

[Ctrl]-[ClrH] erases the screen (LIST to list out the program) [Ctrl]-[Del] erases the line after the cursor. [Ctrl]-[Arrow-Up] erase the cursor line, and pull up the following ones. [Ctrl]-[Arrow-Dn] inserts a line and push down the following ones. [Ctrl]-[Arrow-Lf] sets the afrocentrism vs eurocentrism essay, left-higher corner of a window (=CHR$(4)) [Ctrl]-[Arrow-Rg] sets the right-lower corner of the window (=CHR$(5)) [ClrH] [ClrH] cancels the frame set by the the two previous key-combinations. [Ctrl]-[S] suspends a running program. [Ctrl]-[Q] start again a suspended program. [Sft]-[Sft] allows a command during a running program (63 characters buffer) [Ctrl]-[Alt] erases the content of the keyboard-buffer.

KEY n defines the 20 function-keys (KEY 13= [Sft]-[F3]) KEY 10=CHR$(27)+E '= CLS (here 2 characters, maximum 32) KEY 10=quit+CHR$(13)+y to english online help quit Omikron from standard editor. KEY LIST lists the 20 function-key of the standard editor. Vs Eurocentrism! Do use the super-editor menu in english help, order to vs eurocentrism save the function-key definitions: /mode/save settings . To use a function-key in a program, watch its scancode: $3B to $44 for [F1] to aqa english lang/lit coursework [F10]; $70 to afrocentrism essay $79 for [Sft]-[F1] to [Sft]-[F10] The graphical editor has a menu-system and manages the mouse.

It also makes it possible hide off the line numbers. It can understands all commands used by the standard editor, but only in a program. [F1] [Arrow-Up] goes to the top of the aqa english coursework, screen. [F1] [Arrow-Dn] goes to the bottom of the screen . [Sft]-[F1] divides the afrocentrism, screen. [Sft]-[F2] passage from dissertations communication studies, a window to the other. [Sft]-[F3] changes the police height. [F3] [F2] replaces a string. [F3] [F3] replaces all the strings. [F6][n] repeats n time the last character.

[Sft]-[F6] [Sft]-[F9] pastes two lines. [F7] [F8] saves the block in ASCII. [F7] [Sft]-[F8] loads a block in ASCII. [F10] displays the following page. [Sft]-[F10] displays the previous page. [Sft]-[F7] allows to afrocentrism vs eurocentrism essay define the keys [F4], [Sft]-[F4], [F5], [Sft]-[F5] and the right mousebutton: By default, the right mousebutton inserts a selected block, very useful. [Ctrl]-[Return] cuts a code line. [Ctrl]-[ClrHome] displays/hides the line-numbers.

[Ctrl]-[Arrow-Up]/[Arrow-Dn] sends the cursor on previous/following page. [Ctrl]-[Sft]-[Arrow-Up]/[Arrow-Dn] sends the cursor on the first/last line. [Ctrl]-[Arrow-Lf]/[Arrow-Rg] sends the cursor on mental essay writing, the preceding/following word. [Ctrl]-[Sft]-[Arrow-Lf]/[Arrow-Rg] sends the cursor at the beginning/end of the line. STOP or [Ctrl]-[C] is written in a program to have a pause. DUMP it's then possible to vs eurocentrism display the variables and dissertations studies, their value. DUMP V, W. . only beginning by V, W, . CONT in the standard editor, will take again the afrocentrism vs eurocentrism, program stopped by STOP or [Ctrl]-[C] CONT TO n takes again the program to stop with line n. CONT m TO n takes again the program in i what am i essay, m until n.

REM makes it possible to afrocentrism vs eurocentrism write a remark. Writing! Replaceable by one ' single quotation mark. END finishes the program and closes all the files. Any string of letters (with no accent) including or not figures or underline _ but not starting with a figure, can be a variable, with the proviso of not being an instruction, procedure nor function. Omikron processes various types of numbers. To avoid problems, it is necessary to be attentive to use the afrocentrism essay, adequate variables. Art School College! For example calculation: V=.1: PRINT 1/V produces the error Division by zero because the BASIC interprets the variable V like an essay, integer and essay writing, rounds it to 0. Essay! To prevent this error, use a real variable: V% (or V%W) is a short integer, 16 bits/2 bytes, and contains values from -32 768 to 32 767. V (or V%L) is a long integer, 32 bits/4 bytes, and contains values from -2 147 483 648 to 2 147 483 647.

V! is a single precision real, taking 6 bytes in dissertations communication, memory. V# is afrocentrism vs eurocentrism, a double precision real, taking 10 bytes in aqa english coursework, memory. Single and double-precision reals have an exponent of vs eurocentrism, -4 931 to 4 941, and only differ by the precision of their mantissa: 9 significant figures for the first, 19 for the second. V%F is a Boolean variable, that is to say a bit of value of 0 or -1. V%B is dissertations studies, a variable representing a byte, that is to say 8 bits, having for possible value from 0 to vs eurocentrism essay 255.

These two lattest formats can only essays, be used in arrays. It's possible to break up a long integer into two short ones: ?HIGH($12345678) returns 4660 ($1234 converted into decimal), word of strong weight ?LOW($12345678) returns 22136 ($5678), word of essay, weak weight. Omikron uses to mental block essay convert the vs eurocentrism, type of the results. For example ?LN (3) will give a real. But it happens that it is block essay, necessary to specify the result type (attention to round-offs and capacity overflows): V#=CDBL() converts into vs eurocentrism, single Real.

V!=CSNG() converts into double Real. V%=CINT() converts into short Integer. V=CINTL() converts into long integer. It is assignment, not mandatory to declare the variables at afrocentrism, the beginning of communication, a program, as it is common for other languages, but it is possible to declare a priori the vs eurocentrism essay, type of the variables used. DEFINT Q all variables starting with Q will be short integers, without % nor %W. DEFINTL R all variables starting with R will be long integers, without %L (default) DEFSNG C, L C. and L. Studies! will be 'single' reals, without ! DEFDBL D-H D. E. F. G. and H. Essay! will be 'double' reals, without # The DEF. Who Am I What Am I Essay! must be written before any programming!

If not, it is necessary to add them at afrocentrism essay, the beginning of program, to save in ASCII with SAVE NOM.BAS, A (no LIST !), then to reload the file with LOAD . nothing (or d ) decimal (mode by default) It is possible to communication studies convert the afrocentrism, base of an unspecified number, with the proviso of aqa english lang/lit coursework, respecting the limits imposed on the long integers: BIN$() converts into %binaire: PRINT BIN$(25) is 11001. OCT$() converts into vs eurocentrism, octal: PRINT OCT$(35) is 43. HEX$() converts into aqa english coursework, $hexadecimal: PRINT HEX$(72) is 48. VAL() converts into decimal PRINT VAL($7fff) is 32767. It is vs eurocentrism essay, possible to english writing help convert binary, octal or hexadecimal numbers to vs eurocentrism essay decimal ones by the function VAL even if they are not integer. English Writing! The reverse is not possible. LET allocate a number or a string to a variable: LET Var=43. LET Var$ A$=A$+43 is also possible: adds the strin 43 to the first.

LET is not necessary, but kept for compatibility with other basics. Afrocentrism Vs Eurocentrism Essay! It's necessary to assignment pay attention to afrocentrism variable type: Var=3.14159 will only allocate 3 , because it's entire. entire division: the result is integer: 43/5= 8. MOD modulo: the assignment of responsibility, rest of vs eurocentrism, a division 435= 3. ABS absolue value or a real: ?ABS(-43)= 43. FRAC returns la partie d©cimale d'un r©el: ?FRAC(4.3)=.3. FIX returs la partie enti¨re d'un r©el: ?FIX(4.3)= 4. INT rounds to the roof integer: ?INT(-4.3)= -5.

= is also used as equality comparator. strictly lesser than, = ou= lesser or equal. strictly greater than, = ou= greater or equal. ?MIN(A, B) returns the lesser of the two values (or the first by alphabetical order) ?MIN(A, B) returns the greater of the two values (or the second by alphabetical order) DEG if you want to english online help work with degrees. RAD sets back in radian mode (by default) PI returns PI (double precision: 3.1415926535897932. ) Omikron knows the main trigonometrical functions: SIN - COS - TAN - COT - SEC - COSEC - - ARCSIN - ARCCOS - ARCTAN (ou ATN) - ARCCOT. SINH - COSH - TANH - COTH - SECH - COSECH - - ARSINH - ARTANH - ARCOTH. LOG(A, B) logarithm base A for the number B LOG(2, 8)= 3. EXP(n) exponentia1 (base e) of the afrocentrism essay, number n.

LN(n) natural logarithm (base e= 2.7182818287983537. ) n must be greater than 0. FACT(n) factorial of n (integer). English Writing! FACT(5) gives 120 (5*4*3*2*1) RND(1) returns a random value between 0 and afrocentrism vs eurocentrism essay, .99999999. RND(n) returns an integer value between 0 and mental essay writing, n-1.

-RND(-n) returns an integer value between 1 and vs eurocentrism essay, n. RND(0) returns the last given random number. RND(6)+1 ou -RND(-6) is the same as a six-faced dice play. -RND(-6)-RND(-6) two six-faced dices play, which is bnot the same as -RND(-12) nor 1-RND(-11) , since the 11 results don't have the same chance to come. XBIOS(R, 17) the lang/lit, R variable returns a 24 bits semi-random number.

The string character are surrounded by quotation marks. The variables which represent them and afrocentrism, the instructions which return strings must have the suf fix $ (but not LEN() nor INSTR() which return a number). As for the numerical variables, it is possible to define string-variable at the beginning of who am am i, program: DEFSTR A . A$= Holy: B$= Graal: ? A$ +B$ gives HolyGraal (without space) Ni!*3 gives Ni!Ni!Ni! (the multiplier must be written after the string) B$= SPACE$(n) or SPC(n) builds a string of n spaces. STRING$(3, 6) gives 666 multiplies 3 times one (only) character. STRING$(n, asc) character is defined here by its ASCII code. LEN(Camelot) gives 7 , the afrocentrism vs eurocentrism essay, number of dissertations communication studies, characters of a string. Caution: a positive numerical string can have one character more, the afrocentrism vs eurocentrism essay, sign plus, even undisplayed: PRINT LEN(STR$(123)) returns 4.

LEFT$(Aaaargh, 3) give Aaa , the three characters of left. RIGHT$(Aaaargh, 4) give argh , the four characters of right-hand side. INSTR(n, A$, B$) return the position of the 1st character of the B$ string if it is art school, found in the A$ string, while seeking starting from position n (0 if it is not there) MID$(Camelot, 3) returns melot , all the characters starting from the afrocentrism essay, 3rd letter. MID$(Camelot, 3, 4) returns melo , 4 characters starting from the 3rd letter. Aqa English Lang/lit Coursework! This function can determine them in the following way: MIRROR$(Spam) returns mapS , inverts the afrocentrism vs eurocentrism, order of the aqa english, characters. LOWER$(SPAM) returns spam , transforms capital letters in small letters. UPPER$(spam) returns SPAM , transforms small ones in capital letters. CVI() converts a two-character string into afrocentrism, a short integer.

CVIL() converts a four-character string into a long integer. CVS() converts a six-character string into a single precision real. CVD() converts a ten-character string into assignment, a double precision real. ASC() gives the ASCII code of the afrocentrism vs eurocentrism, 1st character of the string. VAL() converts a number-string into its numerical value, when it is possible: MKI$(V%W) converts an dissertations, short integer into vs eurocentrism essay, two character string. MKIL$(V%L) converts a long integer into who am i what, four character string. MKSS(V!) converts a single precision real into six character string.

MKD$(V#) converts a double precision real into ten character string. STR$(V) converts a numerical expression into a string. CHR$(n) returns one of the 256 ASCII characters, n from essay, 0 to assignment of responsibility 255: DIM T#(11) dimensions an array of 12 double-precision real (t#(0) is the first element). Without DIM dimensions is by default 10*10. DIM Goban%B(18, 18) contains the 19*19 intersections of a Go-ban. Aum%(3, 4)=29 indicates that the element 4th line/5th column array is afrocentrism vs eurocentrism essay, 29. MAT CLEAR Chess%B(7, 7) erases the mentioned array. MAT CLEAR T(n) erases an array of numbers to a dimension until T(n) SWAP V$, W$ exchanges the standard contents of 2 variables in the same way. SORT T$(0) sorts all the types of arrays to a dimension.

SORT ASC A$(0) sorts an i what essay, array of strings according to the ASCII code. SORT T(0) TO V(0) sorts the afrocentrism essay, array V(0) according to who am i what am i essay the order of the afrocentrism, array T(0) Matrices are two-dimension real-arrays: MAT A#(l, c)*n multiplies each element of the matrix by communication studies, N. MAT A!(m, n)=B!(m, p)*C!(p, n) multiplies two matrices. The number of vs eurocentrism, columns of the 1st matrix must be the assignment, same as the number of lines of the afrocentrism, 2nd one. For square matrices only: MAT A#(n, n)=INV B#(n, n) inverts a square matrix (columns become lines, lines become columns) MAT A#(n, n)=1 makes it possible to generate a unit-matrix. X!=DET(A!(n, n)) returns the matrix determinant. The logical operations concern the bits: numbers are written in binary.

NOT reverses the art school college, contents of the bits: (a number is negative if the more significant bit is 1) AND selects the common '1' bits of two numbers: OR accepts that a bit is positioned for one or the other number: XOR excludes the vs eurocentrism, common bits from two numbers: NAND excludes the dissertations communication studies, simultaneous veracity from the bits of two binary:

NOR the afrocentrism essay, non-veracity of the communication, bits checks two binary: EQV admits the veracity or the non-veracity of the bits of 2 binary: IMP is the logical implication: A implies B means that A cannot be true when B is not. A IMP B is equivalent to essay NOT(A AND NOT(B)) : BIT(n, A) returns value 0/-1 of bit n of A: ?BIT(3, %11001)= -1 (bit 0 is the first from right) SHR(n) (Right Shift): shifts the bits of who am essay, a number n times towards the afrocentrism essay, right, which is equivalent to n divisions by 2. SHL(n) (Shift Left): shifts the bits of communication studies, a number n times towards the left, which is equivalent to n multiplication by afrocentrism vs eurocentrism essay, 2. The instruction IF tests a condition and orders what follows THEN if the dissertations communication, condition is vs eurocentrism essay, true.

ELSE (optional) permits what follows it in the event of condition not met. ENDIF is art school college essays, mandatory if a sequence IF/THEN/ELSE is written on several lines or if THEN is followed by a : . Essay! Two or more conditions can be imbricated. The loops are portions of code which allow a repetitive work. FOR V= n TO m (STEP p): commands : NEXT V ( †’ .fr) V varies from mental block writing, n to afrocentrism essay m with each reiteration. STEP (optional) specifies a step different from +1 (integer, negative or real numbers). REPEAT commands UNTIL condition ( †’ .fr) The program repeats the college, instructions which follow REPEAT until the condition written after UNTIL is met.

WHILE condition: commands WEND ( †’ .fr) WHILE tests a condition before penetrating in the loop defined until WEND . For an infinite loop: WHILE -1 ('always true') Leaves, closes and jumps at afrocentrism, the end of a loop although the 'while' or 'until' condition is not true. EXIT TO -Lbl leaves, closes and assignment, jumps at the label Lbl (compound of EXIT and GOTO . The procedures are subroutines, callable directly by their name. One can define local variables by afrocentrism vs eurocentrism, LOCAL V$=, W$= which will not interfere with the aggregate variables of the same name, which makes it possible to call programs with CHAIN MERGE without being concerned with possible homonymies of the variables.

A procedure can call another of them. Assignment! In order to avoid the error Direct Illegal, the afrocentrism, procedures are defined after END . A procedure can return parameters: The functions are defined according to the principle of the procedures, but returns one (and only one) value, specified after RETURN . They are called by FN Nom$ . The functions in one line are defined by an equality and do not need RETURN . Another example, returning a string: A very traditional example, where the function uses recursivity: The function calls upon itself as long as the decrementation of X does not reach 0. DATA expresses data (expressions, variables, arrays) READ V$, W$ reads one or more data in lang/lit, the line of DATA. RESTORE replaces the pointer on afrocentrism, the 1st line of DATA. RESTORE 1000 or RESTORE Etiqu after the line 1000 or -Etiqu. ON n RESTORE Et1, Et2. sends the pointer on DATA according to mental block writing the label chosen according to n.

GOTO 300 have the program jumped to line 300. GOTO Aum goes directly to the label -Aum . A label is vs eurocentrism essay, preceded by an hyphen. GOTO 500+n operations are possible. GOTO (V) or (V$) a variable can contain a number or a label. ON n GOTO n1, n2. for n from 1 to X, the program will jump to the line n1, n2. or nx. RENUM respects the connections, the desactivation of the number of lines in the super-editor not: use labels. For a better legibility of the aqa english coursework, program, do use loops and EXIT TO to leave there, which gives the meter of the loop to 0. GOSUB Aum sends to a subroutine, with the label -Aum. ON n GOSUB n1, n2, chooses the subroutine according to n. RETURN returns to the instruction according to the appealing GOSUB.

The subroutines (or routines) are written at the end of the program after END so that the program does not meet RETURN without to be sent to the subroutine by GOSUB . In a general way, one will prefer procedures and functions. These four comands are to be written out in the beginning of the vs eurocentrism essay, program. ON TIMER n GOSUB Etiq reacts every n seconds. ON MOUSEBUT GOSUB Etiq reacts if a mouse button is clicked. ON HELP GOSUB Etiq reacts if the [Help]-key is clicked. ON KEY GOSUB Etiq reacts is essays, any key is typed. This last command keeps the key in the buffer: you must clear it with V$=INKEY$ or V$=INPUT$(1) in essay, the subroutine in order to who am i what essay avoid a recursive call. To set off a conditional subroutine: ON GOSUB 0. The BIOS has low-level functions to send a byte to a device (or to receive from).

You normally should/would never use it, but who knows? For P: 0=parallel-port printer, 1=Serial port RS232, 2=console (screen), 3=MIDI, 4=keyboard-processor: BIOS(R, 1, P) returns -1 if the device (1-2-3) has got a byte to essay send. BIOS(R, 2, P) reads a byte from the device (0-1-2-3) BIOS(R, 8, P) returns -1 if the device (0-1-3-4) can receive a byte.

BIOS(, 3, P, n) sends a byte to the device (0-1-2-3-4) Omikron 3.01 has three screens: SCREEN 1 and online, SCREEN 2 ; SCREEN 0 returns to the screen by afrocentrism, default. PRINT CHR$(1) helps to type [Ctrl]-[A] [Ctrl]-[Lettre] or ?CHR$(1)+CHR$(1 to 31) PRINT CHR$(2) inserts a character into the place of the mental block essay writing, cursor. PRINT CHR$(3) erases one of them (= [Ctrl]-[C] if IPL 3 + (1 SHL 31) ) ? CHR$(27);w cancels the afrocentrism, automatic follow-up. ? CHR$(27);v automatic follow-up at the end of the line. PRINT CHR$(4) the of responsibility, position of the cursor defines the top-left corner. PRINT CHR$(5) the position of the cursor defines the bottom-right corner. [ClrH] [ClrH] back to the normal.

PRINT CHR$(7) gives a 'shping!' PRINT CHR$(8) moves the cursor on the left while erasing (= [BackSp]) PRINT CHR$(9) the position of the vs eurocentrism essay, cursor to the following tabulation (every 8 columns) PRINT CHR$(10) moves the english writing, cursor a line lower (= CHR$(11) and afrocentrism vs eurocentrism essay, CHR$(12)) PRINT CHR$(13) moves the cursor at the beginning of line, but [Ctrl]-[M]=[Enter]

GEMDOS(R, 16) R=$FFFF if the screen is lang/lit coursework, ready to display, otherwise R=0. XBIOS(R, 2) returns the screen physical address. XBIOS(R, 3) returns the screen logical address. XBIOS(R, 4) R= 0 for low; 1 for afrocentrism medium; 2 for high resolution. XBIOS(, 5, L Log, L Ph, Res) sets theses 3 parameters (-1 for uninchanged). Aqa English Coursework! For the TOS 1.60, the screen address is to be a multiple of 256: Addr= MEMORY(32256): Addr=Addr AND $FFFF00. XBIOS(R, 7, c, n) sets the colour c, n from $000 to $777; reads if si n=-1. CLS CLear the Screen and place the text-cursor top-left. PRINT @(line, column); place the text-cursor at afrocentrism vs eurocentrism essay, a precise place.

?CSRLIN gives the number of line of the cursor (from 1 to 25!) ?POS(0) the online, number of column of the afrocentrism vs eurocentrism, cursor gives, (0) obligatory. LOCATE line, column place the cursor at a precise place (line from 1 to of responsibility 25) PRINT CHR$(27)+f hides the text cursor. PRINT CHR$(27)+e shows the text cursor. PRINT the square of A is:; A^2 displays a text and a result. PRINT COS(PI/4) displays the result of the vs eurocentrism essay, function cosine. PRINT COS(PI/4) displays COS(PI/4) (without the english online help, quotation marks) WRITE Text displays TEXT (preserves the vs eurocentrism essay, quotation marks) PRINT 3*5;H*2 displays 15HH without separation (semicolon)

PRINT COS(0), * displays 1, * separated by a tabulation (since comma) PRINT A$;:PRINT B$ ; force the art school essays, displaying of B$ following A$ PRINT CHR$(34);3;chr$(34) displays 3 , CHR$(34) coding the essay, quotation mark. PRINT SPC(n); displays n spaces before (see Strings) PRINT TAB(c);V$ displays with the column defined by.

PRINT @(l, c);V$ displays with the assignment, line and afrocentrism vs eurocentrism, the column indicated. PRINT @(l, c);V$; to finish by assignment of responsibility, a semicolon makes it possible to avoid the alinea. PRINT CHR$(n) displays characters from afrocentrism, 32 to assignment 255. PRINT CHR$(1)+CHR$(n) displays characters from 1 to 31. The address $484 keeps a byte which bits represents: 3°: [Ctrl] and [Alt] - 2°: Ping - 1°: repetition - 0°: Tik POKE $484, %1010 unsets key-tik and error-ping (bit 0 is the right one) XBIOS(R, 16, L Addr1, L Addr2, L Addr3) sets the afrocentrism essay, 3 character-tables for the keyboard, three 128-bytes strings following the Scancode.

Addr1 pour unshifted keys, Addr2 for the shifted ones, Addr3 with CapsLock, -1 for assignment no change. XBIOS(, 24) undoes all XBIOS 16 modifications (standard keyboard) XBIOS(, 25, n-1, L Addr) sends a command to vs eurocentrism essay the keyboard-processor. USING format decimal displaying for instruction PRINT. USING #### next PRINTs will display a 4 character integer.

Prints % if the art school, integer is larger. USING ####.## displays two digits after the decimal point. USING , ####.### the afrocentrism vs eurocentrism essay, comma separates the thousands. USING .#####, #### commas and points are inverted. USING ####, ###+ '+' or '-' will be displayed after the writing, number. USING ####, ###- only afrocentrism vs eurocentrism essay, '-' will be displayed after the number. USING # # #. # # separates the characters as indicated.

USING *$#######, ## what follows * will fill blank characters. USING ##_+.## forces displaying of dissertations communication studies, what follows the _. USING ###^^^^ leaves 4 places for the scientific notation. PRINT USING # # #, ###, V! formats only display of this PRINT. USING ##, ## formats any displaying with PRINT , STR$ and afrocentrism vs eurocentrism, PRINT # USING without argument cancels any USING #### When the program arrives at a intruction INPUT type, it prints the text written between quotation marks (or a question mark by essay, default of text) and vs eurocentrism essay, waits for a data: INPUT A prints a question tag and waits for a number (and [Enter]) INPUT A:; A prints A: , the seizure of i what am i, a long integer waits. INPUT Nom$ $ to enter a character string. INPUT @(l, c);Texte: ;V$ displays the afrocentrism essay, text at the place indicated.

INPUT A, B, C 3 integers to enter, separated by commas. LINE A$ INPUT makes it possible to enter one (only) string with commas. A$= INPUT$(n) awaits n characters and english online, [Return] before continuing. INKEY$ returns a string of 4 characters: the 3rd is afrocentrism, empty. the 2nd contains Scancode (code of the key) bit 1 is on: [Shift-Left] is pressed. bit 2 is on: [Ctrl] is pressed. bit 3 is on: [Alt] is pressed. bit 4 is on: [CapsLock] is pressed. This instruction does not wait, it must be put in loop: XBIOS(R, 35, D, V) sets the time before repetition et repetition speed of a maintained key (expressed in 1/50 sec).

If D and V=-1 , R returns 1 byte for dissertations studies D and one for V. Command allows or prohibits some characters: A allows all letters, accentuated or not. ^ allows them [Ctrl]-[Key] U (Upper) displays in capital letter, L (Lower) into small one. + the vs eurocentrism essay, character authorizes which follows (space, for example) - prohibited the character which follows. C% replace the first sign by the second ( by communication, %) the left arrows has the [Return] effect. the right arrows has the [Return] effect. ax_ the specified character _ has the [Return] effect. +x+CHR$(A) or by its ASCII code.

+s+CHR$(S) or by afrocentrism vs eurocentrism essay, the key which Scanscode is defined. R returns CVIL(INKEY$) of the key which allowed the seizure, or. -1 for (going beyond by the line) -2 for (left by the left) N is the length of the string to enter (255 max and per default) asc is the ASCII code of the filling character (_ by default) P is the Position of the essay, cursor on the string at the exit. allows figures and vs eurocentrism essay, comma, changes the point into essay, comma, and allows [Esc]-key (scancode 1).

Fields length is up to 10 characters (_, by afrocentrism vs eurocentrism, default). LPRINT prints a string on the parallel printer ([Alt]-[L]) LLIST list the BASIC program on the parallel printer. LDUMP prints all variables ont the printer. MODE LPRINT F sets accent-mode for a daisy-printer.

LPOS(0) character-mode: gives the position of the art school college essays, printer-head. HCOPY prints the screen. HCOPY TEXT prints the screen, without any graphism. LPRINT sends a string to afrocentrism vs eurocentrism essay parallel port, generally to the printer. GEMDOS(R, 17) R=0 if the printer is not readyr. GEMDOS(, 5, n) sends a byte to the parallel port. XBIOS(, 33, F) F sets the printer category (twenty years ago!):

GEMDOS(R, 18) R=0 if the serial ports doesn't have a byte to deliver. GEMDOS(R, 3) reads a byte form the art school, serial port RS232. GEMDOS(R, 19) R=0 if the RS232 is not ready. GEMDOS(R, 4) sends a character to the serial port RS232. XBIOS(, 15, Baud, Mod, Ucr, Rsr, Tsr, Scr) sets the vs eurocentrism essay, parameters of the serial port RS232: Baud: 0 to 15 transfert-rates 19200-9600-4800-3600-2400-2000-1800-1200-600-300-200-150-134-110-75-50. Mod: 0: no handshake; 1: XON/XOFF; 2: RTS/CTS; 3=1+2. Ucr: bit 1= 0/1 odd/even; bit 2= 0/1 non parity/parity. bits 3-4: 0=synchr; 1=1 stopbit; 2=1.5; 3=2 stopbits. bits 5-6: 0=8 bits; 1=7 bits; 2=6 bits; 3=5 bits.

bit 1: if synchr: 1/0 divides the writing, frequency, or not. Rsr: bit 0=1 active reception; bit 1=1 to receive. Tsr: bit 0=1 active emission; bit 1=1 to afrocentrism emit. Scr contains the synchronisation byte. -1 let a parameter unchanged. XBIOS R, 12, n, L Addr sends n (short integer) bytes at online, Addr to the MIDI-processor. 4.5 Sound Yamaha 2149 and MIDI ( †’ .fr) PRINT CHR$(7) gives a 'beep' corresponding to TUNE 1, 52. TUNE 1, n, 2, m, 3, p defines a height of vs eurocentrism, sound for at least a way (3 maximum), which goes from acutest (1) to most serious (4095). 440= 125000/440=282.

TUNE 1, 0, 2, 0, 3, 0 extinct all. VOLUME W, n sets a continuous sound, volume 0 to 15 for each Way. VOLUME v, e, d defines the type of am i, e nvelope and essay, its d uration (only one type of envelope for the 3 ways). The 2 syntaxes of essays, VOLUME are excluded for afrocentrism essay the same way. 15 and 4, 5, 6, 7. are opposite: rises then collapse. is a repeated piano (9+9+9+. ) is a repeated opposite (15+15+15+. ) is a mountain: rises then descent.

is a piano plus a mountain (0+14) is a rise without descent. is a piano then a maintained sound. NOISE m, f the ways concerned with the studies, noise (V1=1, V2=2, V3=4) are added to define the mask (from 1 to 7), f chooses a frequency filter. * replaces name or an afrocentrism essay, extension, ? a letter: A*.* relates to all the files starting with an A. FILES A:*.* display the contents of the disc of the specified way. FILES A:DIRECTO*.BAS displays every *.BAS file of the directory DIRECTO of i what am i, A: Copy A:file TO C:director copy a file of A: on C: NAME name.ext AS other.ext rename a file.

BACKUP NAME backup copy *.BAK of the preceding version. KILL A:directorfilename removes the afrocentrism vs eurocentrism essay, file (according to the specified way) KILL A:director*.* removes all the art school, files of the aforesaid directory. MKDIR A:director creates a directory on the specified reader. RMDIR C:director erases a directory, but only if it is vs eurocentrism essay, empty. CHDIR director enters the file doss. CHDIR C:director or CHDIR a: defines the active access path. CHDIR .. leaves a under-directory and goes up towards the parent one. BIOS(R, 9, Lect) floppy change?

0: no; 1: maybe; 2: yes. BIOS(R, 1O) connected disks: bit 0=A:, 1=B:, 2=C:, as LPEEK($4C2) GEMDOS(R, 14, Lect) sets the default disk (0=A:, 1=B:, 2=C. ) GEMDOS(R, 25) returns the default disk (GEMDOS 14 format) GEMDOS(R, 59, L Path) sets the dissertations communication, default path, from a string null-terminated at address Path . SAVE *.* saves in essay, FIT (Fast Interpreting Technic) SAVE * *, A saves in ASCII (character by character) LOAD *.* charges a file saved in FIT or ASCII. LOAD A:SOME*.* specifies the way of the required file. RUN *.* charges and carries out the specified program. MERGE Name adds an ASCII program without crushing the art school college, precedent except if the numbers of lines are the vs eurocentrism essay, same ones.

CHAIN Nom, n chains a program, and erases the precedent. CHAIN MERGE Nom, n chains a program, without crushing the lang/lit coursework, precedent, n to essay specify the dissertations studies, beginning of it. COMMON V$, W$. to vs eurocentrism essay preserve the variables of a chained program. The instruction must be on the first line of each program concerned. LIBRARY GEM, A:GEMGEM.LIB charges library GEM. BSAVE Name saves the complete screen (bit by assignment, bit) on floppy. BSAVE Name, Addr, n save the number of bytes starting from the Address. BLOAD Name loads a file on the screen (eg: image in BITMAP)

BLOAD Name, Addr loads a file in memory with the Addr indicated. OPEN O, channel, Name creates and opens a file with the essay, writing (crushes it if there already exists!) and allots to him a channel from 1 to 16. PRINT #channel, A$, B$ writes data on the specified channel. WRITE #channel, A$, Aum allows the writing with quotation marks and lang/lit, commas. CLOSE channel writes the data on the diskette and afrocentrism essay, closes the channel. OPEN A, 5, Nom.Ext open an existing file to add data to it. OPEN I, 16, Name opens a file only with the purpose of reading. INPUT #16, V$, W$ reads one or more data (separated by i what am i, commas) LINE INPUT #16, V$ load a text containing commas.

A$=INPUT$(n, channel) reads n characters on the specified channel. ?EOF(channel) returns -1 when the vs eurocentrism essay, specified file was completely read. ?LOF(channel) returns the number of bytes of the file open on the specified channel, including the byte of end of aqa english lang/lit coursework, file. OPEN K, channel sends commands to the processor-keyboard (keyboard) OPEN P, channel printer (printer) OPEN V, channel Modem. OPEN M, channel MIDI port. OPEN C, channel screen (console). CMD canal redirects output-instructions to essay an open sequential file. Can be useful during a program development: OPEN R, channel, FILENAME, l open a random file of art school essays, total field of vs eurocentrism essay, size L.

FIELD channel, long1 AS V$, long2 AS W$ determine the am i, field (the length) of each Variable-buffer. A field can be not allotted. PUT channel, n write in recording n channel the essay, data of writing online help, FIELD. GET channel, n reads recording n and sends it on the FIELD. GET channel, 0 . gives the n° file following that which was read.

SEEK channel, n, mode move the afrocentrism vs eurocentrism essay, pointer of n recordings (mode=0: starting from the dissertations communication studies, beginning of the afrocentrism, file; 1: displacement starting from the current recording; 2: starting from the art school, end) LSET V$=Ugh formate the string for the variable-plug by the left (excess on the right is cut off, the vs eurocentrism essay, default is filled) RSET W$= B$ formates B$ for W$ in the same way. ?LOF(channel) gives the writing, number of recordings of the relative file. ?LOC(channel) returns the pointer of the afrocentrism, last recording read or written. CLOSED channel writes the changes on the disc. OPEN U, channel, FILENAME (U for User) opens (for reading or wrinting) a random file with no fixed lengths of field ; PUT , GET and SEEK work. OPEN F, channel, C:atari*.*, m gives the contents of the dissertations studies, repertory; m is the mask of selection of the files: 1=lecture alone, 2=hidden file, 4=system, 8=diskname, 16=dossiers, 32=modified, 63=all. Afrocentrism! Here an who am am i, example of use (note that the afrocentrism vs eurocentrism, first 14 bytes of the FIELDS are not used):

GEMDOS(R, 47) R returns the art school, Disk Transfert Address (OPEN F) GEMDOS(, 26, L Buffer) write a DTA data (44 octets): byte 21 : file attribute. bytes 22-23: file creation time. bytes 24-25: file creation date. bytes 26-29: file length. bytes 30-43: file name and extension. All that follows is floppy-oriented, but you could adapt it to harddisks. GEMDOS(R, 54, L Buffer, Lect) R returns 4 long integers on vs eurocentrism essay, the disk at Buffer address: 1°: number of data clusters. 2°: number of communication studies, free clusters.

3°: disk: 0= default, 1=A:, 2=B:, 3=C:, nbr of byte per sector. 4°: number of sectors per cluster. BIOS(R, 7, Lect) la variables R retourne une adresse qui pointe sur 13 mots courts: 1°: byte amount per secteur (512) 2°: sector amount per cluster (2) 3°: byte amount per cluster (1024) 4°: sector amount for directory. 5°: sector number of the afrocentrism vs eurocentrism essay, File Allocation Table. 6°: sector number of the art school college, second FAT. 7°: 1° data cluster number.

8°: data cluster amount. 10°: face amount (1 or 2) 11°: track amount per side (40 or 80) 12°: sector amount per track (9 or 10) 13°: see Inter for next XBIOS 10. BIOS(R, 4, F, L Addr, N, Start, Disk) reads or writes N sectors at Address from Start. F =0 or 2 to read, 1 or 3 to afrocentrism essay write, 2 and 3 ignore disk changes.

XBIOS(R, 8, L Addr, 0, 0, Disk, Sect, Track, Side, N) reads N sectors. Addr=MEMORY(512) for 1 sector. Sect from 1 to 9 or 10 following formating. Track from art school college essays, 0 to 79. Side 0 or 1 for doub1e sided floppies, 0 only for one-sided floppies. XBIOS(R, 9, L Addr, 0, 0, Disk, Sect, Track, Side, N) writes N sectors. XBIOS(R, 19, L Addr, 0, 0, Disk, Sect, Track, Side, N) verifies N sectors. XBIOS(R, 10, L Addr, 0, 0, Disk, Sect, Track, Side, Inter, L 987654321, Oct) formats a track, same as above, excepted: Addr= MEMORY(9216) or MEMORY(10240) for 9 or 10 sectors per side. Inter 1 (123456789 order for sectors) or 2 (135792468 order)

Byte written byte value, often $E5 (avoid $F0 and $F5) R returns 0 or an error number (see then Addr) XBIOS(R, 18, L Addr, L Serie, Type, Exec) writes a boot-sector. Serie is a 24 bits serial number. Type : 0: 1 side of 40 tracks - 1: 2 sides of 40 pistes - 2: 1 side of 8O tracks - 3: 2 sides of 80 tracks. Exec : 0: non-executable boot-sector, 1; executab1e. -1 leaves unchanged parameter for afrocentrism essay each sector. New unit: pixel (picture element), a dot on the screen. Of Responsibility! The ST (TT and Falcon have more screen dimensions), there are 640*400 pixe1s in high resolution, 640*200 in medium and 320*200 in low resolution. (0, 0) is the afrocentrism, upper-left pixel: the first number is the block writing, distance from the left and afrocentrism, the second one the distance form the top (negative height). You always shoud set off the studies, mouse (MOUSEOFF) before any graphical display. CLIP x, y TO u, v ou CLIP x, y, l, h nothing can be displayed outside this rectangle.

CLIP alone to vs eurocentrism cancel a previous one. CLIP 0, 0, 320, 200 sets the exact limits to low resolution, very safe, not to mental block essay writing invade and spoil the RAM (screen is afrocentrism vs eurocentrism, a part of the common RAM: a bit 'set' is am i, black) There are four superposition modes of graphical display: MODE=1 replace (black and afrocentrism vs eurocentrism, white cover a former drawing; by default) MODE=2 transparent (white does not cover, as OR) MODE=3 exclusif (black on black gives white; as XOR) MODE=4 transparent inverse. WVBL waits for assignment of responsibility the new screen wave, for a more stable display.

NDC x, y, l, h towards virtual coordonnates. Every display will be reduced to a rectangle defined by the coordinate. 0, 0 is the left bottom of this rectagle and vs eurocentrism, 32767, 32767 the right top of the rectangle. NDC back to the normal mode. MOUSEON sets the assignment of responsibility, mouse cursor (before displaying a dialog box) MOUSEOFF hides the essay, mouse cursor (before graphic display)

Inside a program, a MOUSEOFF is enough to to cancel three MOUSEON, but 4 MOUSEON are necessary after 3 MOUSEOFF. MOUSEBUT contains the state of the mouse, 0: no button; 1: left button; 2: right button; 3: both buttons. MOUSEX horizontal position of the mouse in pixels. MOUSEY vertical (negative) position of the mouse in dissertations communication, pixels. JOYSTICK(n) returns the state of JOYSTICK (N= 0 or 1): 6.2 Alert boxes and File selector ( †’ .fr) FORM_ALERT(Df, [S][Te|xt] [Button1 | Button2 | Button3] , R) Df is the number of the button by default ([ENTER]).

0 if none S tells the symbol to use - 0: none ; 1: ! ; 2: ? ; 3: STOP The text can be written in 5 lines up to 31 characters (spaces included), the vs eurocentrism essay, separator of line being the character '|'. Art School Essays! The quotation marks are written via CHR$(34). To display hooks: [ to open, ]] to close. To display a vertical bar, write it double: || Three button choices are definable, separate also by one | ; only a line of 31 characters, or 2 or 3 up to 10 characters R (optional) returns the sequence number of the selected choice. FILESELECT (Chemin$, Nom$, R) calls a selection-box.

R returns 0 for [cancel] or 1 for [Confirm] TEXT allows specialized style: height, direction and color, with a more precise co-ordinate than PRINT@(l, c) : TEXT x, y, V$ displays a text at the point x, y (expressed in pixels) TEXT x, y, Texte, L, m, c L defines the afrocentrism essay, length reserved in english writing, the text. m=1 and c=0: the words remain compact. m=0 and c=1, all the characters are spaced. The three functions which follow are valid until a new specification (to restore before finishing a program) TEXT STYLE=n sets a style for a TEXT (to cancel: TEXT STYLE=0 ) 1: bold - 2: grayed - 4: italic - 8: underlined - 16: outlined.

The styles are combined by addition of the parameters: 13 gives an underlined, ialic and bold text (8+4+1) TEXT HEIGHT=n sets the height in pixel of the displayed TEXT. 1 to 3: completely unreadable text. 4: just readable and essay, well proportioned. 6: same width as the studies, standard, middle height. 9: pretty intermediary. 12: same height as the standard, double width. 13: standard body (back to vs eurocentrism the normal) 26: double width, double height: maximal size. The intermediate heights are possible, but not all pretty.

On medium and low resolutions, the standard body is 6. TEXT ROTATION= 900 from bottom to top. TEXT ROTATION= 1800 upside down. TEXT ROTATION= 2700 from top to essays bottom. TEXT ROTATION= 0 back to the normal (by default) DRAW x, y displays a pixel at the definite point ((0, 0) is upper-left) DRAW x, y TO u, v [TO. ] draws a line from x, y to u, v [to. ] DRAW TO x, y connects the last point drawn to the point x, y, especially used in loop. LINE WIDTH=n (odd, up to 39) sets the line width. LINE STYLE=n sets the line style:

0 white (MODE=1) or invisible (MODE=3) 7 user-defined with LINE PATTERN. LINE PATTERN=n where n is an short integer (16 bits), expressed into vs eurocentrism essay, binary %0110110100101111 (one digit is one pixel), or into hexadecimal: $6D2F, where each character represents 4 pixels: 0=0000, 1=0001, 2=0010, 3=0011, 4=0100, 5=0101, 6=0110, 7=0111, 8=1000, 9=1001, A=1010, B=1011, C=1100, D=1101, E=1110, F=1111. BOX x, y TO U, V defines a rectangle according to two opposite corners. BOX x, y, w, h defines a rectangle a according to the left higher top and dissertations communication studies, dimensions. RBOX x, y TO u, v defines a rectangle with rounded corners. CIRCLE x, y, r defines a circle of vs eurocentrism essay, centre (x, y) and r.

CIRCLE x, y, r, D, A defines an arc of circle whose D is the starting angle and A is the lang/lit, angle of arrival (in 1/10 of degrees) ELLIPSE x, y, r1, r2 defines an ellipse: r1= horizontal radius, r2= vertical radius. ELLIPSE x, y, r1, r2, D, A defines an arc of ellipse (see CIRCLE) POLYGON T(0, 2*n+2) defines a polygon up to 63 sides. A dodecagon needs an array with 1*26 elements: 2*sides +2 (for the vs eurocentrism, repeated coordonate) PBOX, PRBOX, PCIRCLE, PELLIPSE, PPOLYGON accept a filling. OUTLINE OFF omits the of responsibility, border of the filled figures. OUTLINE ON cancels the former instruction.

2, 1 to afrocentrism 2, 24 24 built-in drawings, see below. 3, 1 to 3, 12 24 built-in lines, see below. 4, 1 ATARI logo, or to define with FILL PATTERN. Note: FILL STYLE 3, 12 should be 3, 10 + 3, 11, but is communication, NOT in the 1.XX TOSes. FILL X, Y, -1 fills a surface containing the point (x, y). Surface must be delimited. FILL PATTERN= Array%(0) works like LINE PATTERN, but with 16 Short integers in one Array% of 16 elements. To determine the numbers to afrocentrism vs eurocentrism essay enter in the array, draw a checkerwork of assignment of responsibility, 16*16. Each line will be a binary number, ('1' for black, '0' for white) converted into hexadecimal (see LINE PATTERN in afrocentrism, 6.4) is an art school, element of the array. Do use LOW if the number exceeds $7FFF: LOW($FFFF) returns -1, the right way to draw a full line.

BITBLT x, y, l, h TO u, v, m, n copies a part of the afrocentrism essay, screen defined by x, y, w, h to u, v. BITBLT x, y, w, h TO Addr saves in memory a part of the screen. BITBLT Addr TO x, y, l, h, mode displays the part of screen memorized, mode is the mode of of responsibility, which it is printed (3 covers: mode by essay, default) The 15 other modes are, for S=Source and C=Cible: Determination of the memory to be reserved: The BITBLT includes in memory a short integer (whose values are: 2 for essays the high resolution, 4 for afrocentrism the middle one and 8 for the low one), a short integer the english online, width of the image, a third one for its height. For the high resolution, there is always an even number of bytes for a line: for afrocentrism essay an image of X pixels-width and english, Y pixels-height, you will need 6 + ((X-1)16 +1) *2 *Y bytes. A sprite is a small drawing very easy to handle (the bee, the arrow. ). There are in Omikron small and large sprites for each resolution. Vs Eurocentrism! It is necessary to reserve memory for communication studies the hidden part of the screen and the drawing itself. Afrocentrism Vs Eurocentrism! The drawing is written line by line in memory (1st line masks, 1st line foreground, 2nd line masks, etc). The mask is used to emphasize the foreground and to dissertations avoid to show the sprite as in MODE=3 (XOR, black on vs eurocentrism essay, black gives white).

sets a sprite (1 to 6), Backgr is the address in memory 'caching' the part of the screen hidden by the sprite, and dim is the dimension: low: dim= 1 (small: 16 bytes) or 2 (large: 64 bytes) average: dim= 3 (small: 32 bytes) or 4 (large: 128 bytes) high: dim= 5 (small: 64 bytes) or 6 (large: 256 bytes) displays sprite n, with the coordonates x, y whose drawing was registered beforehand with Dess address, Cm and Cd are the dissertations, colors of the mask and the foreground. DEF SPRITE n, 0 erases the sprite (useful in the course of afrocentrism, program) Addr= MEMORY(32256) : SCREEN 1, Addr, 4 allows the passage of the low resolution (320*200) on of responsibility, middle resolution (640*200). Don't forget 32256 bytes in memory for Addr. LINE COLOR=n to define the colour 'Hardware' of the line. FILL COLOR=n to define the colour 'Hardware' of the filling.

TEXT COLOR=n to define the colour 'Hardware' of the text. «Hardware» colors are those of Control Panel accessory CONTROL.ACC (ST): 777 white - 000 black - 700 red - 070 green - 007 blue - 400 marine - 420 brown - 040 meadow - 555 light gray - 222 dark gray - 077 cyan - 044 steel - 707 magenta - 404 purple - 440 sand - 770 yellow. From the STE (TOS 1.6), each fundamental light has 16 shades, from 0 to essay 15 ($F), that means 4096 possible hues (16 3 ). Who Am I What Am I! In order to keep the compatibility with the ST colours, the afrocentrism essay, additional grades (half intensities) are indicated by adding the number 8: 0, 8, 1, 9, 2, 10, 3, 11, 4, 12, 5, 13, 6, 14, 7 and who am i what, 15, or binary: %0000, %1000, %0001, %1001, %0010, %1010, %0011, %1011. where bit 3 (the first left) is set for the halftones. See XCONTROL.ACC control panel: FFF white - 000 black - F00 red - 0F0 green - 00F blue - 800 marine - 840 brown - 080 meadow - AAA light gray - 444 dark gray - 0FF cyan - 088 steel - F0F magenta - 808 purple - FF0 yellow - 880 sand. «VDI» order of the colors defined by PALETTE does not correspond to the «hardware» one. In low resolution: PALETTE 0, 2, 3, 6, 4, 7, 5, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 12, 15, 13, 1. For instance, to set other colors than traditional ones of the middle resolution (white, red, green and black):

PALETTE $777, $707, $077, $555 gives white, magenta, cyan and anthracite. PRINT POINT(x, y) tests and returns the n° of color «VDI» of the point x, y. PRINT CHR$(27); b; CHR$(n) sets a «VDI» color for the foreground (n goes from 0 to 15) PRINT CHR$(27); c; CHR$(n) sets a «VDI» color for the background. PALETTE $a, $b, $c, $d, $eE. sets a color. Each parameter is composed of three digits, each one from 0 to 7. The first proportions the afrocentrism vs eurocentrism essay, red, the assignment of responsibility, second the green and the third blue.

Caution: STE (TOS 1.6) has 16 nuances of colors, 0 to 15. The half-intensities are indicated by vs eurocentrism, the addition of number 8: 0, 8, 1, 9, 2, 10, 3, 11, 4, 12, 5, 13, 6, 14, 7 and 15. In binary: %0000, %1000, %0001, %1001, %0010, %1010, %0011, %1011. Lang/lit Coursework! where bit 3 (the first on the left) gives the vs eurocentrism essay, half-tones. CLEAR m reserves a global amount of m bytes for block writing MEMORY (64 Kb by default) CLEAR m, n reserves also n bytes for the stack, meter of loops, procedure calls, aso. Addr=MEMORY(n) reserves n bytes, Addr returns the address of the beginning. Addr=MEMORY(Monty Python) puts a string at a precise address.

FRE(Addr) frees the amount of bytes formerly reserved. FRE(C:) returns the free place on a disk. FRE(0) returns the free place in memory. FRE() does first a garbage collection: frees memory used for the string processing: Byte=PEEK(Addr) reads a byte at vs eurocentrism essay, the given address. Word=WPEEK(Addr) reads a short integer (two bytes) at the given address. Long=LPEEK(Addr) reads a long integer (four bytes) at art school college, the given address. POKE Addr, Byte writes a byte at the given address. WPOKE Addr, Word writes a short integer (two bytes) at afrocentrism essay, the given address. LPOKE Addr, Long writes a long integer (four bytes) at the given address.

MEMORY_MOVE n, Dep TO Targ copies n bytes form Dep address to Targ address (even addresses) MEMORY_MOVEB n, Dep TO Targ makes it possible to use odd addresses (slower) MEMORY_BLOCK xx, n, Addr reserves n bytes with variable-Addresses (xx from 00 to 99, no variable) which will be saved within the program. It's then possible to BLOAD a file at the address. Once is enough: MEMORY_BLOCK will keep it into the BAS file, as long as there's no ASCII saving.

VARPTR(V) returns the address of the studies, indicated variable. SEGPTR gives the address of the SEGment PoinTR array, which contains pointers (addresses): +0 byte n° of lines. +4 beginning of the program. +8 pointers of variables. +36 executed order. +44 garbage bottom. +48 garbage high. +52 value max of the vs eurocentrism essay, stack. +56 bottoms of the stack. +60 the largest address of the memory. ?VARPTR(A$) returns the relative address of the string, starting from writing online, address SEGPTR+28:

IPL n sets the interrupt level of the system, from 0 to 7: IPL 3 standard level. IPL 3+(1 SHL 31) sets off [Ctrl]-[C] IPL 4 cold screen. IPL 6 . Afrocentrism Vs Eurocentrism! nor keyboard, WAIT or TIMER (no more control, but faster): don't forget to block set it back to IPL 3 when the task is over.

Machine subroutines are useful for speed or special programming methods. INLINE A009 enters a line of binary code in hexadecimal. This example uses the line A machine instruction, causing a processor exception, but recognized by the system as a graphic function: A009 shows the mouse cursor, A00A makes it disappear. DEF USR=Addr sets the address of a binary routine. Ret= USR(Val) calls the function. Vs Eurocentrism Essay! The Val ue is placed onto the register D0 (4 bytes); when the routine ends, the D0 value is returned to Ret . CALL Addr(L param1, param2. Aqa English Coursework! ) calls a binary routine, loaded at an addr ess with parameters. The routine will find them from 4(A7) on.

4(A7) means the address indicated by the value of the stack (A7) + 4. It's rather long (8:) to build by hand the essay, machine code instructions. Therefore, you should have an 68000 assembler. The resulting binary file can be loaded with BASIC BLOAD File, Adr (see BLOAD). It is also possible to english include in the binary routine with MEMORY_BLOCK 00, L, Adr (see previous section). Warning: you have to assemble your code in afrocentrism essay, an other way than for executables, whose first 512 bytes are used by the system. the routine must end with rts (return from subroutine); Omikron BASIC works in supervisor mode: the essay writing, routine must not attempt to turn to it.

TIME$ contains the afrocentrism vs eurocentrism essay, machine time. TIME$=15:58:12 sets the time to the machine. TIMER returns the number of block essay, 1/200 seconds since the machine is on, quite the same as LPEEK($4BA) WAIT n waits n seconds, precision: 1/200. DATE$ returns the machine known date. DATE$= sets the date following the mode: MODEUSA months/days/years: 02/14/2007 (by default) MODED days.months.years: 14.02.2007

BIOS(R, 6) gives the delay (milliseconds) between two clock-top. GEMDOS(R, 42) returns the date: Bits 15-9: years if 1980 is added (2007=27) Bits 8-5: months (1 12) Bit 4-0: days (1 31) GEMDOS(, 43, Date) Date is a short integer as described in GEMDOS 42.

GEMDOS(R, 44) returns the afrocentrism essay, hour: Bit 15-11: hours ; Bit 10-5: minutes; Bit: 4-0 double-seconds (0=0s, 1=2s, 2=4s. ) GEMDOS(, 45, Heure) Heure is a short integer as described in GEMDOS 44. XBIOS(, 22, L Addr) sets the time. Addr must contain two short integers: the date and the hour. XBIOS(R, 23) returns hour and date at essays, the XBIOS 22 format. GEMDOS 42, 43, 44 and afrocentrism, 45 and XBIOS 22 and 23 are not linked. Look out: GEMDOS 43 accepts the date 31/2, but not 32/1. ERR last error number ; to use with IF ERR=n THEN . ERR$ last error message. ERL last error line, or -1 in dissertations communication studies, direct mode.

LIST ERL lists the program line error. ON ERROR GOTO sends to an error processing routine. RESUME leaves an error processing routine and tries again the problematic command. RESUME NEXT goes to the instruction following the error. RESUME Lbl goes to the line containing the label -Lbl. ERROR n provokes the error n , to work out an error processing routine.

The loop-meter is safe after a RESUME: you need an EXIT to afrocentrism essay reset it at zero. If ON ERROR GOTO is off with CLEAR or is interrupted by dissertations, [Ctrl]-[C], the error message is shown. TRON (TRace ON) sets the TRACE mode: shows the line-number and every executed instruction. TROFF gives up the TRACE mode (is there a meter for the number of TRON and TROFF?) ON TRON GOSUB is TRON is set, goes to a routine at every instruction. Structure too long a procedure or a loop is more than 64 Ko Syntax error RETURN without GOSUB subroutines should be placed after an afrocentrism essay, END Out of DATA more DATA needed for READ Illegal function call Overflow the numerical variables are limited Out of memory GEMDOS or the stack need more memory: CLEAR morememory Undefined Statement GOTO or GOSUB send to nowhere Subscript out of college, range arrays are limited Duplicate definition several procedures or functions have the same name Division by zero Illegal direct a function or procedure is met without a call Type mismatch don't mix strings and numbers RETURN without function your program meets a RETURN out of a function , procedure of subroutine String too long a string longer than 32767 characters?

Formula too complex the essay, stack must remember inclusion you wrote. Too many here. Who Am I What Essay! Can't continue CONT after a STOP doesn't stand a change in your program Undefined user function a name without function, token or procedure No RESUME an vs eurocentrism essay, error processing routine misses a RESUME RESUME without error RESUME is met out of an error processing routine Use EXIT often when IF/THEN misses an english, ENDIF in a loop Missing operand nothing after an operator or a comma Line buffer overflow too long line REPEAT without UNTIL UNTIL without REPEAT FOR without NEXT NEXT without FOR IF without THEN or EXIT an IF misses a THEN or an ENDIF WHILE without END END without WHILE THEN, ELSE or ENDIF without IF or THEN you should structure your imbricated loops: ERROR 32 [Enter] gives the afrocentrism essay, Omikron copyright RESET Omikron didn't die after a RESET. It's normal, but don't abuse. Bus error a POKE in dissertations, a forbidden memory address Address error addressing error (a Word at an odd address) Unknow opcode unknow instruction for the processor Out of memory. Save or re-CLEAR immediatly try to save! EXIT without structure from essay, which LOOP to go out? Use EXIT TO in functions from studies, several depth loops Matrix not regular some matrices must be square-ones Bad file number you can't open more than 16 files Fie1d overflow DATA doesn't fit in a FIELD Internal error fatal error - cold RESET Bad file number only vs eurocentrism essay, 16 file-channels File not found Bad file mode illegal instruction on a file File already open File not open TOS Error n see next section File already exists File type mismatch Bad disk Disk full Input past end tries to read after the communication studies, End Of File.

LOF(channel) can help Bad record number Bad file name forbidden character in a filename Path not found Direct statement in afrocentrism, file a file to load does not have linenumbers: use 'Load Block' of 'Files' menu Too many file in a directory? Write error Read error Disk-write protected. General error Disk not ready Unknown opcode Checksum error Non correct instruction Sector not found Bad boot-sector Sector not found No more paper Writing error Reading error General error Protected floppy Changed floppy Unknown device Bad sector Introduce a floppy. Non valid file number. Non correct block-memory address. GEMDOS internal error. BIOS (BASIC Input/Output System), XBIOS (eXtended BIOS, and GEMDOS (Disk Operating System) functions are included in this page, insofar as they are not exploited in the traditional instructions. R is always a Return-value, which is assignment, not always useful (do nevertheless preserve the comma). It can contain an address, a TOS error, a device number or a file handle. It is necessary to reserve memory before calling the functions processing a certain amount of vs eurocentrism, bytes, by the intermediary of an address. Functions PEEK make it possible to read them.

On the art school, contrary, functions POKE makes it possible to afrocentrism vs eurocentrism write data on block essay, an address reserved in memory before calling a function. The most practical manner to write a string in memory and to know its address is: the most traditional is: where LPEEK(SEGPTR+28) is afrocentrism, a PoinTeR towards the place of the strings in memory and LPEEK(VARPTR(V$)) the span to the pointer for the V$ chain. English Writing Help! You can PEEK(Addr), PEEK (addr+1) aso. the characters. These functions are close to the language of afrocentrism vs eurocentrism essay, 68000 procesor: the parameters must be short integers and the address of a buffer must break up into HIGH(Addr) and LOW(Addr) . Omikron makes it possible to do it more easily with L Addr : GEMDOS(, 10, HIGH(Buffer), LOW(Buffer)) becomes GEMDOS(, 10, L Buffer) These functions are more tricky than the old good BASIC. For instance, XBIOS 0 (for the mouse) requires additional information, and largely exceeds the object of art school, this page.

Below, GEMDOS 10 will make it possible to afrocentrism vs eurocentrism be convinced of the comfort of the traditional BASIC. There is nevertheless system-instructions which it should be known so that Omikron is a complete language. GEMDOS(R, 48) value R divided by college essays, 256 returns the version of the afrocentrism vs eurocentrism essay, GEMDOS. GEMDOS(R, 10, L Buffer) allows the input of lang/lit, a line. The first two bytes contains the maximum and effective length chain, finished by CHR$(13):

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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to know where to start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for vs eurocentrism essay the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the resume advice you need into one place. Read on for tips and art school essays, tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job. Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on it.

Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of afrocentrism vs eurocentrism essay your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for the job. Art School College Essays. For each resume you send out, you’ll want to highlight only the afrocentrism vs eurocentrism, accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to the job at hand (even if that means you don’t include all of your experience). Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to tailor your resume here . 2. English. But Keep a Master List of All Jobs. Since you’ll want to be swapping different information in and out afrocentrism vs eurocentrism essay depending on assignment of responsibility the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only afrocentrism, sometimes make sense to include. Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of writing online cutting and pasting relevant information together. Think of this as your brag file . 3. Put the Best Stuff “Above the afrocentrism vs eurocentrism, Fold” In marketing speak, “above the dissertations communication studies, fold” refers to what you see on the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically it’s your first impression of a document. Vs Eurocentrism Essay. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and accomplishments are visible on the top third of your resume. This top section is what the hiring manager is going to see first—and what will serve as a hook for assignment of responsibility someone to keep on reading.

So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out these five other marketing tricks to essay, get your resume noticed . Block Essay Writing. According to Zhang , the afrocentrism vs eurocentrism, only occasion when an mental objective section makes sense is afrocentrism vs eurocentrism essay when you’re making a huge career change and need to explain from the get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the position you’re applying to. In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you —or just nix it altogether to block writing, save space and focus on making the rest of your resume stellar. Afrocentrism Vs Eurocentrism. There are lots of different ways to organize the aqa english lang/lit, information on your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is still your best bet. Unless it’s absolutely necessary in essay, your situation, skip the skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding. Who Am I What Am I. The two- (or more!) page resume is a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is this—you want the information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to one page is a good way to force yourself to do this. If you truly have enough relevant and vs eurocentrism, important experience, training, and credentials to showcase on english writing online more than one page of your resume, then go for vs eurocentrism essay it. But if you can tell the same story in less space? Do.

If you’re struggling, check out these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to fit more in less space. Can’t figure out how to tell your whole story on one page, or want to be able to include some visual examples of your work? Instead of trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the i what am i essay, most important details on that document, and then include a link to your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the afrocentrism, ideal candidate. We’ll talk about getting creative in order to stand out in online, a minute. But the vs eurocentrism, most basic principle of good resume formatting and design? Keep it simple. Mental Essay. Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Afrocentrism. Make your resume easy on hiring managers’ eyes by using a font size between 10 and 12 and leaving a healthy amount of white space on the page. You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and the companies for which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and dissertations communication studies, keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on readability for afrocentrism vs eurocentrism essay the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out from the sea of Times New Roman?

Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If you’re applying through an ATS, keep to of responsibility, the standard formatting without any bells and whistles so the computer can read it effectively. Afrocentrism Essay. If you’re applying to a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to essays, make it pop. No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to vs eurocentrism essay, put in art school college essays, the time, creativity, and design work to make it awesome. 10. Make Your Contact Info Prominent. You don’t need to include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to include a phone number and vs eurocentrism, professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. Communication. (Implicit in afrocentrism vs eurocentrism, this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of time on of responsibility each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to look stunning? There’s no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer.

This is afrocentrism vs eurocentrism arguably the most important document of mental essay your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right! 13. Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. As a rule, you should only show the most recent 10-15 years of your career history and only include the experience relevant to the positions to which you are applying. And remember to allocate real estate on your resume according to afrocentrism essay, importance.

If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into more detail about your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one you’re applying to). 14. No Relevant Experience? No Worries! Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on block writing your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the vs eurocentrism essay, narrative of lang/lit why you’re ideal for the job. No matter how long you’ve been in afrocentrism essay, a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in a given section. No matter how good your bullets are, the online, recruiter just isn’t going to get through them. Check out these tips for writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to afrocentrism essay, throw in tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to art school essays, the average person. Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to afrocentrism vs eurocentrism essay, be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to all of them.

Use as many facts, figures, and numbers as you can in your bullet points. How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to picture the level of work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to mental essay writing, adding more to your resume . People hire performers, so you want to afrocentrism vs eurocentrism, show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done!

As you look at your bullet points, think about essays how you can take each statement one step further and vs eurocentrism essay, add in what the benefit was to your boss or your company. By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what you’re capable of, but also the direct benefit the employer will receive by hiring you. If you’re not sure how to explain your impact, check out these tips for turning your duties into accomplishments . Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a “strong leader” or an “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to get across. Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the result you’re going for! 20. Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work.

There’s no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on your resume. So, if you’ve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. Studies. If every bullet in your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Essay. Use our handy list of better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure you’ve included them in your bullet points. Not only is this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to dissertations, the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in vs eurocentrism essay, applicant tracking systems. Stuck on which words to of responsibility, include? Dump the afrocentrism, job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the most used keywords. What words shouldn’t you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and who am am i, hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet there’s a better way to afrocentrism vs eurocentrism, describe how awesome you are. Mental Essay. 24.

Experience First, Education Second. Essay. Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and relevant to communication, you getting the job than where you went to college. 25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order. But if older coursework is more specific to vs eurocentrism, the job, list that first to grab the reviewer’s attention. Don’t list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about of responsibility whether or not you have the vs eurocentrism, degree than when you earned it. Block Essay. If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of afrocentrism it. While you don’t need to list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the aqa english coursework, fact that you were in the honors college at your university.

28. Afrocentrism. Include Continuing or Online Education. Don’t be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Of Responsibility. Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in them can actually show your determination and motivation to get the vs eurocentrism, skills you need for your career.” Be sure to add a section that lists out all the relevant skills you have for writing help a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications. Just make sure to afrocentrism vs eurocentrism essay, skip including skills that everyone is expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word.

Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. If you have lots of skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out one of those sections and listing it on its own. Who Am I What Am I Essay. Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and afrocentrism vs eurocentrism, detail your experience there. Again—we’re going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an “Interests” section on your resume, but only add those that are relevant to the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on aqa english coursework a music company? Definitely include it. But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company? Don’t even think about it. 32. Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial.

Maybe you help raise money for your church on the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the afrocentrism vs eurocentrism essay, cause. Zhang explains here how to weigh the decision of whether to include them or not. Do include awards and accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for having the company’s top sales record four quarters in a row.” What about mental writing personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the proper ways to include them. Gaps and afrocentrism, Other Sticky Resume Situations. Dissertations. If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of vs eurocentrism essay months, consider eliminating it from aqa english lang/lit coursework, your resume. According to The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about your experience if asked in an interview. If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, don’t list the usual start and afrocentrism vs eurocentrism, end dates for each position.

Use years only online, (2010-2012), or just the number of years or months you worked at essay your earlier positions. If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to of responsibility, downsizing,” or “relocated to afrocentrism vs eurocentrism essay, new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the reason for your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue. Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for art school college a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments. Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to afrocentrism vs eurocentrism essay, include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on your comeback resume. Don’t try to creatively fill in who am i what am i, gaps on your resume.

For example, if you took time out of the workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it). While parenting is as demanding and afrocentrism vs eurocentrism essay, intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to take this section of who am am i essay your resume seriously. 39. Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is afrocentrism interested in you, he or she will ask you for references—and will assume that you have them. There’s no need to address the assignment of responsibility, obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and clear of typos. And don’t rely on spell check and grammar check alone—ask family or friends to take a look at it for you (or get some tips from an editor on afrocentrism how to perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of college essays HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at it in afrocentrism vs eurocentrism essay, both Google Docs and Word, and then attach it to lang/lit coursework, an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to vs eurocentrism, save your resume and send it off?

Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of “Resume.” It’s one less step the am i, hiring manager has to take. Carve out some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and make some updates. Afrocentrism Vs Eurocentrism Essay. Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in. When your resume is art school college essays updated on a regular basis, you’re ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself. And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is passionate about elevating the afrocentrism, standard of writing on art school college the web. Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and led the company’s branded content team. If you’re an individual or company looking for help making your content better—or you just want to go out to tea—get in touch at

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Doctoral Dissertation Research Improvement Grants. Replaces Document NSF 92-114. National Science Foundation. Division of Behavioral and Cognitive Sciences. Directorate for Social, Behavioral, and afrocentrism vs eurocentrism essay Economic Sciences. Division of Social and Economic Sciences. Doctoral Dissertation Research Improvement Grants. Synopsis of Program: The National Science Foundation's Division of Social and Economic Sciences and Division of Behavioral and Cognitive Sciences award grants to doctoral students to improve the essays quality of dissertation research.

These grants provide funds for items not normally available through the student's university. Additionally, these grants allow doctoral students to undertake significant data-gathering projects and to conduct field research in settings away from their campus that would not otherwise be possible. Proposals are judged on the basis of their scientific merit, including the theoretical importance of the vs eurocentrism essay research question and the appropriateness of the proposed data and methodology to college essays be used in addressing the question. Cognizant Program Officer(s): Please see the full text of this funding opportunity for contact information. Applicable Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) Number(s): 47.075 --- Social, Behavioral and essay Economic Sciences. Organization Limit: None Specified. PI Eligibility Limit: None Specified.

Limit on Number of Proposals: None Specified. Anticipated Type of Award: Standard Grant Estimated Number of Awards: Not Specified. Anticipated Funding Amount: $2,500,000 Approximately $2.5 million annually across all programs, contingent upon english writing help, the availability of funds. Proposal Preparation and Submission Instructions. A. Proposal Preparation Instructions. Full Proposal Preparation Instructions: This solicitation contains information that deviates from the standard Grant Proposal Guide (GPG) proposal preparation guidelines. Please see the afrocentrism vs eurocentrism full text of dissertations communication studies, this solicitation for further information. Cost Sharing Requirements: Cost Sharing is not required. Indirect Cost (FA) Limitations: NSF does not reimburse grantee institutions for the indirect costs associated with doctoral dissertation research. Other Budgetary Limitations: Other budgetary limitations apply. Please see the afrocentrism vs eurocentrism full text of this solicitation for further information.

Merit Review Criteria: National Science Board approved criteria apply. Award Conditions: Standard NSF award conditions apply. Writing! Reporting Requirements: Standard NSF reporting requirements apply. V. PROPOSAL PREPARATION AND SUBMISSION INSTRUCTIONS. A. Proposal Preparation Instructions. Full Proposal Instructions: Proposals submitted in response to this program announcement/solicitation should be prepared and submitted in accordance with the general guidelines contained in the NSF Grant Proposal Guide (GPG). The complete text of the GPG is available electronically on the NSF Website at: Paper copies of the GPG may be obtained from the afrocentrism vs eurocentrism essay NSF Publications Clearinghouse, telephone (703) 292-7827 or by e-mail from Proposers are reminded to identify the program announcement/solicitation number (01-113) in the program announcement/solicitation block on the proposal Cover Sheet. Compliance with this requirement is critical to determining the who am am i relevant proposal processing guidelines.

Failure to submit this information may delay processing. Cost sharing is not required in proposals submitted under this Program Announcement. Indirect Cost (FA) Limitations: Other Budgetary Limitations: Proposals must be submitted by the following date(s): Proposers are required to prepare and submit all proposals for this announcement/solicitation through the FastLane system. Detailed instructions for proposal preparation and submission via FastLane are available at: For FastLane user support, call the afrocentrism FastLane Help Desk at 1-800-673-6188 or e-mail The FastLane Help Desk answers general technical questions related to communication the use of the afrocentrism vs eurocentrism essay FastLane system. Mental Block Essay! Specific questions related to this program announcement/solicitation should be referred to the NSF program staff contact(s) listed in Section VIII of this announcement/solicitation. Submission of Electronically Signed Cover Sheets . The Authorized Organizational Representative (AOR) must electronically sign the proposal Cover Sheet to submit the required proposal certifications (see Chapter II, Section C of the Grant Proposal Guide for essay a listing of the certifications).

The AOR must provide the required electronic certifications within five working days following the electronic submission of the proposal. Proposers are no longer required to provide a paper copy of the signed Proposal Cover Sheet to NSF. Assignment! Further instructions regarding this process are available on the FastLane Website at: Reviews of proposals submitted to essay NSF are solicited from peers with expertise in the substantive area of the proposed research or education project. These reviewers are selected by Program Officers charged with the oversight of the review process. NSF invites the proposer to suggest, at art school the time of submission, the names of appropriate or inappropriate reviewers. Care is afrocentrism essay, taken to ensure that reviewers have no conflicts with the assignment of responsibility proposer.

Special efforts are made to recruit reviewers from non-academic institutions, minority-serving institutions, or adjacent disciplines to that principally addressed in the proposal. The National Science Board approved revised criteria for evaluating proposals at its meeting on March 28, 1997 (NSB 97-72). All NSF proposals are evaluated through use of the vs eurocentrism essay two merit review criteria. In some instances, however, NSF will employ additional criteria as required to highlight the specific objectives of certain programs and activities. On July 8, 2002, the NSF Director issued Important Notice 127, Implementation of new Grant Proposal Guide Requirements Related to communication the Broader Impacts Criterion. This Important Notice reinforces the importance of addressing both criteria in vs eurocentrism, the preparation and art school essays review of all proposals submitted to NSF. NSF continues to strengthen its internal processes to ensure that both of the merit review criteria are addressed when making funding decisions.

In an effort to increase compliance with these requirements, the January 2002 issuance of the vs eurocentrism GPG incorporated revised proposal preparation guidelines relating to the development of the Project Summary and lang/lit coursework Project Description. Chapter II of the GPG specifies that Principal Investigators (PIs) must address both merit review criteria in separate statements within the one-page Project Summary. This chapter also reiterates that broader impacts resulting from the afrocentrism vs eurocentrism proposed project must be addressed in the Project Description and described as an integral part of the narrative. Effective October 1, 2002, NSF will return without review proposals that do not separately address both merit review criteria within the Project Summary. It is believed that these changes to NSF proposal preparation and processing guidelines will more clearly articulate the importance of broader impacts to NSF-funded projects. The two National Science Board approved merit review criteria are listed below (see the Grant Proposal Guide Chapter III.A for further information). The criteria include considerations that help define them. Dissertations! These considerations are suggestions and not all will apply to any given proposal. Vs Eurocentrism Essay! While proposers must address both merit review criteria, reviewers will be asked to address only those considerations that are relevant to the proposal being considered and for which he/she is qualified to make judgments. What is the intellectual merit of the proposed activity? How important is the proposed activity to assignment advancing knowledge and understanding within its own field or across different fields?

How well qualified is the proposer (individual or team) to afrocentrism essay conduct the english writing online project? (If appropriate, the reviewer will comment on the quality of the prior work.) To what extent does the proposed activity suggest and explore creative and original concepts? How well conceived and organized is the proposed activity? Is there sufficient access to afrocentrism resources? What are the broader impacts of the proposed activity? How well does the activity advance discovery and lang/lit coursework understanding while promoting teaching, training, and vs eurocentrism learning? How well does the proposed activity broaden the participation of who am i what essay, underrepresented groups (e.g., gender, ethnicity, disability, geographic, etc.)? To what extent will it enhance the infrastructure for research and education, such as facilities, instrumentation, networks, and partnerships? Will the results be disseminated broadly to enhance scientific and vs eurocentrism technological understanding? What may be the benefits of the proposed activity to society?

NSF staff will give careful consideration to the following in making funding decisions: Integration of Research and Education. One of the principal strategies in support of NSF's goals is to assignment foster integration of research and education through the programs, projects, and activities it supports at academic and vs eurocentrism essay research institutions. These institutions provide abundant opportunities where individuals may concurrently assume responsibilities as researchers, educators, and students and where all can engage in art school college essays, joint efforts that infuse education with the excitement of discovery and enrich research through the diversity of afrocentrism vs eurocentrism, learning perspectives. Integrating Diversity into NSF Programs, Projects, and Activities. Broadening opportunities and enabling the participation of all citizens -- women and men, underrepresented minorities, and persons with disabilities -- is college, essential to the health and vitality of essay, science and engineering. NSF is committed to this principle of diversity and deems it central to the programs, projects, and activities it considers and supports. B. Review Protocol and Associated Customer Service Standard. All proposals are carefully reviewed by at least three other persons outside NSF who are experts in the particular field represented by mental writing, the proposal. Proposals submitted in response to this announcement/solicitation will be reviewed by Ad Hoc and/or panel review.

Reviewers will be asked to formulate a recommendation to either support or decline each proposal. The Program Officer assigned to manage the proposal's review will consider the advice of reviewers and will formulate a recommendation. A summary rating and accompanying narrative will be completed and submitted by each reviewer. In all cases, reviews are treated as confidential documents. Verbatim copies of afrocentrism vs eurocentrism, reviews, excluding the names of the reviewers, are sent to the Principal Investigator/Project Director by the Program Director. In addition, the proposer will receive an explanation of the decision to mental writing award or decline funding. NSF is essay, striving to be able to tell proposers whether their proposals have been declined or recommended for funding within six months. The time interval begins on the closing date of an announcement/solicitation, or the date of proposal receipt, whichever is later. The interval ends when the Division Director accepts the Program Officer's recommendation. In all cases, after programmatic approval has been obtained, the proposals recommended for funding will be forwarded to who am i what the Division of Grants and Agreements for vs eurocentrism essay review of business, financial, and policy implications and the processing and issuance of a grant or other agreement.

Proposers are cautioned that only a Grants and mental writing Agreements Officer may make commitments, obligations or awards on behalf of NSF or authorize the afrocentrism vs eurocentrism expenditure of funds. Mental Essay Writing! No commitment on the part of NSF should be inferred from technical or budgetary discussions with a NSF Program Officer. A Principal Investigator or organization that makes financial or personnel commitments in the absence of a grant or cooperative agreement signed by afrocentrism vs eurocentrism essay, the NSF Grants and assignment of responsibility Agreements Officer does so at their own risk. VII. AWARD ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION. Notification of the award is made to vs eurocentrism essay the submitting organization by a Grants Officer in the Division of Grants and Agreements.

Organizations whose proposals are declined will be advised as promptly as possible by the cognizant NSF Program Division administering the lang/lit coursework program. Verbatim copies of afrocentrism, reviews, not including the identity of the reviewer, will be provided automatically to the Principal Investigator. (See section VI.A. for additional information on the review process.) An NSF award consists of: (1) the award letter, which includes any special provisions applicable to the award and any numbered amendments thereto; (2) the budget, which indicates the amounts, by categories of expense, on online which NSF has based its support (or otherwise communicates any specific approvals or disapprovals of proposed expenditures); (3) the proposal referenced in the award letter; (4) the applicable award conditions, such as Grant General Conditions (NSF-GC-1); * or Federal Demonstration Partnership (FDP) Terms and Conditions * and (5) any announcement or other NSF issuance that may be incorporated by reference in the award letter. Cooperative agreement awards also are administered in accordance with NSF Cooperative Agreement Terms and Conditions (CA-1). Afrocentrism Vs Eurocentrism Essay! Electronic mail notification is the preferred way to transmit NSF awards to organizations that have electronic mail capabilities and have requested such notification from the who am am i Division of Grants and Agreements. *These documents may be accessed electronically on NSF's Website at Paper copies may be obtained from the NSF Publications Clearinghouse, telephone (703) 292-7827 or by vs eurocentrism, e-mail from More comprehensive information on NSF Award Conditions is contained in the NSF Grant Policy Manual (GPM) Chapter II, available electronically on the NSF Website at The GPM is also for sale through the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office (GPO), Washington, DC 20402.

The telephone number at GPO for subscription information is (202) 512-1800. The GPM may be ordered through the GPO Website at For all multi-year grants (including both standard and continuing grants), the PI must submit an annual project report to the cognizant Program Officer at assignment of responsibility least 90 days before the end of the current budget period. Within 90 days after the expiration of an award, the PI also is required to afrocentrism vs eurocentrism submit a final project report. Failure to provide final technical reports delays NSF review and processing of pending proposals for the PI and all Co-PIs. PIs should examine the formats of the required reports in advance to assure availability of mental block, required data. PIs are required to essay use NSF's electronic project reporting system, available through FastLane, for preparation and writing online submission of annual and final project reports. This system permits electronic submission and updating of project reports, including information on project participants (individual and vs eurocentrism organizational), activities and dissertations findings, publications, and other specific products and contributions. Vs Eurocentrism! PIs will not be required to block re-enter information previously provided, either with a proposal or in earlier updates using the essay electronic system. VIII.

CONTACTS FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION. General inquiries regarding this program should be made to: For questions related to i what am i essay the use of FastLane, contact: The NSF Guide to Programs is a compilation of essay, funding for research and education in aqa english, science, mathematics, and engineering. Vs Eurocentrism Essay! The NSF Guide to Programs is i what am i, available electronically at

General descriptions of NSF programs, research areas, and eligibility information for proposal submission are provided in each chapter. Many NSF programs offer announcements or solicitations concerning specific proposal requirements. To obtain additional information about afrocentrism vs eurocentrism, these requirements, contact the who am i what appropriate NSF program offices. Any changes in NSF's fiscal year programs occurring after press time for the Guide to Programs will be announced in the NSF E-Bulletin, which is updated daily on the NSF Website at, and in individual program announcements/solicitations. Subscribers can also sign up for afrocentrism vs eurocentrism essay NSF's Custom News Service ( to be notified of new funding opportunities that become available.

ABOUT THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION. The National Science Foundation (NSF) funds research and education in most fields of science and engineering. Essay! Awardees are wholly responsible for conducting their project activities and preparing the afrocentrism essay results for publication. Thus, the Foundation does not assume responsibility for such findings or their interpretation. NSF welcomes proposals from all qualified scientists, engineers and educators. The Foundation strongly encourages women, minorities and persons with disabilities to compete fully in its programs. In accordance with Federal statutes, regulations and english writing online NSF policies, no person on vs eurocentrism grounds of race, color, age, sex, national origin or disability shall be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving financial assistance from dissertations communication NSF, although some programs may have special requirements that limit eligibility. Facilitation Awards for Scientists and Engineers with Disabilities (FASED) provide funding for special assistance or equipment to enable persons with disabilities (investigators and other staff, including student research assistants) to work on NSF-supported projects.

See the GPG Chapter II, Section D.2 for afrocentrism instructions regarding preparation of essay writing, these types of proposals. The National Science Foundation promotes and advances scientific progress in the United States by competitively awarding grants and cooperative agreements for research and education in the sciences, mathematics, and engineering. To get the latest information about afrocentrism essay, program deadlines, to download copies of i what am i essay, NSF publications, and to access abstracts of awards, visit the NSF Website at afrocentrism 4201 Wilson Blvd. Arlington, VA 22230. Send an e-mail to: PRIVACY ACT AND PUBLIC BURDEN STATEMENTS. The information requested on proposal forms and project reports is solicited under the authority of the National Science Foundation Act of 1950, as amended. The information on proposal forms will be used in connection with the selection of qualified proposals; project reports submitted by awardees will be used for program evaluation and reporting within the Executive Branch and to Congress. The information requested may be disclosed to qualified reviewers and staff assistants as part of the proposal review process; to art school applicant institutions/grantees to provide or obtain data regarding the proposal review process, award decisions, or the afrocentrism essay administration of awards; to government contractors, experts, volunteers and researchers and educators as necessary to assignment of responsibility complete assigned work; to other government agencies needing information as part of the review process or in vs eurocentrism, order to assignment of responsibility coordinate programs; and to another Federal agency, court or party in a court or Federal administrative proceeding if the government is a party. Information about Principal Investigators may be added to the Reviewer file and used to select potential candidates to serve as peer reviewers or advisory committee members.

See Systems of Records, NSF-50, Principal Investigator/Proposal File and Associated Records, 63 Federal Register 267 (January 5, 1998), and NSF-51, Reviewer/Proposal File and Associated Records, 63 Federal Register 268 (January 5, 1998). Submission of the information is voluntary. Failure to provide full and complete information, however, may reduce the possibility of receiving an afrocentrism vs eurocentrism essay, award. An agency may not conduct or sponsor, and a person is not required to respond to coursework an information collection unless it displays a valid OMB control number. The OMB control number for this collection is vs eurocentrism, 3145-0058. Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 120 hours per response, including the time for art school college reviewing instructions. Send comments regarding this burden estimate and any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to: Suzanne Plimpton, Reports Clearance Officer, Division of Administrative Services, National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA 22230.

OMB control number: 3145-0058. The National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, Virginia 22230, USA. Tel: (703) 292-5111, FIRS: (800) 877-8339 | TDD: (800) 281-8749.