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bagel essay If you enjoy this site, please check out mamster's new weblog, Roots and Grubs. The Great Bagel Divide. by Neil deMause. February 27, 2000. Now, I bet you think you know what I mean, but you don't. (Unless you're thinking what I think you're thinking, in which case, get your mind out of the gutter, pal!) What I mean is, assuming you don't live where I do (in which case, get out of my house, pal!), when you think of bagel, your mind conjures up something very different than mine. Before you write me off as completely off my rocker, let me tell you about the Great Blueberry Bagel Divide. I'm from New York City#151;born and bred. I grew up on the Upper West Side, which at international essay scholarships, the time was an unimposing little neighborhood of rent-controlled apartments and used bookstores, and resume services, the sort of underemployed intellectuals who flocked to such a neighborhood. (To this day, I can say It's the color of the inside cover of essay Saul Bellow's Herzog , and anyone who grew up in an Upper West Side household will know the exact shade of dusty teal I mean.) Rampant gentrification has since rendered the essays UWS unrecognizable, save for two local landmarks: Zabar's, the world-famous gourmet food store with the brie and essay, the overpriced pasta salad (but, sadly, no longer the sawdust on the floor)#151;and, right across the street, HH Bagels.

When I was a kid, trips to HH for fresh bagels were a recurring routine. We'd buy a dozen or so, with one or two for me to munch on essays my way home, reveling in their hot-from-the-oven yeastiness. At one time#151;my memories are hazy on this point#151;there was even a bagel tour , in which young neighborhood denizens could get a behind-the-scenes of how a lump of dough gets formed into a hoop, dunked in boiling water, baked, then finally emerges as a crisp, perfect bagel, alongside a sturdy pile of international essay scholarships its compatriots. As I watched the magic of an elephant and other essays bagel birth, I focused on the flavors that were my favorites: poppy, pumpernickel, and my all-time favorite, salt. What's that, you say? You've never had a salt bagel? You've never left your mouth a bleeding, achey mess by wolfing down a baked good covered in salt crystals the size of Oldsmobiles? This, you see, is why I'm worried about the future of Western civilization. A bagel, you see, isn't meant to scholarships, be a muffin with delusions of aqa a donuthood.

No, the ideal bagel is international essay scholarships, a baked good of services kelowna another color entirely: doughy, chewy, just the slightest bit salty, okay on its own but crying out for a topping redolent of the Old Country. You can complement it with some Philadelphia Cream Cheese (bought in essay scholarships tiny bricks from the refrigerator at HH), or, better yet, with cream cheese and lox, but it's supposed to be a breadstuff#151;the uberbreadstuff, in fact#151;not some namby-pamby scone wannabe. Talk to a typical bagel-obsessed New Yorker, and you'll hear nothing but disdain for some of the newfangled bagel variants out level biology essays there these days. My girlfriend, Mindy, for example, still gets on my case for essay scholarships eating cinnamon raisin bagels, which to writing kelowna, hear her talk of international essay scholarships it are some tool of Lucifer to contaminate our precious bagely fluids with dried grapes . How to freeze a bagel and live to tell the tale The question I'm most asked about bagels#151;not that I'm ever asked questions about bagels, but play along and nobody'll get hurt#151;is How do you keep those little buggers from aqa a biology, going stale? Fortunately, bagels are among the most well-behaved bread products in the freezer, happily keeping for weeks if properly stored. Properly here means in heavy-duty freezer bags, up to four or five bagels to a bag. (Be careful about piling too many bagels at once into a weak freezer, by the way#151;we've managed to melt all our ice cubes with the international scholarships radiant heat of a dozen room-temperature bagels all inserted at once.) And once frozen, bagels tend to forget their age before the cryogenic process started, so don't be afraid to try this trick with bagels that have been sitting around overnight. Once you've converted your bagels into bagelsicles, the trick is to restore them to their original state. For this, you'll need a toaster oven, a nice, basic toaster oven by writing kelowna Black and Decker or somesuch old-money appliance firm. On the off chance that you don't already have one, go buy one; I'll just wait here. Back already? Good.

The next step is to place your frozen bagels in the toaster, and set it to toast, setting the essay scholarships toast darkness dial to thesis, medium-light. (That's eleven o'clock on international essay scholarships the Black Decker dial.) In a couple of shooting minutes, the essay timer will go off. The temptation at services, this point will be to take the bagel out and slice it in half, in preparation for toasting. Do not, repeat do not give in to this temptation. International Essay! What you've accomplished at this point, you see, is to superheat the outside of the bagel, while leaving the in the sun innards completely frozen. Bagels are truly lousy conductors of heat#151;but give them time, and they'll get the job done.

So studiously ignore your bagel for 10, 15, even 20 minutes, while the principle of heat transfer does its magic. At this point#151;before the principle of staleness has begun to international, set in#151;remove the bagel, and slice it open. If you've done everything right, you'll have a well-thawed bagel through and through, ready for toasting#151;or even edible without toasting, if that's what floats your boat. (Note: Peet tells me that you can also revive day-old bagels without freezing with this trick: brush the surface of the science thesis bagels with water, wrap them in a dish towel, likewise dampen the international essay outside of the on science towel, then pop the whole thing in the oven at 400 for ten minutes or so. Kinda crazy, but it just might work.) So as you can imagine, it's been a bit of a shock to international scholarships, discover what the rest of the world is level essays, being introduced to international essay scholarships, as part of essay of homework their standard bagelry menu. Essay Scholarships! Blueberry bagels. Pineapple bagels. Sun-dried tomato bagels, fer godsakes. Ask a native New Yorker about these obscene bastardizations of our native foodstuff, and science paper, they'll#151;well, let's ask some native New Yorkers and hear what they have to say: They're just wrong. A crime against nature, says lifelong Brooklynite Mindy. There is no such thing as a blueberry bagel, says Brooklyn native Rachel.

Cinnamon raisin bagels are acceptable. They're inferior, but they're acceptable. Blueberry bagels are like chasing your bourbon with a chocolate malt, says Manhattan native Peet, who is likewise tolerant of cinnamon raisin bagels. The dividing line: There's such a thing as raisin bread, and you eat cinnamon raisin toast as a kid, and it's a treat. But who wants to eat blueberry toast? Part of the problem, undoubtedly, is international essay scholarships, that the farther you go from New York, the more the bagels, frankly, suck. (You may have had New York Bagels in fiction some godforsaken place like Redwood City, California#151;suffice it to say that the truth-in-advertising laws are no more in effect there than with the East L.A.

Burritos on sale in Brooklyn.) Part of the problem may be that no one out in the Great American Wilderness has bothered to devote the proper energy to bagelcraft. (Even here in New York, you can walk into many corner delis and buy ersatz bagels that have been steamed #151;they're better described as rolls.) Another may be that the water isn't quite right#151;Mindy assures me that when she went to school in Albany, N.Y., the local water was too soft (or too hard#151;my memory's hazy again), making it impossible to produce either decent bagels or decent pizza crust. Most bagel connoisseurs will grant the New York bagel crown to either HH or its competitor Columbia Hot Bagels, a couple miles north on essay scholarships Broadway. Essays Fiction! Despite my early predilections, I've come to agree with those connoisseurs who vote for international Columbia Hot as the level biology best in scholarships the business: just the in the right combination of crispy outer shell and doughy, chewy innards that make for bagel perfection. HH's bagels, by comparison, are softer and essay, slightly sweeter#151;I recall reading somewhere that they use a dash of level sugar in their bagels, which seems like cheating. Essay Scholarships! (Mindy would no doubt have conniptions.) In my neighborhood of Park Slope, Brooklyn (where the gentrification that ate my ancestral home is rapidly being replicated), the clear choice is La Bagel Delight, which offers excellent examples of the dense, chewy bagel phylum in a range that includes both garlic and egg, but stops firmly at cinnamon raisin. In The! (The other local options are New York Bagels, which has a great grip on geography but produces soggy bagels beset with burnt onion flakes, and international essay scholarships, Bagelady, which I've never tried, mostly because I can't help reading it as an odd French noun: bah-zhel-ay-dee.) La Bagel is also the science thesis home of the Wacky Weekend Special: a dozen bagels (half onion, half plain, is our current standing order), a half- pound of essay scholarships nova lox (that's smoked salmon for you ferriners), a half-pound of essay benefit your choice of cream cheese (no longer Philadelphia but tofu-based for this lactose- intolerant son of the essay scholarships Old Country), and in the sun, a half-gallon of international Tropicana Orange Juice. With that, we can make about essays fiction, eight sandwiches, with a few bagels left over to freeze and revive later. (See sidebar for more on international essay this.) It's a constant reminder of why I put up with living in this city#151;the rents may be ghastly, but at least my tiny kitchen smells of toasting bagels, their nubbins of benefit onion just starting to brown under the toaster oven heating element. But I know that I live in an enclave, a last bastion of bagelicious purity. Across this great land of ours, a generation of young people is being raised to equate bagels with tasteless cookie-cutter confections with the essay scholarships consistency of an elephant and other foam rubber, and names like cranberry-orange and essay scholarships, lemon chiffon.

Why, even HH, the bagel mecca of my youth, now carries blueberry bagels. Writing Services! I bought one once. Scholarships! It tasted like a muffin gone awry. Next time, I'll stick with salt. Neil deMause is paper, editor of the zine HERE, and a writer for various other places you've never heard of.

His tastes in food, he has been told, run toward unsophisticated Italian.

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Kanthapura Essays and international, Research Papers. ?The Emergence of the Woman: A Reading of Raja Rao’s Kanthapura The woman has always been the unacknowledged and indiscernible core of the shooting and other, . Indian society, without which its patriarchy would fall apart. Never allowed a voice in the seminal aspects of life, the woman yet defines its traditional and cultural boundaries. Raja Rao’s Kanthapura (1938) is a subtle study of the immense change that the international, Gandhian movement of the thirties brought into the life of the Indian woman and yet didn’t let her cross. Black-and-white films , Gandhism , Gender 1215 Words | 2 Pages. Kanthapura as a novel of village or rural sensibility: Raja rao’s Kanthapura is a tale of atypical south Indian village in essay of homework the . kara area of Mysore.

The novel is a saga of village life with a political bias. There is international no conventional hero or heroine in it. The village of Kanthapura itself; with its presiding deity Kanchamma, with its live giving river Himavath, with its rustic topography, crops, weeds and diseases, with its characteristics, superstitions and in the, customs is essay one of the in the sun, main character. The. Character , Fiction , Goddess 1089 Words | 3 Pages. Summary of the Novel Kanthapura by Raja Rao. Raja Rao’s first novel Kanthapura (1938) is the story of a village in south India named Kanthapura . The novel is narrated in the . form of international, a ‘sthalapurana’ by an old woman of the village, Achakka.

Kanthapura is a traditional caste ridden Indian village which is away from all modern ways of living. Dominant castes like Brahmins are privileged to get the best region of the village whereas Sudras, Pariahs are marginalized. Of Homework! The village is believed to have protected by a local deity called Kenchamma. Though. Ahimsa , Caste system in scholarships India , Fiction 682 Words | 3 Pages. Comparative Study Between Waiting for Mahatma and resume writing services, Kanthapura. TITLE :- COMPARISON BETWEEN THE IMAGES OF ‘GANDHI’ IN KANTHAPURA AND WAITING FOR THE MAHATMA Name :- Purbita Bhattacharya M.A. 1ST SEMESTER . ROLL :- ME 110042 PAPER – 2 SUPERVISED BY :- PROF. CHANDRANATH ADHIKARY The novel WAITING FOR THE MAHATMA deals with the story of a young man named Sriram whose life revolves round the influence of Mahatma on him during the essay, years of Indian Freedom Struggle. In his age of writing, twenty he meets a girl named Bharati, an ardent.

Ahimsa , Bhagat Singh , Gujarat 1405 Words | 4 Pages. Gandhian Politics and international scholarships, Religion in Raja Rao's 'Kanthapura' creative impetus of the Indian novelists in English. In this paper I will discuss on how Gandhian blending of politics and religion gives an impact on the . minds of the Indian masses, especially of the villagers. Taking instances from Raja Rao’s novel kanthapura , I will seek to show how Gandhian political thoughts and teachings come in the guise of traditional religious terms and how it stirs the innocent and superstitious imaginations of the village folk. Gandhian secularism and A raisin sun, spiritual teachings aim. God , Hinduism , Human 2519 Words | 7 Pages. Foreword to Raja Rao's Kanthapura by Raja Rao My publishers have asked me to say a word of explanation. There is no village in India, . however mean, that has not a rich sthala-purana, or legendary history, of its own. Some god or godlike hero has passed by the village – Rama might have rested under this papal-tree, Sita might have dried her clothes, after her bath, on this yellow-stone, or the Mahatma himself, on one of his many pilgrimages through the country, might have slept in this hut. Bleecker Street , English people , Greenwich Village 489 Words | 2 Pages. Limited Emancipation: Women in Raja Rao s Kanthapura S E N A T H W . P E R E RA Kanthapura thus far have focussed . for the most part on scholarships the manner in which the aqa a essays, novel characterizes the Indian renaissance under Gandhi's leadership.

The approaches taken by international, M . K. Naik and K. S. Ramamurti are typical in this regard. Naik declares, in Dimensions of Indian English Literature, that WIU IS UD T E ^ D NE A N T E RK O F Raja Rao's Kanthapura ( 1 9 3 8 ) is easily the level essays, finest evocation of. Feminism , Feminist theory , India 5349 Words | 15 Pages. organization failed shortly after inception. In Bombay, he was also associated with Chetana, a cultural society for the propagation of Indian thought and . values. Rao's involvement in the nationalist movement is reflected in his first two books. The novel Kanthapura (1938) was an account of the impact of Gandhi's teaching on essay non-violent resistance against the British.

The story is A raisin in the sun seen from the international, perspective of a small Mysore village in South India. Rao borrows the style and benefit of homework, structure from Indian vernacular tales. English language , Fiction , History of India 1824 Words | 5 Pages. Gandhi. Scholarships! Important writers of the on science, 1930s and the 1940s were mulkraj anand, R.K. International! narayan and raja rao.

Mulk raj anand focused on the complexities of the . nationalist movement. Raja rao’s foreword in kanthapura in shooting essays 1938 began to function like a manifesto on Indian writing in English. Raja rao in his foreword to kanthapura talks about how does one bridge a gap between an alien language and a narrative that is international essay scholarships very specifically Indian. As sisir kumar das points out in the history of Indian literature “ A majority. Dialect , English language , India 1132 Words | 3 Pages. Electronic International Interdisciplinary Research Journal (EIIRJ) Electronic Bi-monthly Reviewed Journal Nov/Dec 2012 ISSN 2277-8721 A STUDY OF . Essay Benefit! MYTHOLOGY OF RAMAYANA IN RAJA RAO’S KANTHAPURA Dr. P.M. Scholarships! PATIL Member BOS in English, Shivaji University, Kolhapur Head, Department of English Arts, Commerce Science College, Palus. Dist-Sangli . 416310.(M.S) ABSTRACT The most celebrated ancient heroic text of India is the ‘Ramayana’. It provided themes for aqa a level biology essays important later literary works in essay scholarships Indian. India , Indian independence movement , Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi 2334 Words | 8 Pages.

ENGLISH LITERATURE Sub. Code: MAE/Y/230 Credits: 02 Total Marks: 100 Minimum Pass Marks: 40% Internal Assessment: 40 Marks University Examination: 60 . Marks Block 1 Non-Fictional Prose Block 2 Mulk Raj Anand : Untouchable Block 3 Raja Rao – Kanthapura Block 4 Anita Desai – Clear Light of in the, Day Block 5 Salman Rushdie – Midnight’s Children Block 6 Short Stories Block 7 Poetry Block 8 Mahesh Dattani- Tara SYLLABUS MASTER OF ARTS – ENGLISH YEAR – II STUDY OF NEW LITERATURES IN ENGLISH Sub. English language , English literature , English studies 682 Words | 5 Pages. Raj Anand, another towering figure in this genre, best remembered for his depiction of the neglected castes of society in his book “The Untouchable”. 1908 . – Birth Of Raja Rao, who published the first major English novel in international essay this genre called “ Kanthapura ” which portrayed a small South Indian village as a microcosm of the traditional Indian society along with its participation in the Gandhian movement. He also went on to become the first Indian to win the Neustadt International Prize for Literature. India , Indian English literature , Kiran Desai 1392 Words | 5 Pages. Sword and the Sickle (1942) is an biology essays epic account of the gradual growth of the protagonis's revolutionary consciousness which may be seen as a microcosm of . India's movement towards an awareness of the international essay scholarships, need for independence. Raja Rao's first novel Kanthapura (1938) is his most straightforward. It gives an science account of how her village's revolt against a domineering plantation owner comes to be informed by the Gandhian ideal of nonviolence. Rao's major work The Serpent and the Rope (1960) is regarded.

English language , India , Jawaharlal Nehru 1399 Words | 5 Pages. The Various Phases of the Development of the Indian English Novel. “Coolie” by Mulk Raj Anand, the social disparity in India is laid bare. In R.K.Narayan’s imaginary village Malgudi, the invisible men and women of international, our . teeming population come to life and act out life with all its perversities and whimsicalities. In ‘ Kanthapura ’ by an elephant essays, Raja Rao, Gandhism awakes in a sleepy village down south. India no longer needed to international scholarships be depicted by aqa a level, outsiders. The perspectives from within ensured more clarity and international essay scholarships, served a social documentative purpose as well. The early novels in India were.

India , Indian English , Indian English literature 662 Words | 2 Pages. side of a river are a category by essays on science fiction, themselves. International Essay! Nirad C. Chaudhuri has advanced the science thesis, theory that, for the Aryans in India, the 'river cult is a symbol of international, their . pre Indian existence eg : R.K. Aqa A Essays! Narayan's novels centred in Malgudi -on-Sarayu, Raja Rao's Kanthapura , the river Hemavathy is a person and a presence. History as the international essay, theme of creative fiction seems indeed to exercise a special fascination for thesis paper many Indian novelists. R.C.Dutt's, The slave girl of Agra, A.S.P. Ayyar's Baladitya, Chanakya and international essay, Chandragupta. India , Indian English literature , Indian literature 9158 Words | 25 Pages. different perspective or using a first person narrative where an writing omniscient narrative exists. The text could be converted to a drama or a film script. Scholarships! . Reviews could be written. Writing! A students making a study of Raja Rao’s Kanthapura could produce a tourist guide to the village of Kanthapura . International Essay Scholarships! Considering the number of students in our classrooms and their individual requirements.

These tasks may seem too ambitious. Their success depends on the motivation of the students. These methods encourage the students. Fiction , Hermeneutics , History of literature 2704 Words | 8 Pages. Empire : “On National Culture” from the Wretched of the in the, Earth : “Survival” from Survival : “Commonwealth Literature Does Not Exist” from Imaginary Homelands . Scholarships! Margaret Atwood Salman Rushdie Unit 2 : Fiction I Raja Rao R.K. Narayan Amitav Ghosh : Kanthapura : A Tiger from biology, Malgudi : In an Antique Land Unit 3 : Fiction II Peter Carey Margaret Atwood V.S.

Naipaul : True History of the Kelly Gang : Surfacing : A House for Mr. Biswas Unit 4 : Poetry I Nissim Ezekiel : “Night of the Scorpion”. England , English language , Language acquisition 1506 Words | 12 Pages. of the scholarships, Book Author Train to fiction Pakistan Khuswant Singh Autobiography of an unknown Indian Nirad C Chaudhary Kiran Desai The Inheritance of Loss . Essay! Hullabaloo in the Guava Orchard Name of the Book Coolie The Guide Swami and his friends Kanthapura Serpent and the rope Cry, the shooting and other essays, peacock The Artist of Disappearance The Village by the Sea Continent of Circe Midnight’s Children Satanic Verses A Suitable Boy The Glass Palace The God of Small Things Walking with the international scholarships, Comrades Interpreter. India , Indian English literature , Indian National Congress 1444 Words | 7 Pages.

Pioneers Trio of Indian English Fiction. Mahatma Gandhi and Sri Atmanand Guru of Trivandrum, and it reflected in his works. His first masterpiece, Kanthapura [1938] is on science fiction perhaps the . finest representation of the international, Gandhian whirlwind in Indian English fiction. It is the story of a village with that name, It presents “the Gandhian ideology of non-violence and abolition of untouchability.. Like its spirit, the form and style of aqa a essays, Kanthapura also follow the Indian tradition.

The Serpent and the Rope [1960] written after a long silence during which. English language , India , Indian novelists 4468 Words | 13 Pages. modeled upon - (a) Don Quixote (b) Endymion (c) Annus Mirabilis (d) Pilgrim's Progress 17. Who was the last of the international essay scholarships, Christian Humanists? (a) John Bunyan . On Science! (b) Oliver Cromwell (c) John Milton (d) Richard Crashaw 18. The narrative of essay, Raja Rao's Kanthapura is based on- (a) The Ramayana (b) The Mahabharata (c) Puranas (d) Shastras 19. Which of the following author- book pairs is correctly matched? (a) Arundhati Roy - Algebra of Infinite Justice (b) Shashi Tharoor - Trotter's Name (c) C.L.R.

Following , Literary criticism , Literary theory 1349 Words | 8 Pages. Fable to Myth in the Novels of William Golding. ground where a new house had been constructed for the execution of Mangal pandey . Thu;s, This is the story of the illustrious son of Bharat Mata and his . In The Sun! drearn of complete freedom.D i g 2 3 E n E 4 REEEBENEESj naia Rao, Kanthapura , Madras, Oxford i.Jr.:iversity press 1994 (English tmpression ) GoswamiTulsidas . Ram Charit ln4anas ,Grta [-]ress Gorakhpur Shyam'Dua .The luminous Iife of flv. Allegory , Fable , Human 1585 Words | 4 Pages. real persons of the Indian society. International Scholarships! Among other novelist, Raja Rao is famous for his narrative techniques. He combined the aqa a level biology essays, narrative techniques of Ramayana . and Mahabharata with those modern western 32 techniques of Eliot and international essay, Joyce. His Kanthapura is put in the mouth of essay, a grandmother.

R. K. Narayan is a powerful novelist having considerable philosophical bent of essay, mind. It is seen in his novels The Bachelor of Arts and The Dark Room. The tragedy of partition provided the essays fiction, writers with. English language , History of India , India 14866 Words | 59 Pages. The English Teacher 03 Theory on essay scholarships Myth and Lit.

04 05 Non-Detailed Study Girish Karnad a) Raja Rao b) Anita Desai c) Shashi Deshpande d) . Salman Rushdie e) Arundhati Roy Northrop Frye: Myth, Fiction and Displacement Yayati Kanthapura Cry the Peacock That Long Silence Midnight’s Children The God of Small Things Recommended Reading: 1. K. R. Srinivas Iyengar: History of Indian English Literature 2. M. K. Naik: History of Indian Writing in English 3. Northrop Fry: The. English language , English literature , English studies 5577 Words | 66 Pages. shows the different values of the two, the of homework, American’s dialogue concerned with acquisition and international scholarships, possessions, while Muni is concerned with history and . spirituality. Wider reading The Guide (novel) and thesis paper, Malgudi Days (short stories) by international essay scholarships, RK Narayan Kanthapura by Raja Rao Compare with Games at Twilight by Anita Desai Of White Hairs and aqa a, Cricket by international, Rohinton Mistry Online Information about RK Narayan is resume writing services kelowna available at: http://www.eng.fju.edu.tw/worldlit/india/narayan.html Patricia Grace (1937-) . Edgar Allan Poe , Fiction , Narrative 2737 Words | 11 Pages. Paraclete” Toru Dutt “Sita”, “Our Casuarina Tree” Sarojini Naidu “The Pardah Nashin”, Ghanashyam” Fiction Krupabai Satthianandhan Mulk Raj Anand Fiction Raja . Essay Scholarships! Rao R K Narayan Prose Rabindranath Tagore B R Ambedkar Kamala: a Story of Hindu life Untouchable Kanthapura The Man-Eater of Malgudi “Nationalism in resume writing kelowna India” (from Nationalism) “The Annihilation of Caste” (Collected Works of B R Ambedkar, Vol III) Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 Paper III Unit 1 Unit 2 Postcolonial Literatures Background Colonialism-Imperialism;. England , English language , Language education 3073 Words | 15 Pages. England, and Coolie (1945), and The Private Life of an Indian Prince (1953) which were written in India.

He was among the first writers to render Punjabi and essay scholarships, . Hindustani idioms into English. Raja Rao was considered a Nationalist novelist. A Raisin In The Sun! His novel Kanthapura (1938) was an account of the international, impact of Gandhi's teaching on non-violent resistance against science paper, the British. His other novel The Serpent and the Rope is a work dramatising the relationships between Indian and Western culture.The serpent in international essay the title refers. English language , India , Indian English literature 3343 Words | 10 Pages.

Production of Natural Rubber from Para Rubber Tree. spp) based on RFLP, AFLP, microsatellite and isozyme markers. Ther Appl Genet 100: 127–138 Metcalfe CR (1966) Distribution of latex in the plant kingdom. . Econ Bot 21: 115–127 Montoro P, Rattana W, Pujade-Renaud V, Michaux-Ferriere N, Monkolsook Y, Kanthapura R, Adunsadthapong S (2003) Production of thesis, Hevea brasiliensis transgenic embryogenic callus lines by Agrobacterium tumefaciens: Role of international scholarships, calcium. Plant Cell Rep 21: 1095–1102. Mooibroek H, Cornish K (2000) Alternative sources of natural rubber.

Appl. Castilla elastica , Euphorbiaceae , Henry Wickham 2490 Words | 8 Pages. Indian English Literature: Changing Trends and History. by Sake Dean Mahomet, titled Travels of Dean Mahomet; Mahomet's travel narrative was published in 1793 in England. Early Indian writers used English . unadulterated by Indian words to writing services convey an experience which was essentially Indian. International Essay! Raja Rao's Kanthapura in terms of its storytelling qualities was essentially Indian. It is perhaps the finest representation of the Gandhian whirlwind in Indian English fiction. It presents the Gandhian ideology of non-violence and abolition of untouchability. Essays Fiction! Rabindranath. English language , India , Indian English literature 2985 Words | 8 Pages.

narrative was published in 1793 in England. In its early stages it was influenced by the Western art form of the novel. Scholarships! Early Indian writers used English . unadulterated by Indian words to on science convey an experience which was essentially Indian. Raja Rao's Kanthapura is Indian in terms of its storytelling qualities. Rabindranath Tagore wrote in Bengali and English and was responsible for the translations of his own work into English.

Dhan Gopal Mukerji was the first Indian author to win a literary award in the. Caste , Delhi , English language 3643 Words | 9 Pages. Language in Indian Writing in English. characters who more often than not are presumed to be speaking and thinking not in English at all, but in international essay scholarships a plurality of Indian languages.” The use of benefit of homework, . Scholarships! English by Indian authors has always been to suit their tastes and needs. Raja Rao, the author of Kanthapura famously argued in 1938 for using English, but an English adapted to essays an Indian conditions. He said “English is not really an alien language to us. It is the language of our intellectual make-up - like Sanskrit or Persian was before - but not of. Arundhati Roy , English language , Fiction 3653 Words | 9 Pages.

which was aptly described by Mulk Raj Anand in international essay scholarships his Coolie, the imaginary village life with its entire unedited realities in R.K. Narayan`s Malgudi Days . and last but not the least the aura of Gandhism depicted by Raja Rao in his remarkable novel Kanthapura portrayed a whole new India. The need of the `foreigners` depicting India amidst their write ups was not needed as Indians wanted to portray India through their Indian English. That was the beginning of the voyage and resume writing services, with time it gained maturity. English language , India , Indian English literature 17475 Words | 45 Pages. Renaissance, Its Impact on international scholarships English Literature. Ramanujam: “Self Portrait”, “River”, “Love Poem for a Wife” Jayant Mahapatra: “Hunger”, “Dawn at Puri”, “Indian Summer” Unit V Mahesh . Dattani: Tara Section B Unit VI Mulkh Raj Anand : Untouchable Unit VII Raja Rao : Kanthapura UnitVIII Anita Desai: Clear Light of the essays on science fiction, Day Unit IX Salman Rushdie: Midnight’s Children Section C: Background Reading Rabindernath Tagore, Keki Daruwalla, R. Parthasarthi, GV Desani, Bhabani Bhattacharya, Kamala Markandaya, Amitav Ghosh. England , English language , Literary criticism 4043 Words | 23 Pages.

the history and reception of IWE, the rest of the essay scholarships, units will require them to study issues that define the resume services kelowna, Indian ethos of the texts under scrutiny. Unit I: . [15 marks] [12 lectures] History of Indian writing in English Unit II: Fiction Raja Rao. Kanthapura [10 marks] [10 lectures] Unit III: Non Fictional Narrative Vikram Seth. From Heaven Lake. Unit IV: Poetry • Nissim Ezekiel. Scholarships! • • • Keki Daruwala.

A.K. Ramanujan. Jayanta Mahapatra. [35 marks] [12 lectures] “Night of the Scorpion” “Gulzaman’s Son”. England , English language , English studies 3882 Words | 14 Pages. Meditations, tr.

Gregory Hays (London: Weidenfeld Nicolson, 2003): Book 5; Book 7; Book 9. Thucydides 2. Sappho Ovid 3. Virgil 4. Horace . Juvenal Marcus Aurelius 21 Eng 0403(ii) Indian Literature 2 1. Raja Rao T. B. Macaulay Kanthapura ‘Minute on shooting an elephant Education’, in Lord Macaulay’s Legislative Minutes, ed. C. Essay Scholarships! D. Dharkar (London, 1946). Services Kelowna! Midnight’s Children I Follow After: An Autobiography, tr. E. Josephine Inkster (New Delhi: Oxford, 1998). (i) ‘Vande Mataram’, tr. K. Swaminathan (pp. Delhi , Oxford University Press , University of essay scholarships, Cambridge 5401 Words | 20 Pages. Indian National Congress and an elephant, Pearl S. Buck.

Junglee Girl | Ginu Kamani | Kadambari | Bana Bhatt | Kamadhenu | Kubernath Ray | Kamasutra | Vatsyayan | Kagaz Te Kanwas | Amrita Pritam | Kamayani | . Jai Shankar Pandit | Kaleidoscope of India | Tomoji Muto | Kali Aandhi | Kamleshwar | Kanthapura | Raja Rao | Kanyadaan | Vijay Tendulkar | Kapal Kundala | Bankim Chandra Chatterjee | Kashmir-A Tale of essay scholarships, Shame | Hari Jaisingh | Kashmir-Behind the Vale | M.J.Akbar | Kashmir Diary: Psychology of Militancy | Gen.Arjun Ray | Kashmir-The Wounded. Arthur Conan Doyle , Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay , George Bernard Shaw 7362 Words | 41 Pages. boy uprooted from the land. His trilogy, The Village (1939), Across The Black Waters (1940) and The Sword and the Sickle (1942), is an epic account of the . gradua l growth of the prota gonist's revolutionary consciousness. Raja Rao's first novel Kanthapura (1938) is and other essays his most straight forward work. It gives an account of how her village's revolt against a domineering plantation owner comes to be influenced the Gandhian ideal of non-violence.

Rao's major work The Serpent and scholarships, the Rope (1960) is level biology essays regarded. Carnatic music , Hinduism , Hindustani classical music 25043 Words | 73 Pages. Search for Identity in Shashi Deshpande's Novels. a small town in south India in his first novel Swami and Friends. Essay Scholarships! Raja Rao achieves Indianess by capturing the aqa a biology, flavour of international essay scholarships, a regional dialect. Indianess is . seen in the use of a few words here and sun, these from the language use of imagery. Raja Rao’s Kanthapura (1938), is perhaps the finest evocation of the Gandhian age in Indian English Fiction. William Walsh rightly opines: “It was in 1930s that the Indians began what has now turned out to be their very substantial contribution to the novel in English. Feminism , First novel in English , India 31940 Words | 95 Pages. Oxford University Press, New Delhi). Section-B 1. Joseph Conrad.

Lord Jim. 2. International Scholarships! James Joyce. Portrait of the essays on science fiction, Artist as a Young Man. 3. Essay Scholarships! D.H. Lawrence. Sons and . Lovers. 4. E.M. Forster. A Passage to India. 5. Virginia Woolf. Writing! Mrs Dalloway. 6. Raja Rao. International Essay! Kanthapura . 7. Fiction! V.S. Naipal. A House for Mr. Biswas.

GUJARATI PAPER-I (Answers must be written in Gujarati) Section-A Gujarati Language : Form and international, history 1. A Raisin In The! History of Gujarati Language with special reference to international essay New Indo-Aryan i.e. last one thousand years. Civil service , Comprehensive examination , Disability 46414 Words | 140 Pages. strength in aqa a common, that, in varying degrees, they have Indian responses to international essay life and things.” But the problem—a major one for level biology essays all Indian creative writers who . write in international essay English lucidly summed up by Raja Rao in the oft-quoted extract from writing kelowna, his Foreward in international essay Kanthapura (“One has to convey in a language not ones own, the spirit that is one’s own.”) is even more potent for A raisin poets. Two major literary critics have raised questions about first, the international essay, authenticity, and second, the Indianness of Indian English poetry. Shooting An Elephant And Other Essays! Buddhadeb. English language , English poetry , English studies 84820 Words | 268 Pages. particular kind of sensitivity to language and international essay, willingness to tax and shooting an elephant, stretch the language, the best poetry in international essay scholarships English has been written by Indian novels.

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A Guide for Writing Marathon Leaders. Summary : This in-depth guidedrawn from the book I'm a Writer: Essays on the Writing Marathon and Why We Write covers just about everything needed to organize and essay, run a successful writing marathon. Lulu, 2010, 160 pages. There are many kinds of writing marathons, and depending on audience, time frame, and aqa a biology, location, writing marathon leaders may have to adjust their preparations and international scholarships, expectations. However, having led or participated in close to 100 writing marathons since the first New Orleans Writing Marathon in 1994, I offer the following advice for essay benefit those who plan to lead writing marathons. 1. Leading a writing marathon is different from being on international scholarships, a writing marathon. The leader should try to participate, of course, but sometimes that is difficult due to essay benefit of homework, the planning and little details involved.

The leader's primary job is to international essay scholarships, understand the underlying purpose of the writing marathon well enough to communicate it to an audience that may be unfamiliar with it; to introduce the writing marathon concept to shooting an elephant and other essays, the group and to get it started; and to prepare ahead so that the international essay scholarships writing marathon runs smoothly and writers don't need to think about much except their writing. In the case of leading a marathon at a school, this may mean getting permission from parents and school authorities; assigning chaperones when necessary; creating and reviewing a handout with students; picking a location; assigning groups; reviewing the marathon basics on a handout; determining how the marathon will feed back into the classroom and your teaching goals, and shooting, so forth. In the case of leading a marathon for international scholarships adults, the science leader may be involved with other kinds of preparation, including getting a list of names and cell phones of participants; creating a back-up plan for latecomers; having a central location where the leader(s) might expect to international essay, begin and end the marathon; providing a map of the area and suggested locations for writing; reviewing the marathon basics on aqa a level biology, a handout; planning a read-around or debriefing at the end, and other items. In both cases, the international scholarships leader needs to set the tone by helping the essay benefit of homework participants feel comfortable, by reviewing the basic purpose of a marathon (enjoyment in writing), by preparing ahead for any eventualities, and by treating the audience as writers (as opposed to students and teachers) from the beginning and throughout. 2. International Scholarships! A writing marathon is all about the level biology essays writing and writer. A writing marathon is really quite simple.

It's about setting people loose to write. So emphasize the writing. Yes, it involves small groups, a particular protocol for reading and responding, a common setting, some socializing, and a sense of community. And these things should be respected as part of the model that has made writing marathons so successful. However, I've seen leaders forget why writers gather together on international, a marathon, or at least confuse their priorities so that the writing takes second place to sightseeing, following an agenda, or bonding. I have witnessed writing marathons where writing took a backseat to something elseto listening to a tour guide, to seeing a particular monument, to visiting a museum or an biology essays, exhibit, to eating in scholarships a particular place. Leaders need to do their best to keep it simple, stick to resume services, the model, and keep peripheral things from taking over the focus or the energy of writers in the marathon. Leaders must be the scholarships ones to remember and emphasize that the writing marathon is in the sun not about sightseeing (though that can occur). It is international scholarships not about having to an elephant and other, go to a designated place or to write in a prescribed way or for a mandated amount of time.

It is not about being with friends. It's simply about writing and enjoying the scholarships writing experience (even though what one writes on a marathon can often be challenging or distressing). 3. The more writing, the better. I have been on marathons as short as 60 minutes and paper, as long as three days. The point is essay not so much the amount of time (though more time is shooting an elephant usually better) but how the time is used. My students can get three rounds of writing done in a class period. But I have been on daylong marathons where I have barely gotten three rounds of writing because of the location, the group, the chemistry. While everything that happens during the marathon counts toward the writingthe walking, the talking, the looking in shop windows, the standing in café linesone needs to remember that if any of these get in essay scholarships the way of actually doing the writing, then they are counterproductive. Resume Kelowna! So groups should be encouraged to do as many rounds of writing as they can.

4. Remember the writing marathon model. The model for the writing marathon comes first from Natalie Goldberg, whose book Writing Down the Bones deserves credit for inspiring the kind of writing marathons we do. She taught us the basic protocol: write, read your writing to essay, others, and say only thank you after each reading. And do this again and again for essay benefit of homework as long as you can. That is the model in a nutshell. In our New Orleans style writing marathon, we have added food, talk, place, and movement to the model, but these should never interfere with the basic routine of write, read, say thank you. It sounds corny, but to international scholarships, ask your participants at the beginning of a writing marathon to turn to each other and say, I am a writer, is not only a kind of ritual that binds all writing marathons together, but an act which really sets the essays tone and gets the audience thinking about who they are during the marathon and why they are there. If participants do not see themselves as writers, but instead see themselves as tourists of a city, or teachers on international essay, a holiday, or parents with other responsibilities, or kids getting out of class, then the writing marathon really isn't a writing marathon. The marathon is ultimately about the resume writing services kelowna writing, and international, more important, it is about the writerand giving the writer an opportunity to write. The marathon begins the moment you gather together for the introduction.

6. Give thought to how you handle groups. When I have only 60 minutes for a marathon, and a class of 24 students, what I will do is quickly assign groups of 4 so that no one is left out and no time is wasted in trying to decide who goes with whom. But that is an an elephant and other essays, anomaly dictated by international essay circumstance. My usual approach is to say, Walk out the resume services door, see who you end up walking near, and go write with them. Preplanning groupsparticularly with adultscan really spoil the international essay freedom, choice, and even risk that add energy to a writing marathon. You need to get across to the entire community of the writing marathon, as a leader, that everyone who participates should fully commit to the experienceelse they should not be there. And what that commitment means is staying the full time (whatever that may be); following the model for writing/reading/responding; and keeping the essay of homework emphasis on the writing. Essay Scholarships! Though being with friends, as writers, can be enjoyable, I find that I write better with people I do not know so well because I assume less, fraternize less, have less in common, and therefore write more and better. It isn't necessary for groups to decide ahead of time where they plan to go, as the point of the marathon is not to visit a specific place but to fiction, discover what it is like to write in places where you least expected to be. (If your crowd wants to visit particular places, encourage them to do so as tourists, later.

If they want a writing marathon experience, encourage them just to go out, see where their feet lead them, and write together.) Encourage groups to international, remain small (three or four writers in each if possible) so that they can get seating in places, so that the readings don't take too long, and so that bonding will occur. Also, I think groups that agree, at the beginning, to science thesis, share their writing every round no matter how bad it is, tend to write better and to enjoy the experience more than groups that don't make such a commitment. And having someone in international scholarships the group act as timekeeper keeps everyoneas a writeron track, and has always worked well for me. As much as any other writer, I like to break away occasionally, get my own table, and write by myself for an hour; however, I will honestly admit, whenever I have done that I have not written as well or enjoyed the experience as much as when I sat, elbow to elbow around one table with three other writers, with one of them designated to tell us when ten minutes are up. 7. Writing occurs even when you are not writing.

NWP's Atlanta Marathon was very instructive to me on this point. Level Essays! I had gone to Atlanta before the marathon to international, scope out the city, and benefit of homework, what I discovered was that the city really wasn't all that suitable to a writing marathon. There were surprisingly few coffee shops and other such places for small groups to gather, and the city itself seemed too large and cavernous. Luckily, I was informed that nearby Decatur would be perfectjust a Metro ride away. After giving everyone a brief introduction to essay, the marathon in a downtown hotel, I held my breath as I asked them all to find their way to the Metro, purchase tickets, and science thesis paper, find their way to Decatur. I thought it was going to be a big mess. It wasn't. And what I was thrilled to notice was participants sitting on the Metro and writing on the way to their destination. They had grasped something instinctively that I, as the nervous leader, had forgotten.

That is, the marathon begins the moment you gather together for the introduction, and if you think of yourself as a writer from that moment on, then no time is lost in transportation, in finding writing spots, etc. The journey itself is part of the marathon, and you do not need to essay, wait until you arrive at some designated place to begin your writing. Participants, who might feel antsy about traveling to a spot, need to know that. 8. Consider whether your marathon needs closure. I like to essays on science fiction, tell participants at the beginning of international, a writing marathon that if they are on a roll, don't bother coming back.

It is all about the writing, so if you are writing well, why give that up to biology essays, come back for international a reading? More than once, I have followed my own advice, even though I was the leader of the writing kelowna marathon, and stayed writing in a pub or coffeehouse when everyone else returned to a scheduled read-around at essay, the end of the day. Level Biology Essays! So, a read-around is international essay not mandatory, nor is any closing event. Science Thesis Paper! Still, some people like them, and if the location and duration of the marathon make it feasible, by all means, schedule a final gathering. It does not have to be in essay the same place where the marathon begins, though that might seem the logical choice. In The! We have begun a marathon in a hotel room and gathered, at the end of the international essay scholarships day, at essays on science fiction, a designated pub. I will say this, however: I have attended both weak and strong final gatherings. The weak ones were either in a place with poor acoustics and insufficient seating, or they started too soon and ended too late. Here is the international scholarships ideal closure so far as I am concerned: it is at a location that everyone can find easily, at a time that doesn't cut into people's writing.

It has some food and drink (BYOB), and is partly a social. People are asked to come, let's say, at 5 p.m. Essay Of Homework! When they arrive, they have time to mix and international scholarships, talk. We post a sign-up sheet, and fiction, ask anyone who intends to scholarships, read to benefit of homework, sign up for a spot. This does away with the neverending reading, and it also lets people choose when they are scheduled to read (first, second, last).

Before we begin the essay reading, the leader lays down some ground rules: participants are invited to essay, read from their writing (not talk about it); they are encouraged to choose something that fits the audience and purpose (that is, they are encouraged to keep it short and to essay, not read anything that would be offensive to the larger audience); they are told that it is tradition to applaud at the end of each reading, so we will applaud; and they are told that if anyone goes on too long, the leader will politely interrupt and say time is up. All those ground rules, being known up front, help everyone know what lies ahead and prevent some surprises we have had before and would rather not have again. The marathon leaders usually look at the list of essay of homework, readers and sign up to be last, to make sure the reading closes down when it needs to, and if it has gone on too long, the international scholarships leaders might just say a few words at the end rather than read. We have recorded some of these readings and turned them into essays on science radio shows (with the understanding by the readers that they were being recorded for possible publication). Often, halfway through, we will take a seven-minute stretch for restrooms and refreshments. However, it is up to the leaders to keep the international reading going and to make sure it honors the writers and an elephant essays, writing as well as the day. An alternative to a traditional read-around that we have tried is to inform everyone at the beginning of the day that we will gather at essay scholarships, the end in order to share our experiences rather than to have a formal reading. This is often preferable, as it gives folks a chance just to debrief and essays, compare notes in a somewhat informal discussion. Occasionally someone will say, Oh, I must read this, and that is okay, but the international emphasis in this kind of closing activity is really not on publishing the writing that was done extemporaneously, but just on talking about the experience.

9. Remember: choice, community, diversity, spontaneity, serendipity, discovery. If writers are given the freedom of choicewhere to go, whom to write with, what to write aboutthey will want to write. And if they feel that they are part of a communitythe small audience of their response group and the larger community of marathoners spread out across a landscapethey will feel comfort. If they participate in an event which has some order to it but that recognizes people's diversity, and the different paths, needs, and interests of individualstheir experience will be expanded. If they allow for spontaneity, they open themselves to the serendipity as well as discovery that make writers want to write. Leaders need to remember these as the principles underlying the writing marathon that keep writers coming back. 10.

Enjoyment is natural to this kind of writing and it is the key. If writers do not enjoy themselves on a writing marathon, it is shooting an elephant and other usually because they have not participated in a real writing marathon experience. It is usually because they spent too much energy trying to get into an exhibit, or trying to find a particular restaurant, or trying to catch up with friends, or standing in line, or talking over food, or waiting for table service, or writing to impress. Essay Scholarships! All of those things can happen on writing marathons, and when they do, they usually detract from the experience. A writing marathon is all about the writing and writer. Say it again. It is all about the aqa a biology essays writing and writer.

And writing is enjoyable, especially when you do not have to international essay scholarships, do it for anyone else but yourself, when no one will criticize it, when you give it plenty of time, and when you allow yourself to of homework, write about things you did not expect. Writers do not need the words of a famous poet to inspire them on a writing marathon or a map to a fantastic location. International Essay Scholarships! All they need, really, are some writing tools, time, a few companions, and the desire to shooting an elephant and other, write. It is about the writing act, not the writing product. Most of our writing in essay scholarships school and in A raisin in the the publishing life is about product. We teach our students the so-called writing processdraft, revise, polish, editand when that is done, they have supposedly learned to international, write. What they have learned is one way to write.

There is an entire world of writersand enjoyment in aqa a level writingthat this process does not tap into. And the writing marathon does. That is, writing for the sake of writing. Writing for the moment. Writing for the immediate audience. Writing as the foundation of other writing by peers who respond directly to your thoughts in their own writing. Writing as the experience of a moment or place. Scholarships! Writing for the self. None of that necessarily puts a paper in a portfolio to be graded, or a book on the bookshelf to be reshelved years later in a used book store and A raisin, then eventually left in scholarships a box outside the store for passersby, or shipped to Goodwill, or recycled to become cardboard boxes to contain books shipped to Goodwill. My point: the on science fiction writing marathon is international essay scholarships all about the shooting an elephant writing act, and enjoyment of the writing act, whatever it produces. In that sense, it is subversive and antiestablishment.

Not its subversiveness, but its purpose, is probably one reason it keeps attracting writers. The Writing Marathon Handout (PDF) might be helpful for leaders to use or adapt for their own writing marathons. To keep myself honest, and because I'm afraid of forgetting something, I read it aloud at every marathon I lead as well as provide one for each member of the audience. (Yes, always have extra copies on hand.) It has become a thread to link not only those that I have led, but to link mine with others across the country.

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essay on sankofa This 1993 film by Haile Gerima bends concepts of time and international space in order to take the protagonist, Mona, and the audience through the terrible ordeal that was the Maafa, the African Holocaust (swagga.com). An Elephant Essays. ? Although the majority of his film takes place in the past, Gerima fervently believes that the importance of the film Sankofa is the direction it can provide for both the present and essay scholarships the future. As the A raisin in the, film begins and essay scholarships the opening credits roll, we hear a drum beat and a voice passionately urging the aqa a biology, spirit of the dead, those who died in Surinam, Brazil, Jamaica, Mississippi, Florida, and Alabama, to rise up and claim their bird of passage ( Gerima ). The opening sequence ends with a bronze figure of a bird with its head turned backwards, looking behind itself . The source of the drumming is international essay scholarships revealed to be an African man, covered in a white ceremonial clay or ash. ? He is named Sankofa the Divine Drummer, and, as it will be revealed, he believes that his daily drumming is necessary to lead the essay, spirits of those killed in the African Diaspora back home. ? The scene shifts and international scholarships Mona makes her first appearance along the beach, wearing what film critic Andy Spletzer calls an orange, Tina Turner fright wig . Mona is modeling for a fashion shoot, and her white American photographer is encouraging her to be more sexy and to give me more sex ( Gerima ). Essay Benefit Of Homework. The Divine Drummer reappears, startling Mona. Sankofa is now dressed in scholarships a flowing robe, minus his ceremonial chalked skin. ? He confronts the model and photographer, chastising them in an African language that escapes the two Americans completely, but that the viewing audience is able to understand through subtitles. Because of the language barrier, Mona is able to dismiss Sankofa in her mind as absurd, and laughs at the old man. Mona and A raisin sun her photographer resume their photo shoot, this time with Mona dressed in less revealing clothing. ? They are no longer along the beach, but are instead on the upper levels of a castle-like structure. There are tourists that are passing in the background, and it is through an English-speaking tour guide that the audience learns more about the setting and about the motivations of the Divine Drummer. The location is the essay scholarships, Cape Coast of Ghana and the castle-like structure is the slave fortress known as the Cape Coast Castle. It was from this place, the and other essays, second largest slave fortress in Africa (panafest.com), that captured Africans were brought, gathered, and branded before they were packed into slave ships and transported to the Americas and to Europe . The Divine Drummer again confronts Mona and her photographer, berating the two for disrespecting the solemnity of this sacred place. Sankofa tells the white photographer that it was at this fortress that whites humiliated and abused millions of Africans, and that the photographer does not belong there. ? Sankofa then admonishes Mona, telling her that she does not know where she is from, and pronounces to Mona that she must go back to essay scholarships her source ( Gerima ). Essay Benefit Of Homework. Sankofa's words are soon interrupted by armed soldiers who are seeking to preserve the fortress as a tourist destination. ? Mona seems less sure of herself and her presence on international essay scholarships, the island, and aqa a level biology begins to scholarships follow the tourist group.

The tour guide relates to level essays his audience how, at different times, the international essay scholarships, fortress was controlled by the British, the French, and the Portuguese. As the tour continues, Mona begins to fall behind. ? A door slams behind her, and the room she is in turns dark. ? When Mona again finds light, she is standing before a room of silent Africans who are in chains and shackled together. ? The bound Africans look at Mona, but do not say a word. ? Mona runs from the chained Africans, towards a closed door, and biology essays begins to scream and cry for help. ? The door is thrown open, only to reveal a courtyard of coarse looking white men. Essay. ? The men grab Mona and begin dragging her towards a fire. ? As she is being handled, Mona screams I'm an American! ? I'm not an African! ? Mona has her clothes ripped from her and, once she is fully exposed, she is branded with a hot iron. Essays. ? Mona has been placed into bondage as an enslaved African. International Essay. ? She has been transported through time and, as our new narrator, Mona tells us that she is now named Shola , and she is a house slave on the Lafayette plantation. Aqa A. ? Mona is living the life of one of her enslaved ancestors, living in bondage on international, a sugar cane plantation. ? Mona's temporal shift into the life of Shola transforms the film into a framed story that ? gives audiences insight into the ties of African love and unity that allowed many of the enslaved Africans to resist their brutal plantation tormenters. ? About the filmmaker. Haile Gerima was born in aqa a biology Gondar , Ethiopia in 1946. Gerima's mother was a school teacher and his father was a theater producer. As a child, Gerima studied acting and essay scholarships performed in his father's troupe (Heath).

As a result of resume writing services Ethiopia's fixation on international, modernization, Gerima feels that Ethiopian people had begun to see the history and culture of African peoples as inferior (Morris). We began to worship Europeans as the providers of the writing kelowna, new science and technology that's going to elevate our society. So the situation is in Ethiopia I am looking down on everything I have as primitive and savage, backward, and aspiring for a higher culture-westernized (Morris). In 1967, Gerima moved to the United States to international essay scholarships study theatre at Chicago's Goodman School of Drama. While there, Gerima realized that the plays he was seeing were either lacking a Black presence entirely, or cast ? a few Blacks in writing subservient roles (Morris). In Chicago , the drama, it's all white plays. You want to act you want to be in a play it's white. So whiteness is kingdom (Morris). Gerima relocated to California in 1969 and attended the essay, University of California at Los Angeles drama school (Heath), and was influenced by the Black Nationalist Movement that was building at that time.

Gerima has said in interviews that It was the best time, historically, for me to science paper have come to America . The Black movement engulfed me and hi-jacked me out of my submissive colonial position. Out of scholarships that I developed [the theme of] `the return,' the 'journey.' So, all of my films are about returning. I am deeply indebted to this period of Black American history (Dembrow). In 1976, Haile Gerima joined the faculty at Howard University , the largest Black university in America . Gerima continues to produce films through his studio Mypheduh Films Inc. (Heath), and in 1996, Gerima opened his Sankofa Video and Bookstore (Iverem). ? The two businesses have allowed Gerima to become one of the leading distributors of shooting films by African and African-American filmmakers. Color. International Scholarships. 10 minutes.

Child of Resistance (1972) Black and white. 97 minutes. Mirt Sost Shi Amit /Harvest: 3000 Years (1975) [In Amheric with English subtitles] Black and white. 150 minutes. Color. A Raisin In The. 120 minutes. Ashes and international essay Embers (1982)

Color. 120 minutes. After Winter – Sterling Brown (1985) Color. 125 minutes. Adwa (1999) [In Amheric and English] A White Man's Heaven is a Black Man's Hell The title of fiction Minister Louis Farrakhan's 1950's calypso tune seems appropriate for essay a discussion of religion in on science the film Sankofa , in part because of the spirit of Black Nationalism shared by both Gerime and Minister Farrakhan, but more importantly for the indictment of the blue-eyed version of Christianity that is used in the movie as a tool to international essay control some of the more susceptible enslaved Africans.

Nowhere is the insidious nature of Western-style plantation Christianity more clearly revealed than in the character of Joe. Joe is the light-skinned son of Nunu. But where Nunu is shooting essays a leader of the resistence and scholarships has used her knowledge of science thesis African custom and religion as a source of strength, Joe has rejected Africa, and therefore rejected his mother. Joe considers himself a Bible-fearing Christian, and turns to the plantation minister Father Raphael for guidance. Father Raphael tells Joe to pray harder and to international scholarships shun Nunu, who Raphael refers to as that heathen Guinea woman (Gerima).

Joe is frequently seen praying to a picture of the Virgin Mary and Child, in an effort to remove himself from his mother and the other enslaved Africans. Joe retreats to his worship of a white Virgin Mary in order to ease his doubts, while he castigates his own mother. Like in Chinua Achebe's Arrow of God , there is no room for a combination of African rituals and Catholic practices. Father Raphael insists that Joe divorce himself of everything having to do with African rituals. In the view of Raphael, African traditions are heathen devil-worship (Gerima). Much like Oduche in Arrow of God , Joe finds himself losing his own identity as he retreats from his African culture and resume moves closer to the cross. Gerima and Achebe show their audiences visions of Western-style Christianity in which there is no room for the conscious African. The African must be neutered and stripped of culture before the international essay, doors of the church will open. Oduche has to shame his family and in the sun his village by attempting to essay scholarships kill a sacred python in order to appease the European priest.

Joe must forsake his mother and his African identity in order to appease Father Raphael. But even if these sacrifices are made, it becomes clear to audiences that Oduche and Joe will still be, at best, domesticated savages in the eyes of the priests and the other European colonizers. The Indigenous Elite and the Head slave as the Dogs with the Collar on. My Uncle Rozell would often jokingly tell my mother that he wasn't just any dog, he was the dog with the collar on, and therefore special. A Raisin In The Sun. For my uncle, this was only the playful boasting that occurs between siblings.

However, there is a more pernicious side to that need to separate oneself from the group, and scholarships it is this failing that the plantation oppressors of Sankofa and the colonizing agents of God's Bits of thesis paper Wood , Arrow of God, I, Rigoberta Menchu , and Don't Be Afraid Gringo are able to capitalize on in order to gain and maintain control. In the film Sankofa , while the white plantation owner, Lafayette, and his white overseer, James, are in charge at the plantation, they delegate some of their authority to formen, or head men, who handle the grunt work of surveillance and punishment. These head men, while still enslaved, are charged with walking amongst the essay scholarships, field hands distributing beatings liberally in order to keep the workers moving at fiction the pace set by the white overseer. International Scholarships. When mass whippings are called for, it is the head man who is required to exert himself in drawing blood from them black hides (Gerima), while the an elephant and other, white overseer is able to relax and supervise the process of exploitation in relative comfort. The head slave enjoys better lodging, better food, and the benefits of less strenuous labor. International. But the advantages that accompany the position of head man all come directly at the expense of the suffering endured by the other enslaved Africans. Each increased comfort that the head man enjoys has been purchased with the blood of aqa a biology essays his fellow Africans. During the film, Nunu laments that she experienced nine months of labor just to give birth to a son, Joe, who would be a head man. Nunu makes her pain clear when she remarks that she would rather Joe have died as an infant than to become a head man for the white man (Gerima). Keeping with the philosophy for scholarships which his film was named, Gerima has said the he wanted to use slavery as a landscape to bring into sharper focus the issues African Americans need to address today. I see the contemporary echoes of the past.

If you look at America as a plantation, then you can codify the different classes and interest groups within the society. You find overseers, head slaves, you find plantation owners in a very advanced, sophisticated way. This is why I felt I had to do the film. I was not interested in the past because it was exotic or brutal. I was very interested in its relationship to the present (Wright).

While God's Bits of Wood , Arrow of God , I, Rigoberta Menchu , and Don't Be Afraid Gringo all take place outside the historical contexts of true slavery, all three works relate the experience of indigenous people who are caught up in stages of the colonial exploitation process. And in all three written works, as in Sankofa , it is possible to identify characters who are either indigenous themselves or the descendants of indigenous people, who has still made the choice to enlist with the colonial oppressor at the expense of thesis their own culture and people. In God's Bits of Wood , the Muslim clergy fill this role, preaching the strikers that it is best to accept the domination of the international, French as part of God's plan (Ousmane 124). In Arrow of God , the British District Officer, Captain Winterbottom, hopes to use the various villiage priests as agents of European control and colonization (Achebe 57). The British colonial plan of indirect rule requires that Warrant Chiefs be created in an elephant and other essays each village. The thought is that the Warrant Chiefs will control the village, and the British will control the Warrant Chiefs. The ladinos that own the international scholarships, land in the Guatemala and Honduras of I, Rigoberta Menchu and Don't Be Afraid Gringo are ethnically derived from the indigenous Indian peoples that they are oppressing.

Insteading of feeling kinship with their fellow Guatemalans and Hondurans, the ladinos oppress the indigenous Indians, and rule over a brutal system of inequality that in essay part benefits the ladinos, but mostly benefits the businesses of their new colonizer, United States. Root less and over-tolerant. There is a striking difference between the representation of international scholarships plantation life in Haile Gerima's Sankofa and that set forth by Alex Haley's Roots . ?? The enslaved Africans of Haile Gerima's film not only attempt to run away, but also try to rescue other slave, and resume services kelowna begin their own society. ? Most noticeably, Gerima reveals enslaved Africans like Shango who are willing to grab machetes and attack their white oppressors in order to protect each other. ? Sankofa shows us Africans that have formed their own resistance societies in essay scholarships the hills, and that gather weapons and seeds in writing services an effort to become independent. ? These defiant ex-slave societies were know as Maroon camps, and audiences are able to international witness how the Maroon group that Shango and Nunu belong to stockpiles food and weapons in an effort to use violence to on science fiction win freedom for those Africans still enslaved on the Lafayette plantation. ? Such determination and essay resolution is level biology beyond the enslaved Africans in Roots . Essay. ? The Africans make attempts to resist the white slave traders during the Middle Passage from Africa . ? But as first, second, and third generation laborers on the plantation, the enslaved Africans never again try to confront or forcibly resist their white owners. ? It is this sense of passivity and acceptance that Gerima finds frustrating and in the historically inaccurate. ? Gerima has said in interviews that he was very unhappy with Roots claiming that the film didn't embody the struggle and scholarships the resistance spirit of black people in the sense of fighting back. In Gerima's view, Roots only essays, showed their tolerance - their capacity as victims to tolerate what was perpetrated on them. The spirit of resistance was very much absent (afgen.com). ?? It would be unfair to describe Roots as a film made for white audiences. However, Roots may well have been informed by the sensibilities of the white mainstream.

In the view of American audiences then-and likely now-it was better for enslaved Africans to essay scholarships have endured barbarous abuse at A raisin the hands of the European plantation establishment, and for those Africans to have suffered and died in non-violent dignity until such time as white society began to aclimate itself with the truth of African humanity. Few Americans recognize the essay, hypocrisy in celebrating their country's armed revolution over uncomfortable tax representation while begrudging indigenous people their need to on science defend their culture and humanity against colonial terror and exploitation. With Sankofa , Haile Gerima provides a refreshing interruption against the figment of an unwavering, one-sided, African non-violence. The Principle of Sankofa versus the Myths of Cultural Evolution and the Neutral Progression of Time. As Haile Gerima defines it, the term sankofa means to move forward, you must reclaim the past. In the past, you find the future and understand the present (afgen.com). In this light, a people's knowledge of their history is a source of strength and, especially for people of African descent, a necessary tool in international essay struggle to emancipate consciousness and A raisin in the reclaim humanity. Gerima believes that not only international scholarships, does history heal, but that history is power (afgen.com). In the film Sankofa , the healing power of essays on science fiction history is made clear in the character of Nunu.

Unlike the other enslaved Africans on the Layfayette plantation, Nunu was born in international essay Africa and has strong memories of African rituals and culture. These memories provide strength for Nunu and the other enslaved Africans that stand with her in science paper the resistence movement. What dignity and salvation is to be had for Africans on essay scholarships, the plantation comes largely as a result of Nunu's knowledge of the Motherland. It is those enslaved Africans that are estranged from Africa that suffer the most on the plantation. Headslaves such as Joe and Noble Ali are rudderless and torn, abusing their fellow Africans on behalf of the white plantation owners. On Science Fiction. Shola suffers continuous sexual abuse from Lafayette, the plantation master. However, Noble Ali and international Shola find certainty, understanding, and purpose through their relationship with Nunu and her understanding of African traditions. If Shola and Noble Ali allow their self-identity to begin with their own birth as slaves, then they are confined as beings intended only for inferiority and servitude. Knowledge of themselves as Africans opens up both characters to the realization of their own humanity and the determination to fight for and reclaim their human dignity. A slave does not fight for freedom, because it subconsiously accepts bondage as a natural state. An enslaved African understands captivity as an unnatural and temporary state against which one must rebel.

It is knowledge of self that history and science culture provide that heal the essay, wounds and missing identity created by slavery. There are those Western thinkers that would argue that indigenous culture is writing services kelowna savage cuture, and must eventually give way to the superior culture of the European in much the same way that the dinosaur gave way to the mammal. This is a poorly disguised white supremacist argument that not only presupposes the international essay scholarships, inherent superiority of Western culture, but also removes guilt from the Western agressor. A Raisin Sun. A fiction is created that fault does not lie with the explorer, the missionary, or the exploitative colonizer. The myth of essay cultural evolution makes use of a disingenous Darwinian shellgame that instead places any fault that does exist upon the colonized indigenous culture for not being fit enough to survive contact with Western culture. The dissolution of indigenous culture and the opression of the indigenous person is seen as part of the inevitable forward progress of time. The very plot sequence of Sankofa argues against such exclusionary assumptions. Mona, the protagonist, is benefit sent back into in order to go back to international scholarships her source and more strongly identify with her African self. It is this journey back in time that strengthens Mona for her return back to the present at resume services the end of the film. Progress and international essay manifest destiny for the colonizing Westerner is resume services kelowna little more than an oppressive dystopia for the indigenous person.

An awareness of history and culture are the tools that allow colonized people the possibility of facing the international, future on their own terms. The Snake will have whatever is in the Belly of the Frog. While Shola is shooting an elephant and other a servant in the Lafayette plantation house, her love Shango is a laborer in the harsh sugar cane fields. While both characters were born into international bondage, Shola has been reared to be more accepting of her status, while Shango is unceasingly rebellious. In The. At one point in the film, while Shango is in the pilliary for physically challenging Master James, the white overseer, Shola brings leftover food from the plantation house for Shango. Shango refuses to international scholarships eat the food, and in the sun asks Shola why she is unwilling to join the insurrection. Shango asks Shola Why you no can be like we Shola? Why you no eat the international scholarships, frog like we, Shola(Gerima)? Shango then tells Shola that the snake will eat whatever is in the belly of the frog. Shola is mystified, but as Shola expands her consciousness and becomes part of the Maroon society, she and the audience come to A raisin in the sun realize the meaning behind Shango's words.

Gerima explained the meaing behind this philosophy in a 1996 Internet chat, in which Gerima said its implication in Sankofa is where by the plantation owner is symbolized by the frog. And the freedom fighters, Maroons, Rebels are symbolized as snakes. Overseerers, head slaves, dogs as instruments of scholarships repression as mercenaries to the plantation owner are simply symbolized within the boundary of the frog's stomach and that the rebellion is out to strike not only at the plantation owner but at the weak links and instruments of that system (Melanet). Gerima phrases his explanation in terms of an resume kelowna, assumtion by international, the Maroons (snakes) of the shooting an elephant and other, tools of power that belong to the plantation owner (frog). For Gerima, this uprising of the enslaved Africans is about more than the acquisition of the plantation owner's material wealth.

The notion of the enslaved feeding upon the plantation establishment is powerfully metaphoric, but also just and reciprocal.The plantation owner and international Western culture has grown fat by essay benefit, consuming the essay scholarships, lives, labor, and essay benefit of homework culture of Africans both at home and in the Diaspora. For a people whose being and way of life were being sacrificed on essay, the alter of modernity and colonial exploitation, to then turn and make plans to feast on their oppressors on any level, metaphoric or literal, then that is the kind of reciprocity and science thesis balance that should be sought. The Displacement of the Intelligentsia as Interlocutor. From the standpoint of postcolonial studies, the shift of the creator from author to filmmaker becomes more than a matter of accessibility. The media of film does pierce the barrier of illiteracy the may enclose a majority of people in the developing world.

However, Haile Gerima also made it clear in a March 2001 interview, that the access that a movie provides displaces the intelligentsia (Africultures.com). There is no need for the ideas of the scholarships, creator to be interpreted, edited, and diluted by an educated elite. Gerima made his remarks in terms of the feedback that he receives from essays on science fiction those outside the intelligentsia, and how the feedback that he received from federal prisons in Ohio developed his thinking more than than any feed back he could have gotten from writer, educator, and scholarships cultural critic bell hooks, or any of his colleagues at Howard University . Gerima's remarks point to a fascination with the essays, purer quality of truth that comes from the voice and perspective of the common citizen at the bottom of the societal pecking order. My own interest lies in the displacement of the intelligentsia that allows the voice of the common citizen room to international be expressed. Knowledge of dependency theory informs us that it is the aqa a essays, intelligentsia that often is essay scholarships part of the governing class, belonging to the upper echelon of the science, politico-economic hierarchy who have a direct impact on governmental decision-making (Aybar de Soto). That often places the international scholarships, intelligentsia of a country in a position that is in conflict with that purer source of truth that is the common citizen, as the intelligentsia on some level, are winners in the system that requires the oppression and underdevelopment of the masses. For the elite to continue to win in the status quo, the on science fiction, common citizen must continue to lose.

Therefore, any idea for the betterment of society that requires translation from the intelligentsia before it reaches the international scholarships, common citizen, will not reach that citizen intact. I am reminded of Malcolm X's displeasure with the 1963 March on Washington. According to Malcolm X, the march began as a poor people's march to protest the lack of science opportunity for essay scholarships the poor in the United States . Once the established and endorsed leaders of the Civil Rights Movement took control of the march, Malcolm's view was that the march became a march led by middle-class aspiring Negroes, for middle-class aspiring Negroes, with the goals of fiction integration, assimilation, and advancement up the American economic ladder. Since there was a small and finite number of Blacks in America who would be allowed to advance, let alone trained and able, the marched ceased to be a march to benefit poor people of color, but instead became a pageant for the inclusion and the upward mobility of the Black intelligentsia. Beyond the ability to hijack marches, it is also possible for ideas to be commandeered, and the switch from the written word to international moving pictures helps prevent this. This site retails the essay of homework, Gerima film Harvest: 3000 Years . This site contains an article from the Final Call describing the fire that burned a supply room containing 10,000 copies of Sankofa , as well as copies of international essay scholarships Harvest 3000 Years and Bush Mama . This Africana.com site provides biographical information on Gerima and a brief description of essays on science his work and career. This site provides a review of Gerima's film Adwa , commentary on its premiere as a benefit to essay the late Congressman Mickey Leland and sister Jember , and a brief biography on the filmmaker's life and career. This site contains an interview with Gerima conducted by essays, freelance writer Ayesha Morris. This site provides an interview with Gerima in which he discusses audience and his definition of African film. This site features a brief review of the film. This site features an article by Jatinder Sidhu called African Cinema: Setting the record straight.

This Mount Holyoke College site features the transcripts to a 1995 lecture on international, film that Gerima gave at the college. This page from Diane Glave's teaching site features list of resume characters from the movie Sankofa , as well as discussion questions and themes to look for while viewing the international essay scholarships, film. This online article by essay of homework, Martha Southgate discusses the practice and importance of international remembering the Maafa, or Terrible Occurrence, and looks into why a Brooklyn church congregation feels that understanding the past is essential to correcting the present circumstances of on science people of essay African descent. This site features a filmography and a mio-biography of Haile Gerima. This site centers on the performance of actor and reggae star Mutabaruka , who plays the strong and rebellious Shango. The site features links to reviews of the movie, merchandise and memorabilia, and an audio commentary of Gerima on his experience of shooting an elephant working with Mutabaruka . This site by Africa's leading magazine on social issues features a review of the film Adwa , short discussion of Sankofa and its importance as a film, and a brief biographical discussion of Gerima . This site presents a collection of historical photographs and attempts to present a pictorial account of the lynchings of 20th century America. This site from the premiere website for African-American Commerce and Information features an online chat with Haile Gerima . This page from a teaching site on international, African film is maintained by Portland Community College professor Michael Dembrow , and includes a synopsis of the movie from Mypheduh films, an excerpts from Essence magazine on the making of the film Sankofa , and science an article from Black Film Review discussing the importance both Sankofa as a movie and Gerima as a filmmaker. This site focuses on the career of reggae star and actor Mutabaruka and provides ordering information for cassettes, compact discs, and video tapes of his performances.

This is the official site for essay scholarships the movie and also part of the website for Mypheduh Films. The site offers the films of Haile Gerima for purchase, as well as contact information for scheduling speaking engagements. This site features an article by Haile Gerima in which he discusses censorship and the release of Sankofa . This Occidental College site looks at the film Sankofa as part of a discussion on the distribution of Black films that includes Watermelon Man and Waiting to Exhale . This site provides a short interview with Haile Gerima in which he discusses film and the idea of politics versus telling the thesis paper, story of a people. This site contains an article by Esther Iverem detailing the essay scholarships, Sankofa video and bookstore that Gerima operates in Washington, DC. The store specializes in selling independent and foreign films to a Black audience. This site provides articles, pictures, and essay links dealing with the Maafa or African Holocaust. What is at the top of Sankofa the international scholarships, Divine Drummer’s staff? Who does the tour guide say Sankofa believes he is communicating with when he plays his drums? As she is dragged away, Mona yells, You're making a mistake!

Stop! I'm not an ____. What is Mona refusing to identify with? How has Mona's perception of her identity changed by the end of the movie? What does Shola say makes things easier to accept things like they was? If the word sankofa has to do with returning to past in order to an elephant correct the future, what are we to make of Shola's words? Why are we told that Shango has never decided to international essay run away? What does this information suggest about the bonds between enslaved Africans.

Why does Shango refuse to eat the food that Shola brings to him? Is Shango exercising rebellious pride and rejecting Shola , or is Shango drawing a line between himself and shooting an elephant and other something else? A Chat with Haile Gerima . Melanet . 4 April 1996. On line posting. 21 April 2002. http://www.melanet.com/Sankofa/sanchat.html. Alim , Fahizah . Haile Gerima -Sankofa The Sacramento Bee . 31 March 1995. Aybar de Soto, Jose M. Dependency and Intervention: The Case of.

Guatemala in 1954 . Boulder: Westview Press, 1978. Dembrow, Michael. Handout on Sankofa . International Scholarships. 21 April 2002. Benefit Of Homework. http://spot.pcc.edu/ Haile Gerima lecture given at Mount Holyoke College . Mtholyoke.edu. 21 April 2002. http://www.mtholyoke.edu/offices/comm/csj/950405SE/toc.html. Iverem , Esther. Blackbuster: Haile Gerima's D.C. Store Rents.

A Different Kind of Black Film. Seeingblack.com. 9 April 2001. Scholarships. 21 April 2002 . http://www.seeingblack.com/x040901/sankofa.shtml. Johnson, David. Film on Ethiopian Victory over Colonialism to essay Premiere in Washington, DC. Africana.com. Essay Scholarships. 5 November 1999. 21 April 2002. http://www.africana.com/DailyArticles/index_19991105.htm. Morris, Ayesha . Ethiopian Filmmaker Haile Gerima Keeps on Fighting. Paper. Africana.com . 29 March 2002. International. http://www.africana.com/DailyArticles/index_20020329.htm.

The Politics of Black Film Distribution. Occidental College. 21 April 2002. http://www.oxy.edu/ Sankofa . Dir. Haile Gerima. Perf. Kofi Ghanaba, Oyafunmike Ogunlano, Alexandra Duah,Nick Medley, Mutabaruka, and Afemo Omilami. Videocassette.

Mypheduh Films. 1993.

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Impact of international essay scholarships Alcohol, Tobacco And Drug Abuse on Youth. Alcohol, tobacco and other drugs are affect youth negatively. Youth especially student's e.g. secondary and tertiary students abuse alcohol, tobacco and other Drugs. Drugs such as tobacco, cocaine and essays marijuana are the major drugs which students abuse or use. Youth may end up drinking alcohol and using drugs because of essay scholarships various situations or reasons e.g. youth especially school going drink alcohol, use tobacco and other drug as a result of peer pressure because they may want to feel grown up among their peers, some youth use drugs to relieve boredom and aqa a level essays give themselves personal excitement, some use drugs to essay, rebel and get violent without any fear of people or authority, some use drugs to resume services, experiment, some use drugs and drink alcohol because their parents also drink alcohol so they end up indulging in the practise as well, social background may also influence youths to use drugs and to drink alcohol e.g. Essay. if they are many drug dealers and bottle stores around its easier for youths to indulge in the use of this drugs and lastly some youth may drink alcohol and resume writing services kelowna abuse drugs to feel pleasure and escape the pressures of life or to alter their view of reality. Youth who get into drugs may get it from a friend's friend, who also got it from his friend's friend and so on this is to say that drugs are not of easy access because they are illegal. At the end of scholarships this long line of friends is a dealer who is making money out of destroying young people futures. The use of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs has negative impacts amongst the students who abuse this substances e.g. Resume Kelowna. excessive alcohol consumption and the abuse of drugs are dangerous because alcohol and drug abuse can affect health and ability to function and think properly, almost every system in the body can be negatively affected by use of drugs and drinking of alcohol. Alcohol can cause cancer, liver disease, heart attacks and brain damage, to mention a few.

Alcohol, tobacco and other drug use does not only affect youth especially students' health wise it also affects their academic performance, it also affect them financially, psychologically, physically and international ultimately students may suffer some legal consequences. Sun. Youth more so teens, who engage in sexual intercourse and drug abuse including abuse of alcohol and tobacco, are more likely than youth who abstain from such activities to become depressed, have suicidal thoughts and or even attempt suicide. HEALTH EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO AND DIFFERENT DRUG USE. The use of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs has detrimental effects on health of the youth which may turn out to be fatal. The type of drugs which students commonly use are Stimulants (drugs that produce alertness, high energy, more awake and confident e.g. cocaine, amphetamines, caffeine) and Hallucinogens (give strange and international essay intense visions called hallucinations) The scientific name for alcohol that people drink is ethyl alcohol or ethanol. A Raisin. Beer, wine, and liquor all contain ethyl alcohol. Other types of alcohol, like rubbing alcohol are poisonous if ingested. . Excess alcohol is the most common cause of preventable death. Alcohol is international highly toxic to essays on science, almost every organ in the body but when alcohol is taken in allowed limits amounts it is detoxified by the liver and essay therefore does little or no harm to resume services kelowna, the body. Alcoholic drinks contain ethyl alcohol and it is metabolized in the body to acetaldehyde.

Both ethanol and acetaldehyde interfere with normal functioning of organs in the body including the heart and the liver and therefore if the liver and the heart get damaged disease occur which may eventually kill, teenagers maybe more prone to this effects in the youth as their organs are still developing thus toxic substances from alcohol damage their body organs. When people drink too much, with time they risk becoming addicted to international essay, alcohol. This is called alcoholism, or alcohol dependence. It's a disease, and it can happen at any age, Common signs include, loss of control not being able to aqa a level, stop or cut down drinking, not feeling well after heavy drinking (upset stomach, sweating, shakiness, or nervousness), neglecting activities giving up or cutting back on other activities. Binge drinking happens when someone drinks more than four (for women) or five (for men) alcoholic drinks in about two hours, with the intention to getting drunk. Binge drinking is the most harmful type of international drinking. It usually happens at A raisin teen or student parties. The dangers of scholarships smoking are so great, but because of it governments get a lot of tax money from tobacco and cigarettes manufacturers, they are less hesitant to ban it totally. Essay Benefit. Government and international essay society is aware of the danger that is why they made it illegal for teens to essay, possess and use cigarettes.

Smoking of tobacco can cause many with many diseases like respiratory and heart disease including, respiratory infections, lung cancer as well as cancer of the larynx, pancreas, stomach, uterine cervix, bronchitis, emphysema and stillborn or premature children ().Smoking causes surges in the concentrations of catecholamine's (the stimulator chemical messengers of the autonomic nervous system) as well as increases in carbon monoxide in the blood. Both of these short- term effects can exacerbate existing heart disease, resulting, for instance, in international, attacks of science thesis angina (chest pain). Nicotine raises blood pressure and heart rate, requiring the heart to work harder. It also constricts the coronary arteries, thereby lessening the supply of blood and oxygen to the heart muscle. It also promotes irregular heartbeats (cardiac arrhythmias).

Smokers are not the only people harmed by tobacco. Toxic fumes from cigarettes pose a health threat to all those around smoker's family, friends, and. Because the organic material in tobacco does not burn completely, smoke contains many toxic chemicals, including carbon monoxide, nicotine, and international essay scholarships tar. As a result of this exposure, smokers' children have more colds and flu, and they are more likely to take up smoking themselves when they grow up. Smokers also affect other people as well e.g. passive smoking. This is the involuntary inhaling of smoke from other people cigarettes and we all suffer when we have people smoking around us. It is called second-hand smoking and of homework it is known to be even more dangerous than smoking itself. Use of international essay cocaine has increased among youth over the years, along with the myth that the drug is relatively safe, especially when it is sniffed rather than injected or smoked as 'crack.' In fact, no matter how it is used, cocaine can kill.

It can disturb the heart's rhythm and cause chest pain, heart attacks, and resume writing services even sudden death. These effects on the heart can cause death even in the absence of any seizures. Even in international scholarships, the absence of underlying heart disease, a single use of only a small amount of the drug has been known to be fatal. Cocaine use is not healthful for essays on science fiction anyone, but especially for certain groups like the international scholarships, youth. In The Sun. Although the drug has been shown to essay scholarships, impair the function of normal hearts, it seems even more likely to cause death in people with any underlying heart disease. When pregnant women use cocaine, they not only an elephant essays raise the likelihood of having a miscarriage, a premature delivery, or a low-birth-weight baby, but also of having a baby with a congenital heart abnormality, especially an atrial-septal or ventricular-septal defect. Use of cocaine raises blood pressure, constricts blood vessels, and speeds up heart rate. It may also make blood cells called platelets more likely to clump and form the international essay scholarships, blood clots that provoke many heart attacks. In addition, cocaine's effects on the nervous system disrupt the normal rhythm of the heart, causing arrhythmias (irregular heartbeats). Recently, scientists have established that cocaine binds directly to A raisin, heart muscle cells, slowing the passage of sodium ions into the cells. International. Cocaine also causes the release of the neurotransmitter nor epinephrine (nor adrenaline), a chemical messenger that stimulates the autonomic nervous system.

Both changes can lead to arrhythmias. Heart attacks in young people are rare. However, when they do occur, cocaine is frequently the cause. Cocaine is a highly addictive substance, and resume writing services crack cocaine is international substantially more addicting, as the drug is far more potent and is smoked. Users quickly develop a tolerance to aqa a level biology essays, crack cocaine, needing more of the substance to achieve the desired effects. Because the high from crack cocaine is so short-lived, users commonly smoke it repeatedly in order to international essay scholarships, sustain the high.

This can lead to an even faster onset of addiction. Also, because crack cocaine works on writing kelowna, the brain's system of reward and punishment, withdrawal symptoms occur when the drug's effects wear off. These symptoms can include depression, irritability, and international scholarships extreme fatigue, anxiety, an intense craving for essay the drug, and sometimes even psychosis. Users will often keep using crack cocaine simply to avoid the negative effects of scholarships withdrawal. Marijuana harms in many ways, and kids are the most vulnerable to its damaging effects. Use of the drug can lead to significant health, safety, social, and learning or behavioural problems, especially for young users. Making matters worse is the fact that the marijuana available today is more potent than ever. Short term effects of marijuana use include memory loss, distorted perception, trouble with thinking and problem solving, and anxiety. Students who use marijuana may find it hard to learn, thus jeopardizing their ability to achieve their full potential. Long term effects include reduced resistance to common illnesses (colds, bronchitis, etc.), suppression of the immune system, growth disorders, increase of abnormally structured cells in essays, the body, reduction of male sex hormones, rapid destruction of lung fibre's and lesions (injuries) to the brain could be permanent, Study difficulties: reduced ability to learn and retain information, apathy, drowsiness, lack of motivation, personality and mood changes, inability to understand things clearly. ACADEMIC EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO AND DIFFERENT DRUG USE.

Heavy drinking by students can lead to positive blood alcohol levels the next day, affecting whether or not they even get up for class and, if they do, the essay, quality of how information is processed and ultimately stored. Sleeping off a buzz, a common practice, can interfere with the sleep cycle, resulting in an increase in anxiety, jumpiness, and irritability the next day, and fatigue the day after that. With evening use, marijuana has the same impact on sleep that alcohol has, throwing off the sleep cycle and impacting how a person feels for at least two additional days. Marijuana suppresses neuronal activity in the hippocampus, resulting in problems with attention, memory, and concentration. There is increasing evidence that there is an impact to motivation following marijuana use. This could be due to the effect of writing services THC in the body blocking the passage of nutrients through cells, the neuronal suppression in international, the hippocampus, or the decrease in energy accompanying the fatigue that follows night time use. Level. Marijuana significantly increases heart rate, weakens the heart muscle, and affects blood pressure- the increase in heart rate can be a concern for someone already dealing with anxiety ( and scholarships particularly panic). College students often forget why they are supposed to be in school.

Is the purpose of university life to science thesis paper, party all the essay, time or to benefit of homework, get the most out of the learning environment? Substance abuse can seriously affect academic performance. Scholarships. Aside from long-term addiction (or possible emptying you bank account) it can cause grades to plummet. How? Substance use affects you entire body, including your brain, in a variety of ways.

Judgment is often the first attribute to be affected. Shooting Essays. You may find it difficult to international essay scholarships, make good decisions, to make them quickly or to be realistic when you make them. Essay. Suddenly, it becomes much easier to wait until the last minute to essay, cram for that exam or to crank. First of all, drugs and alcohol are a drain on people's finances. We have all experienced the stress associated with money at on science fiction one time or another. For those who abuse drugs or alcohol, financial issues are further compounded by their need to feed their habit. They frequently accumulate debt, borrow or steal money from others, or choose their substance of choice over more important things like food for their family or utility bills. Essay. While no one wants to be homeless, in debt, or engaging in criminal activities, the essays fiction, financial impact of drug and alcohol abuse risks not only your ability to support yourself, but it can also destroy relationships.

When you abuse drugs or alcohol, you are choosing that substance over essay scholarships everything else, including your loved ones. Whether they are suffering from your financial choices or have become mistrustful of you, you have placed a strain on your relationships, which can ultimately ruin those connections for good. Families and others that rely on a sufferer of alcoholism are likely to experience problems related to financial troubles caused by drinking habits. Aqa A Level Essays. The costs of alcohol increase as the alcoholic person builds tolerance to the drug in essay scholarships, his or her system. This requires the person to take in ever-greater amounts of alcohol in order to feel the same effects. The psychological effects of this alcohol tolerance and dependency may cause the sufferer to of homework, become withdrawn and international essay less supportive of colleagues, friends and family members. Sufferers may no longer attend social functions that do not allow drinking and may not be fully aware of their behaviour if attending functions where their drug of choice is an elephant and other allowed. International. A lack of resume networking and international scholarships communication with peers may cause further financial problems if the essay of homework, sufferer loses promotion opportunities.

Greater drains on income and lessened opportunities may cause undue troubles for others financially dependent on the sufferer, requiring a spouse or roommate to pick up extra hours or a second job to keep bills at a manageable level. SOCIAL EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO AND DIFFERENT DRUG USE. Excessive alcohol use can affect all areas of a person's life, including family, work and personal relationships. Family problems: Arguments over someone's drinking can cause family and essay scholarships relationship problems that may lead to break up. Work problems: Drinking alcohol at thesis work and hangovers can lead to poor performance and accidents at scholarships work, while illness can result in absenteeism.

Legal problems: Drink-driving may lead to fines, loss of license and even imprisonment. Misbehaviour caused by alcohol can also have disastrous effects on a pupil's educational attainment, as well on performance in tests of intellect in essays, later life. International Essay Scholarships. Compared with those pupils who have never truanted, pupils who had ever truanted from school had increased odds of having drunk alcohol in science paper, the last week (odds ratios of 2.24 for international essay scholarships those who had truanted in the last year, 1.69 who had truanted previously). 6.5% of permanent exclusions of children from A raisin sun English state-funded secondary schools in essay, 2010/11 were due to alcohol. Women, especially young women, encounter special risks in kelowna, groups of drinking friends and acquaintances. In many societies, a woman who drinks seems to signal that she is at least approachable, and to some men an intoxicated woman is by essay scholarships definition sexually available. Such concepts as 'acquaintance rape' and 'date rape' bear witness to recent concern with this problem. A large proportion of unwanted sexual advances are mediated by alcohol. Initiation into certain groups, such as military units or college fraternities, sometimes includes drinking very large amounts of alcohol, so-called 'binge drinking'. This pattern of drinking entails high risks of accidental injury, violence and acute alcohol-poisoning. It has long been known that a heavy-drinking lifestyle in benefit, groups of international scholarships friends is relatively common in the armed forces.

More recently, the focus has been on such drinking patterns on on science fiction, college and university campuses and what they mean for the development of international scholarships problem drinking patterns later in life. A drug intervention is a structured, solution-oriented process undertaken to writing kelowna, persuade someone who is abusing drugs to seek help in overcoming the addiction. Family, friends, and scholarships others involved in the person's life use the intervention to demonstrate the extent of the effects of drinking and related behaviours. A successful intervention is not a confrontation but an opportunity for an addicted individual to accept help in taking the first step toward recovery. Often, an interventionist is invited to serve as a guide and an elephant essays educator before, during, and after the intervention. Some drug addicts can and do recognize the extent of the problems stemming from drug abuse and seek treatment without the need for an intervention.

Most, however, are reluctant or unable to realize that drugs are responsible for the problems in international scholarships, their relationships, health, or work. Essay. They ignore the essay scholarships, safety issues related to drinking and writing services driving and other high-risk behaviours. It is common for addicts to international, deny that drugs are the source of the difficulties they face. They may instead blame other people or circumstances in their lives. When that happens, an intervention can break through the A raisin, denial and help these individuals clearly see the effects of international essay scholarships their drug abuse on the people who matter most to them. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Sociology essay, dissertation or piece of level coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in international essay scholarships, our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and in the sun you could have your customised Sociology work in international, your email box, in as little as 3 hours.

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