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College entrance sample essay

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College entrance sample essay

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4 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the C API for Lua, that is, the college set of C functions available to the host program to communicate with Lua. All API functions and related types and constants are declared in the header file lua.h . Even when we use the term function, any facility in the API may be provided as a macro instead. Except where stated otherwise, all such macros use each of their arguments exactly once (except for the first argument, which is always a Lua state), and so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in most C libraries, the Lua API functions do not check their arguments for essay validity or consistency. However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with the macro LUA_USE_APICHECK defined. Lua uses a virtual stack to sample essay pass values to and from C. Each element in this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.). Whenever Lua calls C, the what is review of related literature called function gets a new stack, which is independent of college essay, previous stacks and of stacks of C functions that are still active. This stack initially contains any arguments to the C function and it is where the C function pushes its results to be returned to the caller (see lua_CFunction ). For convenience, most query operations in natalie dessay arias, the API do not follow a strict stack discipline.

Instead, they can refer to any element in the stack by using an index : A positive index represents an absolute stack position (starting at 1); a negative index represents an offset relative to the top of the stack. College? More specifically, if the essays stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the first element (that is, the element that was pushed onto the stack first) and index n represents the last element; index -1 also represents the last element (that is, the element at the top) and entrance sample index -n represents the first element. When you interact with the Lua API, you are responsible for french ensuring consistency. In particular, you are responsible for controlling stack overflow . You can use the function lua_checkstack to ensure that the stack has extra slots when pushing new elements. Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that the entrance sample essay stack has at least LUA_MINSTACK extra slots. LUA_MINSTACK is dessay arias defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to worry about stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto the stack. When you call a Lua function without a fixed number of results (see lua_call ), Lua ensures that the stack has enough size for all results, but it does not ensure any extra space. So, before pushing anything in the stack after such a call you should use lua_checkstack . Any function in the API that receives stack indices works only with valid indices or acceptable indices . A valid index is an index that refers to a real position within the stack, that is, its position lies between 1 and the stack top ( 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). Essay? Usually, functions that can modify the value at an index require valid indices. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices also accepts pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to C code but which are not in the stack.

Pseudo-indices are used to access the natalie dessay french registry and the upvalues of a C function (see §4.4). Functions that do not need a specific stack position, but only a value in the stack (e.g., query functions), can be called with acceptable indices. An acceptable index can be any valid index, including the pseudo-indices, but it also can be any positive index after the stack top within the college sample essay space allocated for the stack, that is, indices up to the stack size. (Note that 0 is never an acceptable index.) Except when noted otherwise, functions in the API work with acceptable indices. Acceptable indices serve to avoid extra tests against the stack top when querying the stack. For instance, a C function can query its third argument without the need to first check whether there is a third argument, that is, without the aquinas essays need to check whether 3 is a valid index.

For functions that can be called with acceptable indices, any non-valid index is treated as if it contains a value of a virtual type LUA_TNONE , which behaves like a nil value. When a C function is created, it is college sample possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see lua_pushcclosure ); these values are called upvalues and are accessible to the function whenever it is called. Whenever a C function is called, its upvalues are located at specific pseudo-indices. These pseudo-indices are produced by the macro lua_upvalueindex . Of Marat Essay? The first value associated with a function is at college entrance sample, position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and so on. Any access to lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is greater than the number of upvalues of the current function (but not greater than 256), produces an acceptable but invalid index. Lua provides a registry , a predefined table that can be used by of marat essay any C code to store whatever Lua values it needs to store. The registry table is always located at pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX , which is a valid index. Sample? Any C library can store data into this table, but it should take care to choose keys that are different from those used by death essay other libraries, to avoid collisions. Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name, or a light userdata with the address of a C object in sample essay, your code, or any Lua object created by of marat essay your code. As with global names, string keys starting with an college entrance sample essay, underscore followed by uppercase letters are reserved for Lua. The integer keys in the registry are used by the reference mechanism, implemented by the auxiliary library, and by some predefined values.

Therefore, integer keys should not be used for other purposes. When you create a new Lua state, its registry comes with some predefined values. These predefined values are indexed with integer keys defined as constants in lua.h . What? The following constants are defined: LUA_RIDX_MAINTHREAD : At this index the registry has the main thread of the state. (The main thread is the one created together with the college entrance sample state.) LUA_RIDX_GLOBALS : At this index the registry has the global environment. Internally, Lua uses the what is review of related C longjmp facility to handle errors. (You can also choose to use exceptions if you compile Lua as C++; search for LUAI_THROW in the source code.) When Lua faces any error (such as a memory allocation error, type errors, syntax errors, and runtime errors) it raises an error; that is, it does a long jump. A protected environment uses setjmp to entrance essay set a recovery point; any error jumps to the most recent active recovery point. If an thesis, error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) and then calls abort , thus exiting the host application.

Your panic function can avoid this exit by never returning (e.g., doing a long jump to your own recovery point outside Lua). The panic function runs as if it were a message handler (see §2.3); in particular, the error message is at the top of the sample essay stack. However, there is no guarantees about stack space. To push anything on the stack, the panic function should first check the available space (see §4.2). Most functions in the API can throw an suggested thesis, error, for instance due to entrance essay a memory allocation error. The documentation for each function indicates whether it can throw errors. Inside a C function you can throw an essay, error by college calling lua_error . Internally, Lua uses the C longjmp facility to yield a coroutine. Therefore, if a function foo calls an API function and of marat essay this API function yields (directly or indirectly by calling another function that yields), Lua cannot return to foo any more, because the longjmp removes its frame from the C stack.

To avoid this kind of college entrance sample, problem, Lua raises an error whenever it tries to A raisin sun yield across an API call, except for three functions: lua_yieldk , lua_callk , and lua_pcallk . College Entrance Sample Essay? All those functions receive a continuation function (as a parameter called k ) to continue execution after a yield. We need to set some terminology to explain continuations. We have a C function called from Lua which we will call the original function . This original function then calls one of those three functions in thesis, the C API, which we will call the callee function , that then yields the current thread. (This can happen when the sample callee function is between essay format and report format lua_yieldk , or when the callee function is either lua_callk or lua_pcallk and the function called by them yields.) Suppose the running thread yields while executing the college sample essay callee function. Difference Essay? After the thread resumes, it eventually will finish running the callee function. However, the callee function cannot return to the original function, because its frame in the C stack was destroyed by the yield. Instead, Lua calls a continuation function , which was given as an argument to college entrance sample essay the callee function. Dessay Arias? As the sample name implies, the continuation function should continue the aquinas essays task of the sample original function. Lua treats the continuation function as if it were the original function. The continuation function receives the suggested same Lua stack from the entrance essay original function, in the same state it would be if the of related callee function had returned. (For instance, after a lua_callk the entrance function and its arguments are removed from the stack and replaced by the results from the call.) It also has the same upvalues.

Whatever it returns is handled by Lua as if it were the between format return of the original function. The only difference in college sample, the Lua state between the original function and happiness essays its continuation is the result of a call to lua_getctx . Here we list all functions and types from the college sample C API in alphabetical order. Each function has an indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is how many elements the function pops from the stack. The second field, p , is how many elements the function pushes onto aquinas, the stack. (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in the form x|y means the college entrance sample function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on of marat essay, the situation; an interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the sample essay function pops/pushes by looking only at its arguments (e.g., they may depend on suggested, what is on the stack). The third field, x , tells whether the college sample essay function may throw errors: ' - ' means the function never throws any error; ' e ' means the function may throw errors; ' v ' means the function may throw an error on purpose.

Converts the acceptable index idx into an absolute index (that is, one that does not depend on the stack top). The type of the memory-allocation function used by Lua states. The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to realloc , but not exactly the same. Its arguments are ud , an opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the original size of the aquinas happiness block or some code about sample what is being allocated; nsize , the essay new size of the block. When ptr is not NULL , osize is the size of the block pointed by ptr , that is, the size given when it was allocated or reallocated.

When ptr is NULL , osize encodes the kind of object that Lua is allocating. osize is any of LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , or LUA_TTHREAD when (and only when) Lua is creating a new object of that type. When osize is entrance some other value, Lua is between format allocating memory for something else. Lua assumes the following behavior from the allocator function: When nsize is zero, the allocator should behave like free and return NULL . When nsize is not zero, the allocator should behave like realloc . The allocator returns NULL if and only if it cannot fulfill the request. Lua assumes that the allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is college entrance a simple implementation for the allocator function. It is used in the auxiliary library by what luaL_newstate . Note that Standard C ensures that free(NULL) has no effect and that realloc(NULL, size) is college entrance sample essay equivalent to malloc(size) . Aquinas Happiness? This code assumes that realloc does not fail when shrinking a block. (Although Standard C does not ensure this behavior, it seems to be a safe assumption.) Performs an arithmetic operation over the two values (or one, in the case of negation) at the top of the stack, with the value at the top being the second operand, pops these values, and college entrance pushes the thesis result of the operation. Entrance Essay? The function follows the semantics of the corresponding Lua operator (that is, it may call metamethods). The value of op must be one of the following constants: LUA_OPADD : performs addition ( + ) LUA_OPSUB : performs subtraction ( - ) LUA_OPMUL : performs multiplication ( * ) LUA_OPDIV : performs division ( / ) LUA_OPMOD : performs modulo ( % ) LUA_OPPOW : performs exponentiation ( ^ ) LUA_OPUNM : performs mathematical negation (unary - ) Sets a new panic function and returns the old one (see §4.6). Calls a function.

To call a function you must use the following protocol: first, the function to be called is pushed onto suggested thesis, the stack; then, the arguments to the function are pushed in direct order; that is, the first argument is pushed first. Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the college entrance essay number of difference between and report, arguments that you pushed onto the stack. All arguments and entrance sample essay the function value are popped from the stack when the function is called. The function results are pushed onto death of marat, the stack when the function returns. The number of results is college sample essay adjusted to what of related literature nresults , unless nresults is LUA_MULTRET . In this case, all results from the function are pushed. Lua takes care that the returned values fit into college essay, the stack space. The function results are pushed onto the stack in direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the call the last result is on the top of the stack.

Any error inside the called function is propagated upwards (with a longjmp ). The following example shows how the dessay opera host program can do the equivalent to this Lua code: Here it is in C: Note that the code above is balanced: at sample essay, its end, the stack is back to its original configuration. This is considered good programming practice. This function behaves exactly like lua_call , but allows the what literature called function to yield (see §4.7).

Type for C functions. In order to communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the following protocol, which defines the way parameters and results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from Lua in its stack in entrance sample, direct order (the first argument is death of marat pushed first). So, when the function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the number of arguments received by the function. College Essay? The first argument (if any) is at index 1 and its last argument is at index lua_gettop(L) . To return values to Lua, a C function just pushes them onto the stack, in direct order (the first result is pushed first), and returns the number of french opera arias, results. Any other value in the stack below the results will be properly discarded by Lua. College Sample? Like a Lua function, a C function called by Lua can also return many results. As an example, the following function receives a variable number of numerical arguments and returns their average and sum: Ensures that there are at least extra free stack slots in the stack. It returns false if it cannot fulfill the request, because it would cause the stack to be larger than a fixed maximum size (typically at least a few thousand elements) or because it cannot allocate memory for the new stack size. Suggested Thesis? This function never shrinks the stack; if the stack is already larger than the new size, it is left unchanged. Destroys all objects in the given Lua state (calling the entrance sample essay corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and frees all dynamic memory used by this state.

On several platforms, you may not need to call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the of marat essay host program ends. On the other hand, long-running programs that create multiple states, such as daemons or web servers, might need to college entrance sample close states as soon as they are not needed. Compares two Lua values. Returns 1 if the value at index index1 satisfies op when compared with the A raisin sun value at index index2 , following the semantics of the corresponding Lua operator (that is, it may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the college sample indices is natalie dessay french arias non valid. The value of op must be one of the following constants: LUA_OPEQ : compares for equality ( == ) LUA_OPLT : compares for less than ( ) LUA_OPLE : compares for less or equal ( = ) Concatenates the n values at the top of the sample stack, pops them, and leaves the result at the top. If n is 1, the natalie dessay arias result is the single value on college entrance sample essay, the stack (that is, the function does nothing); if n is 0, the what is review of related literature result is the empty string. Concatenation is performed following the usual semantics of Lua (see §3.4.5). Moves the element at index fromidx into the valid index toidx without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at that position). Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. Parameter narr is a hint for how many elements the table will have as a sequence; parameter nrec is a hint for how many other elements the table will have.

Lua may use these hints to preallocate memory for the new table. This pre-allocation is useful for performance when you know in advance how many elements the table will have. College? Otherwise you can use the function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk. Receives a Lua function on happiness essays, the top of the stack and produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in a function equivalent to the one dumped. Sample Essay? As it produces parts of the chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the given data to write them. The value returned is the death of marat essay error code returned by the last call to the writer; 0 means no errors. This function does not pop the Lua function from the stack. Generates a Lua error.

The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of any type) must be on the stack top. College Entrance Sample Essay? This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns (see luaL_error ). Controls the garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to the value of the parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the garbage collector. LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the garbage collector. LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. A Raisin? LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the current amount of entrance sample, memory (in Kbytes) in use by Lua. LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the remainder of dividing the current amount of bytes of memory in use by thesis Lua by 1024. LUA_GCSTEP : performs an incremental step of garbage collection.

The step size is college entrance sample controlled by data (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. Aquinas Essays? If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of data . The function returns 1 if the step finished a garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.5). The function returns the previous value of the pause. LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the new value for the step multiplier of the college sample collector (see §2.5). Essay Format? The function returns the college previous value of the step multiplier. LUA_GCISRUNNING : returns a boolean that tells whether the collector is running (i.e., not stopped). LUA_GCGEN : changes the collector to generational mode (see §2.5). Between Format? LUA_GCINC : changes the collector to essay incremental mode.

This is the default mode. For more details about these options, see collectgarbage . Returns the memory-allocation function of a given state. If ud is not NULL , Lua stores in *ud the opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate . This function is called by a continuation function (see §4.7) to retrieve the opera status of the thread and a context information. When called in the original function, lua_getctx always returns LUA_OK and does not change the value of its argument ctx . When called inside a continuation function, lua_getctx returns LUA_YIELD and sets the value of ctx to entrance sample be the context information (the value passed as the ctx argument to suggested the callee together with the sample continuation function). When the callee is lua_pcallk , Lua may also call its continuation function to handle errors during the call. That is, upon an error in the function called by lua_pcallk , Lua may not return to the original function but instead may call the continuation function. In that case, a call to lua_getctx will return the error code (the value that would be returned by lua_pcallk ); the what literature value of ctx will be set to the context information, as in the case of college sample essay, a yield.

Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at happiness essays, the given index. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.4). Pushes onto the stack the value of the global name . Pushes onto the stack the metatable of the value at the given index. If the value does not have a metatable, the function returns 0 and pushes nothing on the stack. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at sample essay, the given index and k is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the thesis key from the stack (putting the resulting value in its place). As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.4). Returns the index of the top element in the stack. Entrance Sample? Because indices start at in the, 1, this result is equal to the number of elements in the stack (and so 0 means an empty stack). Pushes onto the stack the Lua value associated with the userdata at college entrance sample essay, the given index. This Lua value must be a table or nil . Moves the of marat essay top element into the given valid index, shifting up the elements above this index to open space.

This function cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is college not an actual stack position. The type used by suggested thesis the Lua API to entrance sample essay represent signed integral values. By default it is a ptrdiff_t , which is usually the largest signed integral type the machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the suggested thesis value at the given index is college a boolean, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is death of marat a C function, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at college entrance, the given index is death of marat essay a function (either C or Lua), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the college sample essay value at the given index is a light userdata, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the suggested given index is college entrance sample not valid, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the arias given index is college entrance essay not valid or if the value at this index is nil , and what is review literature 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a number or a string convertible to a number, and 0 otherwise.

Returns 1 if the essay value at sun, the given index is a string or a number (which is always convertible to a string), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the sample value at the given index is is review of related literature a table, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is college essay a thread, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at suggested thesis, the given index is a userdata (either full or light), and 0 otherwise. Returns the length of the value at the given index; it is equivalent to the ' # ' operator in college entrance, Lua (see §3.4.6). The result is pushed on the stack. Loads a Lua chunk (without running it). If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the compiled chunk as a Lua function on top of the stack.

Otherwise, it pushes an difference between essay format format, error message. The return values of lua_load are: LUA_OK : no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during precompilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error; LUA_ERRGCMM : error while running a __gc metamethod. (This error has no relation with the college essay chunk being loaded. It is generated by the garbage collector.) The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to dessay french arias read the chunk (see lua_Reader ). The data argument is an opaque value passed to the reader function. The source argument gives a name to college sample essay the chunk, which is used for error messages and in is review of related literature, debug information (see §4.9). lua_load automatically detects whether the chunk is text or binary and college essay loads it accordingly (see program luac ). The string mode works as in of marat, function load , with the addition that a NULL value is equivalent to the string bt . lua_load uses the stack internally, so the reader function should always leave the sample stack unmodified when returning. If the resulting function has one upvalue, this upvalue is set to the value of the global environment stored at index LUA_RIDX_GLOBALS in the registry (see §4.5). When loading main chunks, this upvalue will be the _ENV variable (see §2.2). Creates a new thread running in a new, independent state.

Returns NULL if cannot create the happiness thread or the state (due to lack of memory). The argument f is the allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for this state through this function. The second argument, ud , is an sample, opaque pointer that Lua passes to the allocator in every call. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. It is equivalent to lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on in the sun, the stack, and returns a pointer to a lua_State that represents this new thread. College Essay? The new thread returned by this function shares with the original thread its global environment, but has an independent execution stack. There is no explicit function to close or to destroy a thread. Threads are subject to garbage collection, like any Lua object.

This function allocates a new block of memory with the given size, pushes onto is review, the stack a new full userdata with the block address, and college sample returns this address. The host program can freely use this memory. Pops a key from the in the stack, and pushes a keyvalue pair from the table at the given index (the next pair after the given key). If there are no more elements in the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing). A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on a key, unless you know that the key is actually a string. Recall that lua_tolstring may change the value at the given index; this confuses the next call to lua_next . See function next for the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal.

The type of numbers in college sample essay, Lua. By default, it is in the double, but that can be changed in luaconf.h . Through this configuration file you can change Lua to operate with another type for numbers (e.g., float or long). Calls a function in essay, protected mode. Both nargs and nresults have the same meaning as in lua_call . Suggested Thesis? If there are no errors during the entrance essay call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . However, if there is any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on the stack (the error message), and returns an error code. Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the function and dessay french opera arias its arguments from the stack. If msgh is 0, then the error message returned on the stack is exactly the original error message. Otherwise, msgh is the entrance essay stack index of a message handler . (In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of runtime errors, this function will be called with the suggested thesis error message and its return value will be the message returned on the stack by lua_pcall . Typically, the message handler is used to entrance essay add more debug information to the error message, such as a stack traceback. Such information cannot be gathered after the return of difference essay format and report, lua_pcall , since by college entrance sample then the stack has unwound. The lua_pcall function returns one of the following codes (defined in difference and report, lua.h ): LUA_OK (0): success. LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error. LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error.

For such errors, Lua does not call the sample essay message handler. LUA_ERRERR : error while running the message handler. LUA_ERRGCMM : error while running a __gc metamethod. (This error typically has no relation with the function being called. It is generated by the garbage collector.) This function behaves exactly like lua_pcall , but allows the called function to yield (see §4.7). Pops n elements from the stack. Pushes a boolean value with value b onto the stack. Pushes a new C closure onto A raisin in the, the stack. When a C function is entrance sample essay created, it is possible to A raisin in the associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §4.4); these values are then accessible to the function whenever it is called.

To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto the stack (when there are multiple values, the first value is college entrance sample pushed first). Then lua_pushcclosure is called to create and push the C function onto the stack, with the argument n telling how many values should be associated with the function. lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the happiness essays stack. The maximum value for n is 255. When n is zero, this function creates a light C function , which is just a pointer to the C function. In that case, it never throws a memory error.

Pushes a C function onto the stack. This function receives a pointer to a C function and pushes onto the stack a Lua value of type function that, when called, invokes the corresponding C function. Any function to be registered in entrance essay, Lua must follow the correct protocol to receive its parameters and return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is defined as a macro: Note that f is used twice. Pushes onto the stack a formatted string and returns a pointer to this string. It is similar to essay and report the ISO C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to allocate space for the result: the result is a Lua string and Lua takes care of memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection).

The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. There are no flags, widths, or precisions. The conversion specifiers can only be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an int ), and ' %c ' (inserts an int as a byte). Pushes the global environment onto the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto the stack. Userdata represent C values in Lua. A light userdata represents a pointer, a void* . It is a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and entrance essay it is not collected (as it was never created). A light userdata is equal to any light userdata with the same C address. This macro is aquinas happiness equivalent to lua_pushlstring , but can be used only when s is a literal string.

It automatically provides the string length. Pushes the string pointed to by s with size len onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the college entrance function returns. The string can contain any binary data, including embedded zeros. Returns a pointer to the internal copy of the string. Pushes a nil value onto the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack.

Pushes the zero-terminated string pointed to dessay opera by s onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the college given string, so the in the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. Returns a pointer to the internal copy of the string. If s is college entrance sample essay NULL , pushes nil and returns NULL . Pushes the in the thread represented by L onto the stack. Returns 1 if this thread is the entrance main thread of its state. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a copy of the element at the given index onto the stack. Equivalent to lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of a variable number of arguments.

Returns 1 if the two values in between essay format format, indices index1 and index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices are non valid. Similar to lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods). Pushes onto the stack the value t[n] , where t is the table at the given index. College? The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the table at the given index and what is review of related literature k is the pointer p represented as a light userdata. Entrance? The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Returns the natalie french raw length of the value at the given index: for strings, this is the string length; for tables, this is the result of the length operator (' # ') with no metamethods; for userdata, this is the size of the college entrance sample essay block of suggested, memory allocated for the userdata; for other values, it is 0. Similar to lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods). Does the equivalent of t[n] = v , where t is the table at the given index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the college entrance essay value from the stack.

The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Does the equivalent of t[k] = v , where t is the table at the given index, k is the pointer p represented as a light userdata, and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the natalie dessay french opera value from the entrance stack. The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by lua_load . Every time it needs another piece of the what is review of related chunk, lua_load calls the college entrance sample essay reader, passing along its data parameter. The reader must return a pointer to a block of memory with a new piece of the chunk and set size to death essay the block size. The block must exist until the college reader function is called again.

To signal the end of the chunk, the natalie arias reader must return NULL or set size to zero. The reader function may return pieces of college entrance sample essay, any size greater than zero. Sets the C function f as the new value of global name . It is defined as a macro: Removes the element at the given valid index, shifting down the elements above this index to fill the suggested gap. College Sample? This function cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position.

Moves the top element into the given valid index without shifting any element (therefore replacing the between essay format value at the given index), and essay then pops the difference between essay format top element. Starts and sample resumes a coroutine in a given thread. To start a coroutine, you push onto the thread stack the main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with nargs being the what of related literature number of essay, arguments. This call returns when the difference format and report coroutine suspends or finishes its execution. College? When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to lua_yield , or all values returned by the body function. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the coroutine yields, LUA_OK if the coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an error code in case of errors (see lua_pcall ). In case of what literature, errors, the stack is not unwound, so you can use the entrance essay debug API over it. The error message is on the top of the stack. To resume a coroutine, you remove any results from the thesis last lua_yield , put on its stack only the values to be passed as results from yield , and then call lua_resume . The parameter from entrance represents the A raisin sun coroutine that is resuming L . If there is college entrance no such coroutine, this parameter can be NULL . Changes the allocator function of a given state to f with user data ud . Does the equivalent to between format t[k] = v , where t is the college value at the given index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. Natalie French Opera Arias? As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for entrance sample essay the newindex event (see §2.4).

Pops a value from the stack and sets it as the A raisin sun new value of entrance sample essay, global name . Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new metatable for the value at the given index. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given index, v is the value at the top of the stack, and k is the value just below the essay format and report top. This function pops both the key and the value from the college sample essay stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.4). Accepts any index, or 0, and sets the stack top to this index. If the new top is larger than the old one, then the aquinas essays new elements are filled with nil . If index is 0, then all stack elements are removed. Pops a table or nil from the stack and sets it as the new value associated to sample essay the userdata at the given index. An opaque structure that points to a thread and indirectly (through the dessay french opera arias thread) to the whole state of a Lua interpreter. The Lua library is fully reentrant: it has no global variables.

All information about a state is accessible through this structure. A pointer to this structure must be passed as the first argument to every function in the library, except to lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from scratch. Returns the status of the thread L . The status can be 0 ( LUA_OK ) for a normal thread, an sample, error code if the thread finished the natalie dessay opera arias execution of a lua_resume with an error, or LUA_YIELD if the thread is entrance sample essay suspended. You can only call functions in threads with status LUA_OK . You can resume threads with status LUA_OK (to start a new coroutine) or LUA_YIELD (to resume a coroutine). Converts the Lua value at the given index to a C boolean value (0 or 1). Like all tests in Lua, lua_toboolean returns true for any Lua value different from false and nil ; otherwise it returns false. (If you want to accept only actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to test the value's type.) Converts a value at the given index to suggested thesis a C function. That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Equivalent to college entrance essay lua_tointegerx with isnum equal to NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given index to difference between essay and report format the signed integral type lua_Integer . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to entrance sample a number (see §3.4.2); otherwise, lua_tointegerx returns 0. If the number is not an integer, it is truncated in A raisin in the, some non-specified way. If isnum is not NULL , its referent is assigned a boolean value that indicates whether the college entrance sample essay operation succeeded. Converts the happiness Lua value at college entrance sample essay, the given index to a C string.

If len is not NULL , it also sets *len with the what of related literature string length. The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the function returns NULL . Sample? If the what is review value is college entrance a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the actual value in the stack to a string . (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is applied to keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to a string inside the Lua state. This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in C), but can contain other zeros in natalie dessay french opera, its body. Because Lua has garbage collection, there is no guarantee that the pointer returned by lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is sample essay removed from the stack. Equivalent to death of marat lua_tonumberx with isnum equal to NULL . Converts the college sample Lua value at the given index to the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to what of related a number (see §3.4.2); otherwise, lua_tonumberx returns 0.

If isnum is not NULL , its referent is assigned a boolean value that indicates whether the operation succeeded. Converts the value at the given index to college sample a generic C pointer ( void* ). The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Different objects will give different pointers. There is A raisin in the sun no way to convert the pointer back to its original value. Typically this function is used only for debug information. Equivalent to lua_tolstring with len equal to NULL . Converts the value at the given index to a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). This value must be a thread; otherwise, the college essay function returns NULL . Equivalent to lua_tounsignedx with isnum equal to NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given index to essay the unsigned integral type lua_Unsigned . Entrance Essay? The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §3.4.2); otherwise, lua_tounsignedx returns 0. If the number is not an integer, it is natalie french arias truncated in some non-specified way. If the number is outside the range of representable values, it is normalized to the remainder of its division by one more than the maximum representable value. If isnum is not NULL , its referent is assigned a boolean value that indicates whether the operation succeeded. If the value at the given index is a full userdata, returns its block address.

If the value is a light userdata, returns its pointer. College Entrance Sample Essay? Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the type of the value in the given valid index, or LUA_TNONE for a non-valid (but acceptable) index. The types returned by lua_type are coded by the following constants defined in lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the name of the type encoded by the value tp , which must be one the values returned by lua_type . The type used by the Lua API to represent unsigned integral values. Aquinas? It must have at least 32 bits. By default it is an unsigned int or an unsigned long , whichever can hold 32-bit values. Returns the pseudo-index that represents the i -th upvalue of the running function (see §4.4).

Returns the college entrance essay address of the version number stored in the Lua core. When called with a valid lua_State , returns the of related address of the version used to create that state. When called with NULL , returns the address of the version running the college entrance call. The type of the writer function used by lua_dump . Every time it produces another piece of chunk, lua_dump calls the writer, passing along the buffer to be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and death the data parameter supplied to lua_dump . The writer returns an error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an error and stops lua_dump from calling the college entrance sample essay writer again. Exchange values between different threads of the same state. This function pops n values from the stack from , and suggested pushes them onto the stack to . This function is equivalent to entrance essay lua_yieldk , but it has no continuation (see §4.7). Therefore, when the thread resumes, it returns to the function that called the function calling lua_yield . Yields a coroutine. This function should only be called as the return expression of a C function, as follows: When a C function calls lua_yieldk in that way, the running coroutine suspends its execution, and the call to lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. The parameter nresults is the suggested thesis number of values from the stack that are passed as results to lua_resume . When the coroutine is college entrance resumed again, Lua calls the sun given continuation function k to continue the execution of the C function that yielded (see §4.7). This continuation function receives the same stack from the previous function, with the college results removed and replaced by the arguments passed to lua_resume . Moreover, the continuation function may access the difference essay format value ctx by college essay calling lua_getctx . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities.

Instead, it offers a special interface by means of what is review of related literature, functions and hooks . College Entrance Sample? This interface allows the construction of different kinds of debuggers, profilers, and other tools that need inside information from the death of marat interpreter. A structure used to carry different pieces of information about a function or an activation record. lua_getstack fills only the private part of college sample, this structure, for death later use. Entrance Sample Essay? To fill the other fields of lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of lua_Debug have the following meaning: source : the source of the chunk that created the function. If source starts with a ' @ ', it means that the function was defined in a file where the file name follows the ' @ '. If source starts with a ' = ', the in the sun remainder of its contents describe the source in a user-dependent manner. Otherwise, the function was defined in a string where source is that string. short_src : a printable version of source , to be used in error messages. Sample Essay? linedefined : the A raisin in the line number where the definition of the function starts. lastlinedefined : the line number where the definition of the function ends. College Entrance Essay? what : the string Lua if the between essay format and report format function is a Lua function, C if it is a C function, main if it is the main part of a chunk. currentline : the current line where the given function is executing. Entrance Sample Essay? When no line information is available, currentline is set to -1. name : a reasonable name for the given function. Because functions in Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the suggested value of multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in a table field.

The lua_getinfo function checks how the function was called to college essay find a suitable name. If it cannot find a name, then name is set to NULL . namewhat : explains the name field. The value of namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to how the of marat function was called. (Lua uses the empty string when no other option seems to apply.) istailcall : true if this function invocation was called by a tail call. In this case, the caller of this level is not in the stack. nups : the number of upvalues of the function. nparams : the number of fixed parameters of the entrance function (always 0 for C functions). isvararg : true if the function is a vararg function (always true for C functions). Returns the current hook function. Returns the current hook count. Returns the aquinas current hook mask. Gets information about a specific function or function invocation. To get information about a function invocation, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about a function you push it onto sample, the stack and start the what string with the character ' '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the function from the top of the stack.) For instance, to A raisin know in which line a function f was defined, you can write the following code: Each character in the string what selects some fields of the structure ar to be filled or a value to essay be pushed on the stack: ' n ': fills in the field name and namewhat ; ' S ': fills in the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and what ; ' l ': fills in the field currentline ; ' t ': fills in the field istailcall ; ' u ': fills in the fields nups , nparams , and natalie french isvararg ; ' f ': pushes onto the stack the function that is running at the given level; ' L ': pushes onto the stack a table whose indices are the numbers of the lines that are valid on the function. (A valid line is a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point.

Non-valid lines include empty lines and comments.) This function returns 0 on college entrance sample, error (for instance, an invalid option in what ). Gets information about a local variable of a given activation record or a given function. In the first case, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). A Raisin Sun? The index n selects which local variable to college inspect; see debug.getlocal for details about variable indices and names. lua_getlocal pushes the variable's value onto the stack and returns its name.

In the second case, ar should be NULL and the function to be inspected must be at the top of the stack. Sun? In this case, only parameters of Lua functions are visible (as there is college entrance essay no information about suggested thesis what variables are active) and no values are pushed onto the stack. Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables. Gets information about the interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of a lua_Debug structure with an identification of the activation record of the function executing at a given level.

Level 0 is the essay current running function, whereas level n+1 is the function that has called level n (except for death tail calls, which do not count on the stack). When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about a closure's upvalue. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the external local variables that the function uses, and entrance that are consequently included in its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the index n of an upvalue, pushes the upvalue's value onto the stack, and returns its name. funcindex points to the closure in sun, the stack. (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the college whole function. So, they are numbered in an arbitrary order.) Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues. For C functions, this function uses the empty string as a name for all upvalues. Type for suggested thesis debugging hook functions. Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to the specific event that triggered the hook. Lua identifies these events with the sample essay following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILCALL , LUA_HOOKLINE , and LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Moreover, for line events, the field currentline is also set. A Raisin? To get the value of any other field in ar , the hook must call lua_getinfo . For call events, event can be LUA_HOOKCALL , the normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILCALL , for college sample a tail call; in this case, there will be no corresponding return event.

While Lua is running a hook, it disables other calls to hooks. Natalie? Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to hooks. Hook functions cannot have continuations, that is, they cannot call lua_yieldk , lua_pcallk , or lua_callk with a non-null k . Hook functions can yield under the following conditions: Only count and line events can yield and they cannot yield any value; to yield a hook function must finish its execution calling lua_yield with nresults equal to zero. Sets the sample essay debugging hook function. Argument f is the hook function. mask specifies on which events the sun hook will be called: it is formed by a bitwise or of the constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and college entrance LUA_MASKCOUNT . Essay? The count argument is only meaningful when the entrance mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . For each event, the hook is aquinas happiness essays called as explained below: The call hook: is called when the interpreter calls a function. The hook is called just after Lua enters the new function, before the function gets its arguments. The return hook: is called when the interpreter returns from college essay a function. The hook is called just before Lua leaves the function. There is no standard way to access the values to what is review of related be returned by the function. The line hook: is called when the interpreter is about to start the execution of a new line of code, or when it jumps back in the code (even to the same line). (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is called after the college entrance sample interpreter executes every count instructions. Of Related Literature? (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.)

A hook is disabled by setting mask to zero. Sets the value of a local variable of a given activation record. Parameters ar and n are as in lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). lua_setlocal assigns the value at the top of the entrance essay stack to the variable and returns its name. Literature? It also pops the value from the stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the entrance sample index is greater than the number of active local variables. Sets the value of a closure's upvalue. Natalie Dessay Arias? It assigns the college entrance sample value at the top of the death of marat essay stack to the upvalue and college sample returns its name. Sun? It also pops the value from the stack.

Parameters funcindex and entrance sample essay n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ). Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the essay format and report format index is greater than the number of upvalues. Returns an unique identifier for the upvalue numbered n from the closure at index funcindex . Parameters funcindex and n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ) (but n cannot be greater than the college entrance number of upvalues). These unique identifiers allow a program to check whether different closures share upvalues. Lua closures that share an dessay opera arias, upvalue (that is, that access a same external local variable) will return identical ids for those upvalue indices. Make the n1 -th upvalue of the Lua closure at index funcindex1 refer to the n2 -th upvalue of the Lua closure at index funcindex2 . The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to interface C with Lua. While the basic API provides the primitive functions for all interactions between C and Lua, the auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some common tasks.

All functions and types from the auxiliary library are defined in header file lauxlib.h and have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in the auxiliary library are built on top of the basic API, and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with that API. College Sample Essay? Nevertheless, the between format and report format use of the auxiliary library ensures more consistency to your code. Several functions in the auxiliary library use internally some extra stack slots. Entrance Sample Essay? When a function in the auxiliary library uses less than five slots, it does not check the stack size; it simply assumes that there are enough slots. Several functions in the auxiliary library are used to check C function arguments. Because the error message is french arias formatted for arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for other stack values.

Functions called luaL_check* always throw an entrance essay, error if the is review check is not satisfied. Here we list all functions and types from the entrance essay auxiliary library in aquinas happiness, alphabetical order. Adds the byte c to entrance sample essay the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Adds the string pointed to by s with length l to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string can contain embedded zeros. Adds to of related the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of length n previously copied to the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the zero-terminated string pointed to by s to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string cannot contain embedded zeros.

Adds the value at the top of the stack to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the value. This is the college entrance sample only function on string buffers that can (and must) be called with an extra element on the stack, which is the value to be added to the buffer. Checks whether cond is dessay opera true. If not, raises an error with a standard message. Raises an error with a standard message that includes extramsg as a comment. This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to build Lua strings piecemeal. College Entrance Sample? Its pattern of natalie, use is as follows: First declare a variable b of college sample essay, type luaL_Buffer . Then initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Then add string pieces to the buffer calling any of the of related luaL_add* functions. Finish by calling luaL_pushresult(b) . This call leaves the sample final string on natalie dessay french arias, the top of the stack.

If you know beforehand the total size of the resulting string, you can use the buffer like this: First declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Then initialize it and preallocate a space of size sz with a call luaL_buffinitsize(L, b, sz) . Then copy the string into that space. Finish by calling luaL_pushresultsize(b, sz) , where sz is the total size of the resulting string copied into that space. During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of stack slots. So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the top of the stack is. You can use the stack between successive calls to buffer operations as long as that use is balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the stack is at the same level it was immediately after the previous buffer operation. (The only exception to college sample this rule is format and report format luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the stack is back to its level when the buffer was initialized, plus the entrance sample final string on its top. Initializes a buffer B . This function does not allocate any space; the buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod. If the object at index obj has a metatable and this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field passing the object as its only argument. In this case this function returns true and pushes onto the stack the value returned by dessay arias the call. If there is no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns false (without pushing any value on the stack). Checks whether the function has an argument of any type (including nil ) at position arg . Checks whether the sample essay function argument arg is a number and returns this number cast to an int . Checks whether the death essay function argument arg is a number and returns this number cast to college essay a lua_Integer . Checks whether the function argument arg is a number and returns this number cast to a long . Checks whether the function argument arg is a string and returns this string; if l is sun not NULL fills *l with the string's length.

This function uses lua_tolstring to entrance sample get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the difference between and report function argument arg is college sample essay a number and returns this number. Checks whether the function argument arg is a string and searches for this string in the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Returns the index in the array where the string was found. Raises an error if the argument is not a string or if the string cannot be found. If def is A raisin in the not NULL , the function uses def as a default value when there is no argument arg or when this argument is nil . This is a useful function for mapping strings to C enums. (The usual convention in Lua libraries is to use strings instead of numbers to entrance select options.) Grows the stack size to top + sz elements, raising an error if the stack cannot grow to that size. msg is an additional text to go into is review, the error message (or NULL for no additional text). Checks whether the function argument arg is a string and college essay returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to dessay get its result, so all conversions and entrance essay caveats of A raisin in the, that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument arg has type t . See lua_type for entrance sample the encoding of types for t . Checks whether the function argument arg is aquinas happiness a userdata of the type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ) and returns the userdata address (see lua_touserdata ).

Checks whether the function argument arg is a number and returns this number cast to a lua_Unsigned . Checks whether the core running the college essay call, the core that created the Lua state, and the code making the call are all using the same version of Lua. Also checks whether the core running the call and the core that created the essay and report format Lua state are using the same address space. Loads and entrance essay runs the given file. It is defined as the literature following macro: It returns false if there are no errors or true in case of errors. Loads and runs the given string. It is college entrance essay defined as the following macro: It returns false if there are no errors or true in case of errors. Raises an between essay format and report, error. The error message format is essay given by fmt plus any extra arguments, following the same rules of lua_pushfstring . Death? It also adds at the beginning of the message the file name and the line number where the error occurred, if this information is available.

This function never returns, but it is an idiom to college entrance use it in C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . This function produces the return values for process-related functions in suggested thesis, the standard library ( os.execute and io.close ). This function produces the return values for file-related functions in entrance essay, the standard library ( , os.rename , file:seek , etc.). Pushes onto the stack the field e from the metatable of the object at index obj . Aquinas Happiness? If the object does not have a metatable, or if the metatable does not have this field, returns false and entrance sample essay pushes nothing. Pushes onto the stack the metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Ensures that the value t[fname] , where t is the value at suggested thesis, index idx , is a table, and pushes that table onto the stack. Returns true if it finds a previous table there and false if it creates a new table. Creates a copy of string s by replacing any occurrence of the entrance sample essay string p with the string r . Pushes the resulting string on natalie opera arias, the stack and college sample essay returns it. Returns the length of the value at the given index as a number; it is equivalent to the ' # ' operator in Lua (see §3.4.6). Raises an error if the result of the operation is A raisin sun not a number. (This case only can happen through metamethods.) Equivalent to luaL_loadbufferx with mode equal to NULL . Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk.

This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the buffer pointed to essay by buff with size sz . This function returns the same results as lua_load . name is the what literature chunk name, used for entrance sample essay debug information and error messages. The string mode works as in thesis, function lua_load . Equivalent to luaL_loadfilex with mode equal to NULL . Loads a file as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the file named filename . If filename is NULL , then it loads from the standard input. The first line in the file is ignored if it starts with a # . The string mode works as in function lua_load . This function returns the same results as lua_load , but it has an extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the file or the file has a wrong mode. As lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. Loads a string as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in college sample, the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. Creates a new table and registers there the essays functions in list l . It is entrance sample implemented as the following macro: Creates a new table with a size optimized to suggested store all entries in college, the array l (but does not actually store them).

It is intended to be used in conjunction with luaL_setfuncs (see luaL_newlib ). It is aquinas essays implemented as a macro. The array l must be the actual array, not a pointer to it. If the registry already has the key tname , returns 0. Otherwise, creates a new table to be used as a metatable for userdata, adds it to the registry with key tname , and returns 1. In both cases pushes onto the stack the final value associated with tname in the registry. Creates a new Lua state. It calls lua_newstate with an allocator based on the standard C realloc function and then sets a panic function (see §4.6) that prints an college entrance sample essay, error message to death of marat essay the standard error output in essay, case of fatal errors. Returns the new state, or NULL if there is a memory allocation error. Opens all standard Lua libraries into suggested thesis, the given state.

If the function argument arg is a number, returns this number cast to an int . Entrance Sample? If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the essays function argument arg is a number, returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an entrance sample essay, error. If the happiness essays function argument arg is college a number, returns this number cast to happiness essays a long . If this argument is entrance sample absent or is is review literature nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument arg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error.

If l is not NULL , fills the position *l with the college entrance essay result's length. If the function argument arg is a number, returns this number. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the aquinas essays function argument arg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument arg is a number, returns this number cast to a lua_Unsigned . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns u . Otherwise, raises an error. Returns an address to a space of size sz where you can copy a string to be added to buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). After copying the string into this space you must call luaL_addsize with the size of the string to entrance essay actually add it to the buffer. Finishes the use of what is review of related, buffer B leaving the college sample final string on the top of the stack. Creates and returns a reference , in death essay, the table at index t , for the object at college sample essay, the top of the stack (and pops the object). A reference is what is review of related a unique integer key. As long as you do not manually add integer keys into table t , luaL_ref ensures the uniqueness of the key it returns.

You can retrieve an object referred by college entrance sample reference r by calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Function luaL_unref frees a reference and its associated object. If the object at the top of the stack is nil , luaL_ref returns the constant LUA_REFNIL . The constant LUA_NOREF is death of marat essay guaranteed to be different from any reference returned by luaL_ref . Type for arrays of college, functions to be registered by luaL_setfuncs . name is the function name and func is a pointer to the function. Any array of essay, luaL_Reg must end with an sentinel entry in which both name and entrance func are NULL . Calls function openf with string modname as an suggested thesis, argument and sets the call result in package.loaded[modname] , as if that function has been called through require . If glb is college entrance essay true, also stores the result into global modname . Leaves a copy of that result on the stack. Registers all functions in what is review, the array l (see luaL_Reg ) into the table on the top of the stack (below optional upvalues, see next). When nup is not zero, all functions are created sharing nup upvalues, which must be previously pushed on the stack on top of the library table. These values are popped from the entrance sample essay stack after the registration. Sets the metatable of the object at the top of the stack as the metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ).

This function works like luaL_checkudata , except that, when the test fails, it returns NULL instead of death of marat, throwing an college entrance sample essay, error. Converts any Lua value at the given index to a C string in suggested, a reasonable format. The resulting string is pushed onto the stack and also returned by the function. If len is not NULL , the function also sets *len with the string length. If the value has a metatable with a __tostring field, then luaL_tolstring calls the corresponding metamethod with the value as argument, and uses the result of the call as its result. Creates and pushes a traceback of the stack L1 . College Sample Essay? If msg is not NULL it is A raisin in the sun appended at the beginning of the traceback. The level parameter tells at which level to start the traceback. Returns the name of the type of the value at the given index. Releases reference ref from the table at index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is removed from the essay table, so that the referred object can be collected. The reference ref is also freed to of marat be used again.

Pushes onto sample essay, the stack a string identifying the current position of the control at is review literature, level lvl in the call stack. Typically this string has the entrance following format: Level 0 is the running function, level 1 is the function that called the running function, etc. This function is used to build a prefix for error messages. The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the C API. Some of these functions provide essential services to the language (e.g., type and getmetatable ); others provide access to outside services (e.g., I/O); and happiness essays others could be implemented in Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an implementation in C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the entrance sample official C API and are provided as separate C modules. Currently, Lua has the dessay arias following standard libraries: basic library (§6.1); coroutine library (§6.2); package library (§6.3); string manipulation (§6.4); table manipulation (§6.5); mathematical functions (§6.6) (sin, log, etc.); bitwise operations (§6.7); input and output (§6.8); operating system facilities (§6.9); debug facilities (§6.10).

Except for the basic and entrance sample the package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of a global table or as methods of dessay french arias, its objects. To have access to these libraries, the entrance sample essay C host program should call the between essay format luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries. Alternatively, the host program can open them individually by using luaL_requiref to call luaopen_base (for the college entrance sample essay basic library), luaopen_package (for the package library), luaopen_coroutine (for the coroutine library), luaopen_string (for the string library), luaopen_table (for the table library), luaopen_math (for the mathematical library), luaopen_bit32 (for the bit library), luaopen_io (for the I/O library), luaopen_os (for the Operating System library), and luaopen_debug (for the debug library). These functions are declared in lualib.h . The basic library provides core functions to Lua. Difference Essay Format? If you do not include this library in your application, you should check carefully whether you need to provide implementations for some of its facilities. This function is a generic interface to the garbage collector.

It performs different functions according to its first argument, opt : collect : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. This is the default option. stop : stops automatic execution of the garbage collector. The collector will run only when explicitly invoked, until a call to restart it. restart : restarts automatic execution of the garbage collector. count : returns the total memory in use by essay Lua (in Kbytes) and a second value with the difference between essay and report total memory in bytes modulo 1024. College Entrance Sample? The first value has a fractional part, so the natalie opera arias following equality is always true: (The second result is useful when Lua is college compiled with a non floating-point type for numbers.) step : performs a garbage-collection step. The step size is controlled by arg (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the natalie dessay french value of entrance sample essay, arg . Natalie French Arias? Returns true if the step finished a collection cycle. setpause : sets arg as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.5). Returns the previous value for pause . Sample Essay? setstepmul : sets arg as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.5). Of Related? Returns the previous value for step . College Entrance Sample? isrunning : returns a boolean that tells whether the collector is running (i.e., not stopped). generational : changes the collector to generational mode.

This is an aquinas essays, experimental feature (see §2.5). incremental : changes the collector to college sample incremental mode. This is the default mode. Usually, error adds some information about the error position at the beginning of the message, if the message is a string. The level argument specifies how to get the difference between format and report format error position. With level 1 (the default), the error position is where the entrance sample essay error function was called. Level 2 points the error to where the function that called error was called; and so on.

Passing a level 0 avoids the addition of A raisin in the, error position information to college sample essay the message. If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Otherwise, if the object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the associated value. Otherwise, returns the metatable of the given object. If t has a metamethod __ipairs , calls it with t as argument and returns the first three results from the call. Otherwise, returns three values: an iterator function, the table t , and 0, so that the construction.

will iterate over the pairs ( 1,t[1] ), ( 2,t[2] ), . up to the first integer key absent from the table. If ld is arias a string, the chunk is this string. If ld is a function, load calls it repeatedly to get the chunk pieces. Each call to college entrance sample essay ld must return a string that concatenates with previous results. A return of an empty string, nil , or no value signals the essays end of the college entrance sample chunk. If there are no syntactic errors, returns the compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the error message. If the resulting function has upvalues, the first upvalue is set to the value of env , if that parameter is given, or to the value of the global environment. (When you load a main chunk, the resulting function will always have exactly one upvalue, the _ENV variable (see §2.2). When you load a binary chunk created from a function (see string.dump ), the resulting function can have arbitrary upvalues.) source is used as the source of the chunk for error messages and debug information (see §4.9). When absent, it defaults to ld , if ld is a string, or to =(load) otherwise. The string mode controls whether the chunk can be text or binary (that is, a precompiled chunk).

It may be the string b (only binary chunks), t (only text chunks), or bt (both binary and text). The default is bt . Similar to of related literature load , but gets the sample essay chunk from file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is given. Allows a program to traverse all fields of a table. Its first argument is a table and its second argument is an index in suggested thesis, this table. Entrance? next returns the next index of the is review of related table and its associated value. When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and its associated value. When called with the last index, or with nil in sample essay, an empty table, next returns nil . If the second argument is absent, then it is interpreted as nil . In particular, you can use next(t) to check whether a table is empty. The order in which the indices are enumerated is not specified, even for numeric indices . (To traverse a table in numeric order, use a numerical for .) The behavior of next is undefined if, during the traversal, you assign any value to a non-existent field in the table. You may however modify existing fields. Of Related? In particular, you may clear existing fields.

If t has a metamethod __pairs , calls it with t as argument and returns the first three results from the call. Otherwise, returns three values: the next function, the sample table t , and nil , so that the construction. will iterate over all keyvalue pairs of table t . See function next for the caveats of natalie french opera, modifying the table during its traversal. Calls function f with the entrance sample given arguments in protected mode . This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the error and returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors.

In such case, pcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, pcall returns false plus the error message. This function returns table . If index is a number, returns all arguments after argument number index ; a negative number indexes from the end (-1 is the last argument). Otherwise, index must be the string # , and select returns the suggested thesis total number of extra arguments it received. Sets the metatable for college entrance sample the given table. (You cannot change the metatable of other types from suggested Lua, only from C.) If metatable is nil , removes the metatable of the given table. If the original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an error. This function returns table . When called with no base , tonumber tries to convert its argument to a number. College Sample Essay? If the argument is already a number or a string convertible to A raisin in the a number (see §3.4.2), then tonumber returns this number; otherwise, it returns nil . When called with base , then e should be a string to be interpreted as an integer numeral in that base.

The base may be any integer between 2 and 36, inclusive. In bases above 10, the letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and entrance sample essay so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35. If the natalie arias string e is not a valid numeral in the given base, the function returns nil . If the metatable of v has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the corresponding value with v as argument, and uses the result of the call as its result. This function is similar to pcall , except that it sets a new message handler msgh . The operations related to coroutines comprise a sub-library of the college sample basic library and come inside the table coroutine . Difference Format Format? See §2.6 for a general description of coroutines. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns this new coroutine, an object with type thread . Starts or continues the execution of college entrance sample, coroutine co . The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. The values val1 , . Suggested? are passed as the arguments to college sample the body function. If the coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the values val1 , . are passed as the results from the aquinas essays yield.

If the coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to yield (if the coroutine yields) or any values returned by the body function (if the coroutine terminates). If there is any error, resume returns false plus the college sample essay error message. Returns the running coroutine plus a boolean, true when the running coroutine is the dessay french opera main one. Returns the status of sample, coroutine co , as a string: running , if the coroutine is running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the coroutine is A raisin sun suspended in a call to yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the coroutine is active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and dead if the coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an error. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns a function that resumes the coroutine each time it is called. Any arguments passed to the function behave as the extra arguments to resume . Returns the same values returned by resume , except the first boolean. In case of error, propagates the error. Suspends the execution of the college entrance calling coroutine.

Any arguments to yield are passed as extra results to resume . The package library provides basic facilities for loading modules in Lua. It exports one function directly in difference between essay format, the global environment: require . Everything else is exported in a table package . Loads the given module. The function starts by looking into entrance sample, the package.loaded table to determine whether modname is already loaded. If it is, then require returns the value stored at package.loaded[modname] . Otherwise, it tries to dessay opera arias find a loader for the module. To find a loader, require is guided by college sample essay the package.searchers sequence. By changing this sequence, we can change how require looks for a module.

The following explanation is A raisin in the based on the default configuration for package.searchers . First require queries package.preload[modname] . If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the loader. Otherwise require searches for a Lua loader using the sample essay path stored in package.path . If that also fails, it searches for a C loader using the path stored in difference essay and report format, package.cpath . If that also fails, it tries an all-in-one loader (see package.searchers ). Once a loader is found, require calls the college loader with two arguments: modname and an extra value dependent on of marat essay, how it got the loader. (If the loader came from a file, this extra value is the file name.) If the college entrance loader returns any non-nil value, require assigns the returned value to of marat essay package.loaded[modname] . If the loader does not return a non-nil value and entrance sample essay has not assigned any value to package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to this entry. In any case, require returns the final value of package.loaded[modname] . If there is any error loading or running the module, or if it cannot find any loader for the module, then require raises an suggested thesis, error. A string describing some compile-time configurations for college entrance sample essay packages.

This string is a sequence of lines: The first line is the directory separator string. Default is ' ' for Windows and ' / ' for all other systems. The second line is the natalie french character that separates templates in a path. Default is ' ; '. The third line is the string that marks the substitution points in entrance sample essay, a template. Default is ' ? '. The fourth line is a string that, in a path in Windows, is replaced by the executable's directory. A Raisin? Default is college entrance sample ' ! '. The fifth line is a mark to ignore all text before it when building the luaopen_ function name.

Default is ' - '. The path used by require to search for a C loader. Lua initializes the C path package.cpath in the same way it initializes the Lua path package.path , using the environment variable LUA_CPATH_5_2 or the natalie dessay french opera environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in luaconf.h . A table used by require to control which modules are already loaded. When you require a module modname and package.loaded[modname] is college sample essay not false, require simply returns the value stored there. This variable is only a reference to the real table; assignments to this variable do not change the table used by require . Dynamically links the what is review of related host program with the C library libname . If funcname is college entrance sample essay * , then it only links with the library, making the symbols exported by the library available to other dynamically linked libraries. Otherwise, it looks for a function funcname inside the library and returns this function as a C function. So, funcname must follow the lua_CFunction prototype (see lua_CFunction ).

This is a low-level function. It completely bypasses the package and module system. Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and does not automatically adds extensions. libname must be the complete file name of the natalie arias C library, including if necessary a path and an extension. funcname must be the exact name exported by the C library (which may depend on college sample essay, the C compiler and linker used). This function is not supported by Standard C. As such, it is only available on some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the between and report format dlfcn standard). The path used by require to search for a Lua loader.

At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the college entrance sample essay value of the environment variable LUA_PATH_5_2 or the environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in luaconf.h , if those environment variables are not defined. Any ;; in the value of the environment variable is replaced by the default path. A table to in the sun store loaders for specific modules (see require ). This variable is only a reference to the real table; assignments to this variable do not change the table used by require . A table used by entrance essay require to difference between format and report control how to entrance sample essay load modules. Each entry in this table is a searcher function . When looking for essays a module, require calls each of these searchers in ascending order, with the college entrance essay module name (the argument given to require ) as its sole parameter.

The function can return another function (the module loader ) plus an aquinas happiness essays, extra value that will be passed to that loader, or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to say). Lua initializes this table with four searcher functions. The first searcher simply looks for college entrance essay a loader in the package.preload table. The second searcher looks for difference essay format and report format a loader as a Lua library, using the entrance sample path stored at package.path . The search is done as described in essays, function package.searchpath . The third searcher looks for a loader as a C library, using the path given by the variable package.cpath . Again, the search is done as described in function package.searchpath . For instance, if the C path is the entrance essay string. the searcher for module foo will try to open the files ./ , ./foo.dll , and /usr/local/foo/ , in that order. Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to link the application with the library.

Then it tries to find a C function inside the library to be used as the loader. The name of this C function is the string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the module name where each dot is replaced by an underscore. Aquinas? Moreover, if the module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to (and including) the first hyphen is removed. For instance, if the module name is a.v1-b.c , the sample function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an all-in-one loader . It searches the difference between format format C path for a library for the root name of the college sample given module. For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for a C library for a . If found, it looks into format and report, it for an open function for the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function. All searchers except the first one (preload) return as the extra value the file name where the module was found, as returned by package.searchpath . The first searcher returns no extra value. package.searchpath (name, path [, sep [, rep]])

Searches for college essay the given name in the given path . A path is A raisin in the a string containing a sequence of templates separated by semicolons. For each template, the function replaces each interrogation mark (if any) in the template with a copy of name wherein all occurrences of sep (a dot, by college default) were replaced by A raisin sun rep (the system's directory separator, by default), and college sample then tries to open the resulting file name. For instance, if the suggested thesis path is the college sample string. the search for the name foo.a will try to open the files ./foo/a.lua , ./foo/ , and /usr/local/foo/a/init.lua , in that order. Returns the resulting name of the first file that it can open in read mode (after closing the file), or nil plus an error message if none succeeds. (This error message lists all file names it tried to open.) This library provides generic functions for string manipulation, such as finding and extracting substrings, and pattern matching. When indexing a string in Lua, the first character is at position 1 (not at of marat, 0, as in college entrance sample, C). Indices are allowed to be negative and what are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the end of the string.

Thus, the college essay last character is at position -1, and so on. The string library provides all its functions inside the table string . It also sets a metatable for strings where the __index field points to the string table. Therefore, you can use the string functions in object-oriented style. For instance, string.byte(s,i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings. Numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms.

Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function, so that a later load on this string returns a copy of the function (but with new upvalues). string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) Looks for the first match of pattern in the string s . If it finds a match, then find returns the indices of s where this occurrence starts and ends; otherwise, it returns nil . A third, optional numerical argument init specifies where to start the search; its default value is 1 and can be negative. A value of true as a fourth, optional argument plain turns off the pattern matching facilities, so the function does a plain find substring operation, with no characters in essay, pattern being considered magic. Note that if plain is given, then init must be given as well.

If the pattern has captures, then in a successful match the captured values are also returned, after the two indices. Returns a formatted version of its variable number of arguments following the description given in its first argument (which must be a string). The format string follows the same rules as the college entrance ISO C function sprintf . The only differences are that the options/modifiers * , h , L , l , n , and p are not supported and that there is an extra option, q . The q option formats a string between double quotes, using escape sequences when necessary to ensure that it can safely be read back by the Lua interpreter. For instance, the call. may produce the string:

Options A and a (when available), E , e , f , G , and g all expect a number as argument. Literature? Options c , d , i , o , u , X , and x also expect a number, but the range of that number may be limited by the underlying C implementation. For options o , u , X , and x , the number cannot be negative. Option q expects a string; option s expects a string without embedded zeros. If the argument to option s is not a string, it is entrance sample converted to one following the same rules of tostring . As an example, the following loop will iterate over between essay format format, all the entrance words from string s , printing one per line: The next example collects all pairs key=value from the given string into a table: For this function, a caret ' ^ ' at the start of a pattern does not work as an anchor, as this would prevent the iteration. If repl is a string, then its value is used for replacement. The character % works as an escape character: any sequence in repl of the form % d , with d between 1 and 9, stands for the value of the suggested d -th captured substring. College Sample? The sequence %0 stands for the whole match. The sequence %% stands for a single % . If repl is a table, then the table is queried for every match, using the first capture as the key.

If repl is suggested thesis a function, then this function is essay called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order. In any case, if the pattern specifies no captures, then it behaves as if the whole pattern was inside a capture. If the value returned by the table query or by the function call is happiness essays a string or a number, then it is used as the replacement string; otherwise, if it is college false or nil , then there is no replacement (that is, the original match is kept in the string). Here are some examples: If, after the translation of negative indices, i is less than 1, it is corrected to 1. If j is greater than the string length, it is corrected to difference essay and report format that length. Essay? If, after these corrections, i is greater than j , the function returns the empty string.

A character class is suggested thesis used to represent a set of characters. The following combinations are allowed in describing a character class: x : (where x is not one of the magic characters ^$()%.[]*+-? ) represents the character x itself. . : (a dot) represents all characters. Sample? %a : represents all letters. %c : represents all control characters. %d : represents all digits. %g : represents all printable characters except space. %l : represents all lowercase letters. %p : represents all punctuation characters. %s : represents all space characters. %u : represents all uppercase letters. %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. Of Related? %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. % x : (where x is any non-alphanumeric character) represents the character x . This is the standard way to escape the college magic characters. Any punctuation character (even the non magic) can be preceded by a ' % ' when used to happiness represent itself in a pattern. [ set ] : represents the class which is the union of all characters in set . A range of characters can be specified by separating the end characters of the range, in ascending order, with a ' - ', All classes % x described above can also be used as components in sample, set . All other characters in natalie dessay, set represent themselves. For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the underscore, [0-7] represents the octal digits, and [0-7%l%-] represents the octal digits plus the lowercase letters plus the entrance sample ' - ' character. The interaction between ranges and classes is is review of related literature not defined. Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. [^ set ] : represents the complement of college, set , where set is interpreted as above. For all classes represented by single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the corresponding uppercase letter represents the complement of the class. For instance, %S represents all non-space characters.

The definitions of letter, space, and other character groups depend on the current locale. Natalie Opera Arias? In particular, the college essay class [a-z] may not be equivalent to %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in the class; a single character class followed by ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in aquinas, the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of college entrance sample, characters in A raisin in the, the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of a character in the class; % n , for n between 1 and 9; such item matches a substring equal to the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and where the x and y are balanced . This means that, if one reads the string from left to right, counting +1 for an x and sample essay -1 for a y , the ending y is the aquinas happiness first y where the college sample essay count reaches 0. For instance, the item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses. %f[ set ] , a frontier pattern ; such item matches an empty string at any position such that the next character belongs to set and the previous character does not belong to set . The set set is of marat interpreted as previously described. College? The beginning and A raisin sun the end of the subject are handled as if they were the college entrance sample essay character ' 0 '. A pattern is A raisin in the a sequence of pattern items.

A caret ' ^ ' at the beginning of sample, a pattern anchors the match at aquinas, the beginning of the subject string. A ' $ ' at college sample, the end of a pattern anchors the match at the end of the subject string. At other positions, ' ^ ' and arias ' $ ' have no special meaning and represent themselves. A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in parentheses; they describe captures . When a match succeeds, the substrings of the subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for college sample essay future use. Captures are numbered according to their left parentheses. For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the A raisin sun part of the string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is stored as the first capture (and therefore has number 1); the character matching . is entrance sample essay captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3. As a special case, the empty capture () captures the difference between essay format and report current string position (a number).

For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and college entrance sample 5. This library provides generic functions for table manipulation. It provides all its functions inside the suggested table table . Remember that, whenever an operation needs the length of a table, the essay table should be a proper sequence or have a __len metamethod (see §3.4.6). All functions ignore non-numeric keys in tables given as arguments. For performance reasons, all table accesses (get/set) performed by these functions are raw. Given a list where all elements are strings or numbers, returns the string list[i]..sep..list[i+1] ··· sep..list[j] . The default value for sep is the empty string, the default for i is 1, and the default for happiness j is #list . If i is sample essay greater than j , returns the empty string. Inserts element value at position pos in list , shifting up the aquinas elements list[pos], list[pos+1], ···, list[#list] . The default value for pos is #list+1 , so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at the end of list t . Returns a new table with all parameters stored into keys 1, 2, etc. and with a field n with the total number of parameters. Note that the college entrance sample essay resulting table may not be a sequence.

Removes from natalie french arias list the element at college entrance sample, position pos , returning the value of the removed element. When pos is an integer between 1 and sun #list , it shifts down the elements list[pos+1], list[pos+2], ···, list[#list] and erases element list[#list] ; The index pos can also be 0 when #list is college sample 0, or #list + 1 ; in those cases, the function erases the aquinas happiness essays element list[pos] . The default value for pos is #list , so that a call table.remove(t) removes the last element of list t . Sorts list elements in a given order, in-place , from college essay list[1] to list[#list] . If comp is given, then it must be a function that receives two list elements and natalie dessay returns true when the first element must come before the second in the final order (so that not comp(list[i+1],list[i]) will be true after the sort). If comp is sample essay not given, then the standard Lua operator is used instead. The sort algorithm is not stable; that is, elements considered equal by the given order may have their relative positions changed by the sort. Returns the elements from the given table. Essays? This function is college entrance equivalent to. By default, i is 1 and j is difference between essay format and report #list . This library is an interface to the standard C math library. It provides all its functions inside the table math . Returns the college entrance absolute value of x . Returns the arc cosine of x (in radians).

Returns the arc sine of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of y/x (in radians), but uses the suggested thesis signs of both parameters to find the quadrant of the result. (It also handles correctly the case of x being zero.) Returns the smallest integer larger than or equal to x . Returns the cosine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic cosine of x . Returns the angle x (given in radians) in degrees. Returns the value e x . Returns the largest integer smaller than or equal to x . Returns the remainder of the division of x by y that rounds the quotient towards zero. Returns m and college sample e such that x = m2 e , e is an integer and the absolute value of m is in the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is zero). The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value. Returns m2 e ( e should be an integer). Returns the logarithm of x in the given base.

The default for base is e (so that the function returns the natural logarithm of difference essay format, x ). Returns the maximum value among its arguments. Returns the minimum value among its arguments. Returns two numbers, the integral part of x and the fractional part of x . Returns x y . (You can also use the expression x^y to compute this value.) Returns the angle x (given in degrees) in radians. This function is an interface to the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by college essay Standard C. (No guarantees can be given for its statistical properties.) When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in the range [0,1) . When called with an integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [1, m] . When called with two integer numbers m and n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in happiness essays, the range [m, n] . Sets x as the seed for the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of numbers. Returns the college sample essay sine of sun, x (assumed to college entrance be in A raisin, radians).

Returns the college entrance sample essay hyperbolic sine of x . Returns the square root of x . (You can also use the expression x^0.5 to happiness essays compute this value.) Returns the tangent of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic tangent of college sample, x . This library provides bitwise operations. It provides all its functions inside the thesis table bit32 . Unless otherwise stated, all functions accept numeric arguments in the range (-2 51 ,+2 51 ) ; each argument is normalized to the remainder of essay, its division by 2 32 and truncated to an integer (in some unspecified way), so that its final value falls in opera arias, the range [0,2 32 - 1] . Similarly, all results are in the range [0,2 32 - 1] . Essay? Note that bit32.bnot(0) is 0xFFFFFFFF , which is different from A raisin in the -1 . Returns the number x shifted disp bits to the right. The number disp may be any representable integer. College? Negative displacements shift to happiness essays the left. This shift operation is what is called arithmetic shift.

Vacant bits on the left are filled with copies of the higher bit of x ; vacant bits on entrance, the right are filled with zeros. In particular, displacements with absolute values higher than 31 result in zero or 0xFFFFFFFF (all original bits are shifted out). Returns the bitwise and of its operands. Returns the bitwise negation of in the, x . For any integer x , the college sample following identity holds: Returns the bitwise or of its operands. Returns a boolean signaling whether the bitwise and of its operands is different from what is review of related zero. Returns the bitwise exclusive or of its operands.

Returns the unsigned number formed by entrance the bits field to field + width - 1 from n . Bits are numbered from 0 (least significant) to 31 (most significant). All accessed bits must be in the range [0, 31] . The default for width is 1. Returns a copy of n with the bits field to field + width - 1 replaced by the value v . See bit32.extract for details about field and width . Returns the aquinas happiness essays number x rotated disp bits to the left. The number disp may be any representable integer. For any valid displacement, the following identity holds: In particular, negative displacements rotate to the right. Returns the sample number x shifted disp bits to the left. The number disp may be any representable integer. Negative displacements shift to the right.

In any direction, vacant bits are filled with zeros. In particular, displacements with absolute values higher than 31 result in zero (all bits are shifted out). For positive displacements, the following equality holds: Returns the number x rotated disp bits to the right. The number disp may be any representable integer. For any valid displacement, the following identity holds: In particular, negative displacements rotate to the left. Returns the number x shifted disp bits to the right.

The number disp may be any representable integer. Negative displacements shift to the left. In any direction, vacant bits are filled with zeros. Happiness? In particular, displacements with absolute values higher than 31 result in college sample, zero (all bits are shifted out). For positive displacements, the following equality holds:

This shift operation is death essay what is called logical shift. The I/O library provides two different styles for entrance sample file manipulation. The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to suggested thesis set a default input file and a default output file, and all input/output operations are over entrance sample, these default files. The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by table io . When using explicit file descriptors, the operation returns a file descriptor and then all operations are supplied as methods of the file descriptor.

The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from aquinas happiness essays C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and io.stderr . The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on essay, failure (plus an error message as a second result and a system-dependent error code as a third result) and some value different from nil on success. Death? On non-Posix systems, the college sample computation of the death essay error message and error code in college entrance sample essay, case of errors may be not thread safe, because they rely on the global C variable errno . Equivalent to file:close() . Without a file , closes the default output file. Equivalent to io.output():flush() . When called with a file name, it opens the named file (in text mode), and of marat sets its handle as the default input file. College Entrance? When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the default input file. Suggested? When called without parameters, it returns the current default input file.

In case of errors this function raises the error, instead of returning an error code. Opens the given file name in read mode and entrance sample essay returns an iterator function that works like file:lines(···) over the opened file. When the natalie french opera arias iterator function detects the end of file, it returns nil (to finish the loop) and automatically closes the file. The call io.lines() (with no file name) is equivalent to io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over the lines of the default input file. In this case it does not close the file when the loop ends. In case of errors this function raises the error, instead of returning an error code.

This function opens a file, in college sample essay, the mode specified in the string mode . Essay Format And Report? It returns a new file handle, or, in case of errors, nil plus an error message. The mode string can be any of the following: r : read mode (the default); w : write mode; a : append mode; r+ : update mode, all previous data is college essay preserved; w+ : update mode, all previous data is erased; a+ : append update mode, previous data is preserved, writing is difference between essay format and report only allowed at sample, the end of file. The mode string can also have a ' b ' at the end, which is needed in some systems to open the file in binary mode. Similar to io.input , but operates over the default output file. This function is system dependent and is not available on all platforms. Starts program prog in a separated process and returns a file handle that you can use to read data from this program (if mode is r , the suggested thesis default) or to write data to this program (if mode is w ). Returns a handle for a temporary file.

This file is opened in update mode and college entrance sample essay it is automatically removed when the program ends. Checks whether obj is a valid file handle. Returns the string file if obj is an open file handle, closed file if obj is difference essay format format a closed file handle, or nil if obj is not a file handle. Closes file . Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an unpredictable amount of college entrance, time to death essay happen. When closing a file handle created with io.popen , file:close returns the college entrance same values returned by os.execute . Saves any written data to file . Returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, reads the file according to A raisin in the the given formats. When no format is college entrance essay given, uses *l as a default. Essay? As an example, the construction. will iterate over all characters of the entrance sample file, starting at opera arias, the current position. Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the entrance sample essay file when the between format format loop ends. In case of errors this function raises the error, instead of returning an entrance, error code.

Reads the file file , according to the given formats, which specify what to between format and report format read. For each format, the entrance function returns a string (or a number) with the characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the specified format. When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the next line (see below). The available formats are *n : reads a number; this is the only format that returns a number instead of a string. *a : reads the whole file, starting at between essay, the current position. Sample? On end of file, it returns the empty string. *l : reads the next line skipping the end of line, returning nil on end of file.

This is the default format. Of Related Literature? *L : reads the college sample next line keeping the end of line (if present), returning nil on end of file. number : reads a string with up to this number of suggested thesis, bytes, returning nil on end of file. College? If number is zero, it reads nothing and returns an empty string, or nil on end of file. Sets and gets the file position, measured from the beginning of the file, to the position given by offset plus a base specified by death of marat the string whence , as follows: set : base is position 0 (beginning of the file); cur : base is current position; end : base is end of file; In case of college entrance essay, success, seek returns the final file position, measured in bytes from the beginning of the file. If seek fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. The default value for whence is cur , and for what is review of related literature offset is entrance sample 0. Therefore, the call file:seek() returns the current file position, without changing it; the call file:seek(set) sets the position to the beginning of the file (and returns 0); and A raisin sun the call file:seek(end) sets the position to the end of the file, and returns its size. Sets the sample essay buffering mode for an output file. There are three available modes: no : no buffering; the result of in the, any output operation appears immediately. full : full buffering; output operation is performed only when the buffer is full or when you explicitly flush the file (see io.flush ). line : line buffering; output is buffered until a newline is output or there is any input from some special files (such as a terminal device). For the last two cases, size specifies the size of the buffer, in bytes. The default is an appropriate size. Writes the value of each of its arguments to file . The arguments must be strings or numbers.

In case of college essay, success, this function returns file . Otherwise it returns nil plus a string describing the error. This library is A raisin sun implemented through table os . Returns an approximation of the amount in seconds of CPU time used by college entrance sample the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and time, formatted according to the given string format . If the thesis time argument is college sample present, this is the time to be formatted (see the os.time function for a description of this value). Otherwise, date formats the current time. If format starts with ' ! ', then the date is formatted in Coordinated Universal Time. After this optional character, if format is the string *t , then date returns a table with the following fields: year (four digits), month (112), day (131), hour (023), min (059), sec (061), wday (weekday, Sunday is 1), yday (day of the year), and isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean). This last field may be absent if the information is not available. If format is not *t , then date returns the date as a string, formatted according to the same rules as the literature ISO C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and time representation that depends on the host system and on entrance sample, the current locale (that is, is difference between equivalent to ). On non-Posix systems, this function may be not thread safe because of its reliance on college entrance, C function gmtime and C function localtime . Returns the number of seconds from time t1 to time t2 . What Of Related Literature? In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this value is exactly t2 - t1 . This function is equivalent to the ISO C function system . It passes command to be executed by entrance essay an operating system shell. Its first result is true if the command terminated successfully, or nil otherwise. After this first result the function returns a string and a number, as follows: exit : the command terminated normally; the following number is the exit status of the command. signal : the command was terminated by a signal; the following number is the signal that terminated the command.

When called without a command , os.execute returns a boolean that is true if a shell is available. Calls the ISO C function exit to terminate the host program. If code is true , the returned status is EXIT_SUCCESS ; if code is false , the returned status is EXIT_FAILURE ; if code is a number, the returned status is this number. The default value for code is true . If the optional second argument close is true, closes the Lua state before exiting. Returns the value of the dessay process environment variable varname , or nil if the variable is not defined. Deletes the college entrance sample essay file (or empty directory, on aquinas happiness, POSIX systems) with the given name. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error and the error code.

Renames file or directory named oldname to newname . Entrance Essay? If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the difference between and report format error and the error code. Sets the current locale of the program. locale is a system-dependent string specifying a locale; category is an optional string describing which category to change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the college sample essay default category is all . Is Review Of Related Literature? The function returns the name of the new locale, or nil if the request cannot be honored. If locale is the empty string, the current locale is set to an implementation-defined native locale. If locale is the entrance sample essay string C , the current locale is set to difference essay and report the standard C locale. When called with nil as the first argument, this function only returns the name of the current locale for the given category.

This function may be not thread safe because of its reliance on C function setlocale . Returns the current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the date and time specified by entrance the given table. This table must have fields year , month , and day , and may have fields hour (default is 12), min (default is 0), sec (default is 0), and suggested thesis isdst (default is nil ). For a description of these fields, see the college entrance sample function. The returned value is a number, whose meaning depends on your system. Difference Between Format? In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the number of seconds since some given start time (the epoch). Entrance? In other systems, the meaning is suggested not specified, and the number returned by time can be used only as an argument to and os.difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for a temporary file. The file must be explicitly opened before its use and explicitly removed when no longer needed. On POSIX systems, this function also creates a file with that name, to entrance sample essay avoid security risks. (Someone else might create the file with wrong permissions in the time between getting the name and creating the french arias file.) You still have to open the file to use it and to college entrance sample essay remove it (even if you do not use it). When possible, you may prefer to use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the file when the program ends.

This library provides the functionality of the debug interface (§4.9) to Lua programs. You should exert care when using this library. Several of its functions violate basic assumptions about Lua code (e.g., that variables local to a function cannot be accessed from outside; that userdata metatables cannot be changed by Lua code; that Lua programs do not crash) and therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. Natalie Dessay French Opera Arias? Moreover, some functions in this library may be slow. All functions in this library are provided inside the debug table. All functions that operate over a thread have an optional first argument which is the thread to operate over. The default is always the current thread. Enters an interactive mode with the user, running each string that the user enters. Using simple commands and other debug facilities, the user can inspect global and local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and college sample so on. A line containing only the difference between essay format word cont finishes this function, so that the caller continues its execution. Note that commands for debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function and college entrance so have no direct access to local variables.

Returns the current hook settings of the thread, as three values: the current hook function, the current hook mask, and the current hook count (as set by the debug.sethook function). Returns a table with information about a function. You can give the happiness function directly or you can give a number as the value of f , which means the function running at level f of the call stack of the entrance essay given thread: level 0 is the current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the function that called getinfo (except for essay format and report tail calls, which do not count on the stack); and entrance sample so on. If f is a number larger than the aquinas happiness number of active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the fields returned by lua_getinfo , with the string what describing which fields to fill in. College Sample Essay? The default for what is to get all information available, except the table of what literature, valid lines. If present, the option ' f ' adds a field named func with the college sample essay function itself. If present, the option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the table of valid lines.

For instance, the dessay opera expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and college entrance sample essay the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the print function. This function returns the name and the value of the local variable with index local of the function at level f of the stack. This function accesses not only explicit local variables, but also parameters, temporaries, etc. The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the last active variable. Negative indices refer to vararg parameters; -1 is the first vararg parameter.

The function returns nil if there is no variable with the given index, and difference format and report format raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call debug.getinfo to check whether the entrance sample level is valid.) Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parenthesis) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, varargs, and C function locals). The parameter f may also be a function. In that case, getlocal returns only the name of natalie french opera arias, function parameters. Returns the metatable of the given value or nil if it does not have a metatable. Returns the sample registry table (see §4.5). This function returns the name and the value of the upvalue with index up of the in the sun function f . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Returns the Lua value associated to college u . If u is not a userdata, returns nil . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count])

Sets the given function as a hook. The string mask and the number count describe when the hook will be called. The string mask may have any combination of the following characters, with the given meaning: ' c ': the suggested hook is called every time Lua calls a function; ' r ': the hook is called every time Lua returns from a function; ' l ': the hook is called every time Lua enters a new line of entrance sample, code. Moreover, with a count different from zero, the in the sun hook is called also after every count instructions. When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the hook. When the hook is called, its first parameter is a string describing the entrance sample essay event that has triggered its call: call (or tail call ), return , line , and count . For line events, the hook also gets the new line number as its second parameter. Arias? Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to get more information about the running function (level 0 is the getinfo function, and level 1 is the hook function). debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value)

This function assigns the value value to the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call getinfo to check whether the entrance essay level is valid.) Otherwise, it returns the name of the local variable. See debug.getlocal for more information about variable indices and names. Sets the metatable for the given value to the given table (which can be nil ). Returns value . This function assigns the value value to the upvalue with index up of the suggested function f . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Otherwise, it returns the name of the upvalue. Sets the college entrance sample essay given value as the Lua value associated to the given udata . What Is Review Literature? value must be a table or nil ; udata must be a full userdata. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]]) If message is present but is college entrance essay neither a string nor nil , this function returns message without further processing. Otherwise, it returns a string with a traceback of the call stack. An optional message string is appended at the beginning of the traceback. Of Marat? An optional level number tells at which level to start the sample essay traceback (default is 1, the function calling traceback ).

Returns an difference between essay and report, unique identifier (as a light userdata) for college entrance sample essay the upvalue numbered n from the given function. These unique identifiers allow a program to check whether different closures share upvalues. Essays? Lua closures that share an upvalue (that is, that access a same external local variable) will return identical ids for those upvalue indices. Make the n1 -th upvalue of the Lua closure f1 refer to the n2 -th upvalue of the Lua closure f2 . Although Lua has been designed as an extension language, to be embedded in a host C program, it is also frequently used as a standalone language. Entrance? An interpreter for Lua as a standalone language, called simply lua , is provided with the standard distribution. The standalone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the debug library. Its usage is: The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -E : ignores environment variables; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and stops handling options. After handling its options, lua runs the given script , passing to it the given args as string arguments.

When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the natalie dessay opera standard input ( stdin ) is a terminal, and as lua - otherwise. When called without option -E , the interpreter checks for an environment variable LUA_INIT_5_2 (or LUA_INIT if it is not defined) before running any argument. If the variable content has the format @ filename , then lua executes the file. Otherwise, lua executes the string itself. When called with option -E , besides ignoring LUA_INIT , Lua also ignores the values of LUA_PATH and entrance LUA_CPATH , setting the values of package.path and package.cpath with the death essay default paths defined in college entrance, luaconf.h . All options are handled in order, except -i and -E . For instance, an invocation like. will first set a to 1, then print the value of a , and finally run the file script.lua with no arguments. (Here $ is the opera shell prompt. Your prompt may be different.) Before starting to run the entrance essay script, lua collects all arguments in the command line in in the, a global table called arg . The script name is sample essay stored at index 0, the of related first argument after the script name goes to index 1, and so on. Any arguments before the script name (that is, the interpreter name plus the options) go to negative indices. For instance, in the call. the interpreter first runs the file a.lua , then creates a table.

and finally runs the file b.lua . The script is college entrance called with arg[1] , arg[2] , . as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression ' . '. In interactive mode, if you write an incomplete statement, the interpreter waits for its completion by issuing a different prompt. In case of unprotected errors in the script, the interpreter reports the error to the standard error stream. If the error object is a string, the aquinas essays interpreter adds a stack traceback to college sample essay it. Otherwise, if the error object has a metamethod __tostring , the thesis interpreter calls this metamethod to produce the final message.

Finally, if the error object is nil , the interpreter does not report the error. When finishing normally, the interpreter closes its main Lua state (see lua_close ). The script can avoid this step by calling os.exit to college sample essay terminate. To allow the use of what is review of related literature, Lua as a script interpreter in Unix systems, the standalone interpreter skips the college sample essay first line of a chunk if it starts with # . Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into executable programs by aquinas happiness essays using chmod +x and the #! form, as in. (Of course, the location of the Lua interpreter may be different in your machine. If lua is in your PATH , then.

is a more portable solution.) 8 Incompatibilities with the Previous Version. Here we list the incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from Lua 5.1 to Lua 5.2. You can avoid some incompatibilities by compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). However, all these compatibility options will be removed in the next version of college sample essay, Lua. Similarly, all features marked as deprecated in Lua 5.1 have been removed in Lua 5.2. The concept of environment changed. Only Lua functions have environments. To set the environment of a Lua function, use the variable _ENV or the function load . C functions no longer have environments.

Use an upvalue with a shared table if you need to keep shared state among several C functions. (You may use luaL_setfuncs to open a C library with all functions sharing a common upvalue.) To manipulate the environment of a userdata (which is essay format now called user value), use the new functions lua_getuservalue and lua_setuservalue . Essay? Lua identifiers cannot use locale-dependent letters. Doing a step or a full collection in opera arias, the garbage collector does not restart the collector if it has been stopped. Weak tables with weak keys now perform like ephemeron tables . The event tail return in debug hooks was removed. Entrance Sample? Instead, tail calls generate a special new event, tail call , so that the debugger can know that there will not be a corresponding return event. Equality between function values has changed. Now, a function definition may not create a new value; it may reuse some previous value if there is no observable difference to the new function. Function module is deprecated. It is easy to set up a module with regular Lua code. Modules are not expected to set global variables.

Functions setfenv and natalie opera getfenv were removed, because of the changes in environments. Function math.log10 is deprecated. Use math.log with 10 as its second argument, instead. Function loadstring is deprecated. College Sample Essay? Use load instead; it now accepts string arguments and are exactly equivalent to literature loadstring . Function table.maxn is deprecated. College Entrance Sample? Write it in Lua if you really need it. Function os.execute now returns true when command terminates successfully and nil plus error information otherwise.

Function unpack was moved into the table library and therefore must be called as table.unpack . Character class %z in patterns is deprecated, as now patterns may contain ' 0 ' as a regular character. The table package.loaders was renamed package.searchers . Lua does not have bytecode verification anymore. What Is Review Of Related? So, all functions that load code ( load and loadfile ) are potentially insecure when loading untrusted binary data. Sample Essay? (Actually, those functions were already insecure because of flaws in the verification algorithm.) When in doubt, use the mode argument of those functions to restrict them to loading textual chunks. The standard paths in the official distribution may change between versions. Pseudoindex LUA_GLOBALSINDEX was removed. You must get the global environment from the registry (see §4.5).

Pseudoindex LUA_ENVIRONINDEX and functions lua_getfenv / lua_setfenv were removed, as C functions no longer have environments. Function luaL_register is deprecated. Suggested? Use luaL_setfuncs so that your module does not create globals. (Modules are not expected to set global variables anymore.) The osize argument to the allocation function may not be zero when creating a new block, that is, when ptr is NULL (see lua_Alloc ). Use only the test ptr == NULL to check whether the block is new. Finalizers ( __gc metamethods) for userdata are called in the reverse order that they were marked for college entrance essay finalization, not that they were created (see §2.5.1). (Most userdata are marked immediately after they are created.) Moreover, if the essay format metatable does not have a __gc field when set, the finalizer will not be called, even if it is set later. Entrance Essay? luaL_typerror was removed. Write your own version if you need it. Function lua_cpcall is deprecated.

You can simply push the function with lua_pushcfunction and call it with lua_pcall . Functions lua_equal and lua_lessthan are deprecated. Use the new lua_compare with appropriate options instead. Is Review Of Related Literature? Function lua_objlen was renamed lua_rawlen . Function lua_load has an extra parameter, mode . Pass NULL to simulate the old behavior. Function lua_resume has an extra parameter, from . Pass NULL or the thread doing the call. Here is the complete syntax of essay, Lua in extended BNF. Format And Report Format? (It does not describe operator precedences.)

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Masculinity in Modern Dance Essay Sample. “Dance is a manly sport…” (Jowitt, 2010, p.231), said Ted Shawn, a distinguished forerunner of modern dance. Male modern dancers have been fighting for their masculinity in dance for ages. They have arduously exerted to characterize dance as a worthy profession for men through press reports and hype enthused (Jowitt, 2010). Sample? However, there has been a shift in essays the way masculinities have been portrayed within modern dance.

History of Modern Dance. Modern dance, born from the sample, rebellion of the rigidities of classical ballet, brought about refutation of the A raisin sun, male gaze on women. Martha Graham, a prominent figure in college entrance essay modern dance, “built her famous technique and early repertory techniques on aquinas essays the female body”(Bannerman, 2010, p.32). As females are more lithe in college sample the pelvis than men such that men have claimed to have “vagina envy”, thus showing the thesis, men’s aspirations to have the college sample essay, same litheness as women (Bannerman, 2010). In society, masculinity is defined as having the inherent qualities that a man should possess. These qualities include gender domination, having authority as well as holding roles appropriate for men within a patriarchal society. Masculinity has traditionally been classified in dancing as the authority enacted through men’s control over french, women in college sample which he partnered (Jowitt, 2010; Jordan, 1996). Having power in dancers’ movements validates mannish audacity (Jowitt, 2010; as cited in LaBoskey, 2002). The power in movements showed that men had control over death of marat, their lives.

Characters selected embodied traditional masculinity evidenced by how the entrance essay, “roles they chose affirmed masculinity.” (Jowitt, 2010, p.231) and to fit typecasts of the male (LaBoskey, 2002). These confirmatory factors meant dancers require portraying traditional masculinity in order to satisfy the gender mold fitted onto men by a patriarchal society. However, in recent years, there has been a change from such traditional masculinity to one of a “New Man” model that is not inconvenienced by customary masculine stereotypes, and has the ability to empathize, even articulating a feminine side of A raisin in the sun his character (Jordan, 1996). The new models allowed men to be more expressive in terms of gender characteristics. This led to blurring of gender demarcations through “loosening the prescriptive meanings of… masculinity (in)… modern and contemporary approaches to movement” (Kelly, 2011, p.52). The freeing of college essay typecasts, allow for portrayal of death essay softer manliness, which has been categorized conventionally as feminine. If the “New Man” model is as liberating as it seems, why do men still have to portray distinctly stereotypical masculinity to gain acceptance by college entrance the public audience? Even though the “New Man” model of masculinity has been gaining greater acceptance within modern dance, through portraying softer masculinities, is this really the case? Male modern dancers have been portraying less traditional concepts of literature masculinity in particular, the “New Man” model, however, there are still underlying traits of hegemonic masculinity cloaked beneath this new model to allow for society’s acceptance. Modern dance provided equal footing in terms of power and representation of men and women. This was due to a wave of “Feminism… radical philosophy of equality between the sexes in all spheres of life” (as cited in Bannerman, 2010).

To certain extremes, allowing women to overtake men in entrance terms of power as well. As women are more flexible in the pelvis than men, male dancers have claimed to have “vagina envy”, and to yearn to be able to be as lithe as their female counterparts, thus totally opposing the Freudian Theory whereby females are jealous of males who have a penis (Bannerman, 2010). This opposition in suggested thesis dance has tipped the scales in terms of gender domination, whereby females have the college entrance, power over males instead. A form of modern dance called Contact improvisation (CI) gave women a chance to demonstrate and exercise strength over men that has traditionally been the opposite, exemplified through “women [whom] might safely lift, balance and aquinas happiness essays, carry the weight of men’s bodies” (Kelly, 2011, p.59), thus subverting the “traditional role of men… supporting the sample essay, woman” (Jowitt, 2010, p.238) However, it is still the “male choreographer who created and suggested, imposed the entrance essay, vision of movement on death the female…” (Kelly, 2011, p.52) Hence, the power that was supposed to sample be at the hands of women who created this new form of dance was still under the mercy of the males who choreographed it later on, as the males are the ones commanding their image thus they may impose on males, traditional stereotypes of how a male is supposed to dance, as how it was “rigidly defined what kind of dance movements were appropriate for suggested thesis men” (Jowitt, 2010, p.238). Graham too allowed for men to “create their own material on the grounds that they were ‘too different from women’ to permit her to portray them accurately.” (as cited in Kelly, 2010, p.32) Thus, males still had authority over their own movements in dance, and were not subjected to female choreographers. Since males were considered as too contrasting to women, they are not able to portray a feminine side of their masculinity because of these dissimilarities; hence they would not be able to portray a “New Man” model through portrayal of college their feminine sides. Male modern dancers have matched their female counterparts in terms of fluency in dance to equalize the playing field within modern dance. As men and women can do duties on the same level, choreographies should be equal too (Jowitt, 2010), and incorporating equality within modern dance through movements portrayed could be exemplified by “when alone, the A raisin in the, performers moved with equally precise athleticism” (Jowitt, 2010, p.238). An aspect of modern dance, contact improvisation (CI) was a “social movement, exemplifying… resistance to planning, authority and hierarchy” and college entrance sample essay, this allows for the insurrection of masculine domination within dance. However, its core quality is the managing of intuition, which is between essay and report format, feminine (Kelly, 2011, p.60).

CI blurred further gender roles within dance, as “avoidance of manual manipulation make men and entrance sample essay, women equal partners” (Jowitt, 2010, p.237). Suggested Thesis? The dance “form breaks with long-standing gender conventions in dance” (Kelly, 2010, p.59). Jowitt further elaborated stating how “showing emotional states in dance… were promising directions.” (2010, p.239) It offered a movement for men to entrance essay be more sensitive and in touch with their expressive side. Death Of Marat? Through dancing out college entrance sample, expressions, softer masculinities can be portrayed. Even though, male modern dancers are not perceptibly masculine, there have been improvements in technique in practices of dance and generally, “men… were ‘capable of stronger more intricate dancing’ than women” (Jowitt, 2010, p.233).

They may have blurred the lines demarcating traditional masculine stereotypes, however this athleticism is a traditional defining trait of masculinity. CI was still about between essay format, lifting which was athletic strength in movement, hence masculine characteristics, and it provided men with an avenue to express femininity and college entrance sample essay, yet retain hegemonic masculinity (Kelly, 2010). The public audiences have become more accepting of this blurring of masculinities as the thesis, difficult training that the dancer faces have been publicized, evidenced through depiction of dancers’ weariness and the perspiration gleaning captured through media (Jowitt, 2010). This portrayal of athletic fatigue again exemplifies hegemonic masculinity. Furthermore, audiences choose to college focus mostly on the athletic aspect of the movement instead of the more emotional movements portrayed by the men in modern dance.

This is evidenced by difference between format and report format how it was “primarily … muscular power… high jumps… expressiveness which audiences focused on” (Jowitt, 2010, p.234), demystifying hegemonic masculinity, instead of interpreting the movements. College Sample? Underlying this is difference essay and report format, also a cloak, whereby the “New Man” model of movement such as through portrayal of feminized movements will be hidden over a more traditional masculinity, through muscle prowess of the dancers. Audiences choose to concentrate on the masculine side of male modern dancers that they portray instead of the feminine side that he wishes to project through dancing, especially through the roles he play. On stage, roles are merely roles and do not signify a person’s gender off the college entrance sample, stage. What Literature? “[A] boy does not feel he has to dress in a certain way or ‘he will not be a man’; he is not that anxious or concerned about his masculinity” (as cited in Jordan, 2002, p.2). College Sample Essay? Woolf also proclaimed that “it is fatal to be a man or woman pure and simple; one must be woman-manly or man-womanly” (as cited in Bannerman, 2010, p.34) There have been more androgynous portrayals of male modern dancers. This is through portrayal of feminine expressions of male dancers, to the point whereby roles that they took up were androgynous in nature, to establish a “New Man” model of masculinity, whereby a man exemplifies both masculine and death of marat essay, feminine traits. Androgyny led to entrance sample “distinction between appearance and death essay, reality that structures a good deal of popular thinking about gender identity” (as quoted in Bannerman, 2010, p.35), and as such, allowed for a “New Man” model of masculinity to take root when roles portrayed are not reflective of the gender behind that role. Satires of gender performances are aplenty, however, when a male dancer tries hard to college essay portray effective womanliness, he would not be taken seriously.

This could mean “choreographers and essays, the public believed that no woman… could be grotesque or comical enough to play such roles convincingly” (Jowitt, 2010, p.240), such that what is portrayed by men can only be viewed upon as funny, and the fundamental aspect of male dancers showing expression in entrance sample essay dance is death essay, ignored. The “New Man” model may not necessarily be easily accepted as “some gender presentations may query common standards or behavior accepted by the public at entrance sample essay large, even though much of that public may be tolerant and less rigid about so-called norms” (Jowitt, 2010, p.241). Thus the initial purpose of expressing sensitivity through portrayal of another gender or androgynous characters within modern dance is cancelled to null because of how society only wants to perceive what is normative. Thus hegemonic masculinities still underlie the concept of a “New Man” model. However, there is a negative social stigma attached to men who portray excessive feminine traits to be called gay. “[H]omophobic social stigma begets a system of compulsory heterosexuality maintaining the what of related, hegemonic gender norms” (Anderson Perterson, 2012, p.5), which subverts the portrayal of expression and other feminine traits portrayed within modern dance, and funnels it back to the traditional stereotype of traditional masculinity. Jowiit concurred stating that a man should be wary of projecting his feminine side in search of magnificence onstage (2010), unless he wanted to be labeled with a stigma from achieving that excellence on stage.

Freedom of expression was curbed because of this stigma on feminine traits such that men have to appear macho, which is sad (Jowitt 2010). Men are therefore suppressed from being able to express themselves because of such societal standards imposed upon them. Essay? In addition, “boys and men wishing to avoid social stigma generally do not work or play in feminized terrain” (as cited in Anderson et al, 2012, p.5), thus stigmas are already attached to those who have been in such a modern dance environment that it is of related, important to justify their masculinity through dancing gender-appropriate roles. In conclusion, modern dance may not have allowed males to portray a “New Man” model as effectively as initially thought. Instead, they have been blurred and still retain its traditional masculinity roots.

Power within gender conclusively remain within male’s grasp and college entrance sample, hence, since men control that power, they are not as equal a partner as discussed. Movement may portray sensitivity but audiences place their attention onto the movements instead of interpreting what that movement meant. Males have also portrayed femininity through portrayal of androgynous roles, but audiences choose to believe that such portrayals are for comedic effect instead of expression of death essay self. Essay? Males have been subverted from ballet, which initially was to showcase men (Fasick, 2007), but do they have to also be downplayed in modern dance just to fit society’s mold of masculinity? (1966 words) Anderson, E. Peterson, G T. (2012).

The Performance of Softer Masculinities on A raisin sun the University Dance Floor. The Journal of Men’s Studies, 20(1) pp. 3-15. Bannerman, H. College Essay? (2010). Aquinas Happiness Essays? Martha Graham’s House of the Pelvic Truth: The Figuration of Sexual Identities and Female Empowerment. College Sample Essay? Dance Research Journal, 42(1), 30-44 Fasick, L. (2007) Using Music and Dance to Explore Gender Norms.

International Journal of the Humanities, 5(2), 47-51 Jordan C. (1996). Gender and class mobility in natalie french Saturday night fever and flash dance. Journal of college entrance sample Popular Film Television, 24(3), 116-122 Jowitt, D. (2010). Dancing Masculinity: Defining the Male Image Onstage in Twentieth- Century America and suggested thesis, Beyond, Southwest Review, 95(1/2), 227-242. Kelly, M T. (2011).

Contemporary Dance and Evolving Femininities. Journal of Integral Theory and Practice, 6(2), pp. 50-66. LaBoskey, S. Getting Off: Portrayals of entrance sample masculinity in hip hop dance in suggested film. Dance Research Journal, 33(2), ProQuest Research Library, pg.112.

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Domainite frequently hires freelance editors to join their team. If you#8217;re new to essay, editing, this is a great opportunity to gain some (paid) experience. You#8217;ll need to edit a sample piece of of marat, content to get started. If you do well, you may be invited to sample, contract with Domainite and be well on your way to suggested, your new career as an editor! From time to time, Book In A Box will have remote Editor positions available. Keep in mind, this isn#8217;t your typical editing job.

As a Book In A Box Editor, you will interview and get to know authors and entrance writers so you#8217;ll be able to effectively take their thoughts and aquinas put them into words (without losing any meaning!). This nontraditional online editing job comes with some pretty nice benefits and a team that is super-supportive to boot. To register as an Editor at Editor World you must go through an application process which includes an editing test. If you become a member of the Editors Panel, you may be selected by clients to college entrance sample, perform work based on your profile. It#8217;s kind of like a marketplace of editors and proofreaders where clients get to choose who they work with.

It will take you about an hour to sign up as an online Editor at Wordy. You will need to familiarize yourself with the Wordy style guide and is review of related literature take an college entrance sample, online test. Wordy works on a crowdsourced platforms where editors have access to open jobs and what of related claim them on a first-come-first-served basis. College! When you#8217;re done with a job, you simply upload the dessay opera arias, document and sample return it to the client. Gramlee is always looking for talented editors to join their team. Clients are promised 24-hour turnaround times for content that is 3,000 words or less.

So there are projects available to edit any time day or night. As a Gramlee Editor, you#8217;ll need to be able to edit documents for in the, spelling and grammar errors as well as overall clarity, structure, brevity, and readability. As a telecommuting Editor at Scribendi, you get to college sample, choose which projects you want to work on. Editors gain access to free training and are even offered incentive programs on top of regular pay! Scribendi is natalie dessay arias, very supportive of their online editors and provides forums for them to entrance, interact and connect with one another. English Trackers hires expert academic editors. An academic editor helps students, professors and other academia professionals put their research into words. This position requires a higher level of expertise than a typical editing role would. In fact, a typical English Trackers Editor has a PhD.

Have a background in science? Sibia may be a good fit for you. Natalie Dessay French Opera! Science experts with strong writing or editing skills are encouraged to apply as are individuals with extensive editing and entrance sample essay proofreading experience. To become a Sibia Proofreading Editor, a strong academic background is A raisin in the sun, a must (those with a PhD are preferred!). Polished Paper offers editing services around the clock, 365 days a year. Editors need to college sample essay, register, submit a resume, and pass an editor#8217;s test to get started. Pay rates vary based on the turnaround time and number of words to be edited. You need to be familiar with several different styles (APA, MLE, Chicago, etc.) to be successful at Polished Paper. In case you didn#8217;t guess by the name, Hello Essay is an editing service for essays.

Remember all those admissions essays you needed to write when applying for essay and report, college? Hello Essay has an army of editors ready to edit these and other academic essays to perfection. At Hello Essay you can work when you want as much as you want (and get paid pretty well, too!). ProofreadingPal uses a two-proofreader model to make sure each and sample essay every document is carefully checked by of related, not one but two of college entrance, their professional editors. To be successful, you#8217;ll need to what literature, be comfortable proofreading for errors as well as editing for sentence structure, clarity, and overall style.

ProofreadingPal is always accepting applications and actively hires about eight months out of the year! At Publications Professionals, there#8217;s opportunity to work on college entrance essay projects involving a number of different subjects like banking, education, health care, medicine, and suggested many more. Although there are both onsite and sample offsite positions, all candidates must first pass an onsite proofreading test at the Publications Professionals office located in Fairfax, Virginia. Wordvice specializes in editing services for a variety of difference between essay format format, documents ranging from academic papers to business documents. Their services are offered 24/7, so there#8217;s work available any time day or night. Entrance! To become a Wordvice Proofreader, you should have a master#8217;s degree, MS Word, and knowledge of natalie, style guides. If you have a medical background, an editor position at Cactus Communications may be a good fit for you! This is a flexible opportunity to college, set your own schedule and earn anywhere from $1,200 to $4,000 a month depending on your availability and accepted workload.

No matter your skills or background, if you have an eye for detail and a genuine interest in thesis, the written word, an online editing or proofreading job is a great (and lucrative!) work from home opportunity. Want to get started on the right foot? Check out The Pocket Book of Proofreading which shows you how to start a freelance proofreading business without any experience. There#8217;s even a Kindle edition so you can read it on your phone or tablet with the Kindle App. College Sample Essay! Plus, if you Join Amazon Kindle Unlimited 30-Day Free Trial, you can read this book (and thousands others) for death of marat essay, free for 30 days. If you#8217;d like to launch your own lucrative freelance proofreading career, sign up for entrance, the free 45-minute workshop at french, Proofread Anywhere.

You#8217;ll learn three important factors that lead to entrance sample essay, success as a work-from-anywhere proofreader! For anyone who wants to specifically work with entrepreneurs, writers, content creators, and within the publishing industry, I highly recommend checking out Proofreading Pro by Phon Baillie. This post may contain affiliate links. Please see the disclosure for A raisin, more information. Ready to finally stop thinking of working from home and actually make progress in your remote job search? Sign up below to college entrance, gain access to the remote workers' resource library so you can say goodbye to between essay format, your 9 to 5 and #HelloHomeOffice.

Thanks for subscribing. Please check your email to confirm your subscription. You#x27;ll also receive all the details to gain access to the remote workers#x27; library. Ashlee Anderson is college entrance sample essay, a career blogger and freelance writer. She enjoys helping others 'think outside the cubicle' so they too can find happiness in is review literature, working on their own terms.

Terry Birch says. Hello, I had experience in copyediting and proofreading from sample 1989 to suggested thesis, 1995. I can#8217;t get any job anywhere. I am interested in entrance, working online copyediting-proofreading. I have a hard time finding one online. Can you please let me know if anyone is hiring online proofreading? I have reviewed my proofreading style books. Almost all of the companies listed in this article are accepting applications. Most of them are always interested in hearing from qualified editors/proofreaders (judging by your experience, that sounds like you!). I frequently see editor positions posted on Indeed, too.

Just search for Editor (in the #8220;what#8221; box) and french arias Remote (in the #8220;where#8221; box). That will pull up all the remote editing positions currently available. Sample Essay! Have you considered freelancing? I know it#8217;s not for everyone, but on sites like Upwork, I see so many editing jobs listed every single day. It may be worth a shot to natalie french, see if freelancing is something you could get used to. Godswill N Paul says. I am available for college essay, hire, time restraint not a problem. Terry Birch says. I applied for some of editing proofreading on the list of 12. I have not heard back from them for a couple of weeks.

I even went online search for A raisin in the sun, any others. College Entrance Sample! There is no success with any of them. My experience goes back to the 1990s. I guess it#8217;s impossible to get back into it. They all seem to a pro or a rocket scientist. Why do I have to have more than 30 years experience to get into one? Are thee any that offer entry level? I don#8217;t find any from my extensive search. Hi Terry. You might be surprised and end up hearing back from essays one or more of these companies down the road. I applied for a writing position that did not respond to my inquiry until nearly six months later.

Many times, these companies hire in rounds and entrance sample essay take on bulk hires a few times a year. In the happiness essays, meantime, have you considered transcript editing? You don#8217;t actually have to transcribe anything, but rather, make sure the college entrance sample essay, typist used proper spelling, grammar, and punctuation. Babbletype is a reputable and A raisin in the steady source of transcript editing work. I know Lionbridge is college entrance sample essay, hiring editors for a temporary project right now that you sound qualified for.

If I think of anything else or come across new ones, I will be sure to let you know! Have you ever considered writing work? Thank you for of marat, taking the time to write this great article. What would you recommend someone in my shoes to do who doesn#8217;t have a college degree or any professional experience editing/proofreading whatsoever, but would love to learn how to college, make money doing this part-time as a freelancer, and only remotely (online), if possible? Is there some kind of test/certification I can take online, paid or free, whichalonewould allow me to qualify for natalie opera arias, such opportunities (besides other typical applicant-screening protocols such as background checks, phone/webcam interviews, etc., none of which I mind doing)? Hi Stephen. Sorry for college entrance, the delay in between essay format, response, but I wanted to conduct a little research before giving you my final answer #128578; So, after several days of digging around here and entrance sample there and asking around to some current editors and is review proofreaders I know, I didn#8217;t find out much. Disappointing, I know. Entrance Essay! What I did find is difference essay, that here, in the United States, there isn#8217;t a whole lot of information and resources available for college entrance sample, would-be proofreaders and editors. In Canada and Australia, for example, there are associations that you can join and tests to take to become a certified proofreader or editor.

In the states, there seems there was such an organization at one point, but has since disbanded. I did find some courses to teach the art of what of related, editing and proofreading. College Essay! Honestly, many of them seemed #8216;shady#8217; for lack of a better term. Scribendi, which just happens to be one of the A raisin in the, companies on this list, has classes available to take. They seem okay. There is a deal going on college essay for them right now via Groupon, if you#8217;re interested. I started a freelance writing career from scratch. I had absolutely zero experience as a freelance writer and used sheer determination to launch a successful career. I suspect you could do the same as a proofreader, too. Aquinas Happiness Essays! My advice? Check out the college entrance sample essay, freelance sites, like Upwork, to get started.

That#8217;s how I started gaining experience and building up a portfolio of work. After gaining experience, it was much easier to find steady streams of work. Granted, in the beginning, you will likely have to work for suggested thesis, much lower than you would like, but the sample essay, jobs you get during this time will help catapult you to a successful freelance editing/proofreading career. Most everything I learned along the way on my journey to freelancing success was read in happiness essays, an ebook. College Entrance! I suggest reading as many as you can find and applying what you#8217;ve read in them to help you launch a successful career. Essay Format! This book is college entrance essay, a great place to start: The Pocket Book of Proofreading: A guide to freelance proofreading #038; copy-editing. Aquinas! I hope this helps (sorry for the length, brevity isn#8217;t my strong suit!). If you have any questions, please let me know, I#8217; be happy to help. That does help, thank you very much!

You#8217;re welcome! Best of luck to you in your search. Keep me updated #8212; I#8217;d love to know how everything goes #128578; Carol Hucklebridge says. Entrance Sample Essay! I was wondering who you have on aquinas happiness essays your team that proofs your copy? Can you put me in touch with that person? Terry Birch says. My experience in proofreading was in the 1990s. I am trying to get back into it by doing it online. I am studying and training with

If anyone is entrance sample, looking for a future professional proofreader, let me know. I am wiling to proofread anything. What Is Review! Oh, hi! I see an error in the article above! Can you spot it? Well, I can.

I have 20+ years of editing experience, I#8217;m a real estate investor now and entrance am looking to use my editing and proofreading skills because 1) I love the work; and 2) it#8217;s fun! I#8217;d be glad to send more about my experience and background. I#8217;ve won tons of publishing awards that are on a shelf now literally and essay I#8217;d like to college entrance, put my skill to work. PS Let me know if you spot the error! Hint: Business writing with errors almost always involves apostrophes. You#8217;d be surprised at how common this is (that#8217;s a hint!). Paula Stokes says. Have researched if need to use an apostrophe with ##8217;s have found that both ways are accepted but most of the opinions said not to use an apostrophe with these types of numbers. Difference Essay And Report! Also noticed that in the last line the word willing was spelled wrong. Carolyn Fay says.

Hi, Paula: I didn#8217;t mean there#8217;s an error in the reply above mine, but the article that starts at the top of the page. Take a look through it and see if you can find an editing error. You#8217;re right, rarely do professional publications use apostrophes with numbers, like 1990#8217;s vs. 1990s. I wouldn#8217;t fault anyone writing a comment for having a spelled a word wrong, since we usually do such things quickly. Thanks for replying! Hi ashlee and other co friends iam from India and entrance essay I had physiotherapy degree as well as mba in human resources and marketing, but due to small kid can#8217;t move out please friends help me to find work from home option. Happiness Essays! The quote in the first paragraph is missing the closing quotation mark. College Entrance Sample! #128578; Nope! That#8217;s not the error I found, but one that I missed! Great job. In the second paragraph of the editing vs. proofreading section, there is an extra space after the aquinas essays, word #8216;on#8217;.

My name is Ashley#8230;interested in essay, changing up my professional life and using the editing/proofing skills I naturally have. I have a college degree in writing and a lot of experience both freelance editing and essay all the training from college but I#8217;m not sure which avenue would be best. Is there a way I can send you my resume and see what happens? I#8217;m debating starting my own thing too, however I#8217;m not sure where or how to start. There is an apostrophe missing in Editors Panel (should be Editor#8217;s Panel) in the paragraph following number 5. ProofreadingPal is usually hiring 8 months out of the year, and we are always accepting applications. Thanks for the information!

I#8217;m going to add ProofreadingPal to this list. I would really like to get into this. College Essay! I use to aquinas happiness essays, do editing and college entrance proofreading documents and forms as well as create form for BellSouth / ATT before it was put online. French Opera! I would love to do that again, but working from home would be great. Thanks a lot for posting that list.

I have proofreading and entrance experience so I was looking forward to some websites to find online work. I have tried on sun Upwork, and have found many jobs but I am stil waiting for their response. So in meanwhile I wanted to entrance sample essay, look out for more websites, and I am going to suggested thesis, search some from your list. I hope it works. Thanks! Thanks for stopping by!

There#8217;s some great companies on this list for proofreaders (and editors, too!). Give Upwork some time, in the beginning it can feel like you#8217;re submitting proposal after proposal without any gigs #8212; and then, all of a sudden, you#8217;ve got tons of accepted proposals! If you need any help, please let me know. Thank you so much to publish this post. I heard about college sample, freelancing from one of my relative and registered myself in suggested thesis, upworl, fiverr and freelancer. I am a banker and want to make some extra income in my free time. College! I am an avid reader for which I found this job interesting. I started posting and bidding jobs with a very low amount as I am new in this field. I have enclosed cover letter wherever they have asked. It#8217;s almost now 3 weeks I have posted 50 jobs and haven#8217;t got a single reply.

Can you please tell me why am I facing this problem? Is this because I am new in this field or is the normal Turn Around Time they generally go for? Please give me some advise to get some job as I want to start it from scratch. Thanks for stopping by! Some clients leave gigs posted for difference essay format, 30+ days before they start responding to proposals. When it comes to entrance, freelancing sites, like Upwork, I#8217;ve found that getting the difference essay and report format, first gig is not always easy. The key is to stick with it! You may want to try changing up your proposal, if you haven#8217;t already, to sample, see if that makes any difference in essay, the responses you receive from clients.

Otherwise, I#8217;d give it another couple of entrance sample, weeks. Also, make sure your profiles are complete and you have relevant work samples as well as taken some tests to demonstrate your skills #8212; it can go a long way in helping you get that first gig! I am Anitha from Bangalore, India. I have experience in proof reading and style editing in suggested thesis, both books and journals. Can you suggest any jobs to do online? Alexis Jones says. I just got accepted at Domainite, but don#8217;t know what to tell them my #8220;rates#8221; are! What even are rates? And how do I know what I#8217;m worth? I have no previous experience and no college degree. I am very flexible, and willing to be paid less than I#8217;d like, if it means regular work and a fuller resume.

Any suggestions would be so greatly appreciated! Hi Alexis! That#8217;s great #8212; congrats #128578; Now, as far as Domainite, I was under the impression they paid editors $0.25 for college, every 100 words edited. I know it sounds low, but editing should not take that long. I#8217;ve heard that the assignments are relatively easy. And, if you#8217;re quick enough, you can really start cranking through articles and earn a decent hourly rate. Keep in mind, Domainite is aquinas happiness essays, very much entry-level work. It#8217;s a good way to gain experience (and confidence!) so you can move on to more lucrative assignments. College Entrance Sample Essay! In my experience, a 500-word article should take 4-5 minutes to edit. If you#8217;re paid $0.25 for each 100 words (so, $1.00 for each 500-word article) you would expect to difference format, make between $12-$15/hour if you#8217;re spending 4-5 minutes editing each one. If you feel confident that you#8217;d be able to get through articles quickly and are comfortable earning $12-$15, I would definitely go with their standard $0.25/100 words edited.

I hope this helps! Let me know if you have any questions #8212; you can always reach me directly: Entrance! Hi! Just as a bit of background before I get into the main subject, I#8217;m 16 and starting college with my major in Psychology and a minor in English/Creative Writing (dual-enrollment; I#8217;m exclusively taking college classes that will fulfill my needs for format, both my high school diploma and Associates degree). I have a job at a local fast-food place, but I#8217;m trying to help my parents pay for my tuition. Would taking on one of these online jobs as a side job be a good idea? I know this is more of an advice comment, but do you think it would be do more good or harm?

Hi, I got accepted as an editor at Domainite a few weeks back. I had to college entrance sample, mention that I am from thesis India to essay, plan my working schedule according to A raisin in the, U.S. timings. Since then haven#8217;t heard from college entrance essay them. Does Domainite only accept people from the U.S. ? In fact, do the companies listed by death of marat, you in the above article accept applicants outside their country? Thanks for college entrance, stopping by! Since I#8217;m located in A raisin sun, the U.S., I keep up with companies that hire residents in the States. College Sample! Some companies do hire internationally. However, I cannot say with certainty which companies do and suggested thesis which companies don#8217;t.

Often, international hiring fluctuates depending on their need and current laws and regulations. If a company does not outright say they accept international candidates, I would suggest emailing them to ask before applying. This will save you a lot of time, energy, effort and frustration #128578; Thanks a lot for the prompt reply Ashlee! I have learnt my lesson and college entrance will keep your suggestion in mind. Can anyone help with general instructions for the Domainite test? I just tried to sign up as an difference between essay and report format, editor on Domainite, but when the #8220;test#8221; came up, it wasn#8217;t at all clear what was expected or what kind of editing was required. The copy provided looked like it was meant to be website content and college entrance essay from first glance the grammar, punctuation, usage seemed to thesis, be correct. It seems like editing here could be anything from tightening it up to be a bit more concise and use active voice, to restructuring and rewording for marketing punch, to even HTML tags and formatting with bulleted items, headings, and insets.

Any guidance? Thanks! Thank you so much for entrance, this super-helpful list. A Raisin! Your site has helped me a ton over the past few months in my transition from a desk job to college, a work-at-home career in writing and editing. I have worked on and off for Cactus for the last couple years and love it. For the most part, there is difference and report format, a high volume of work.

One challenge is that your pay rate is based on your quality scores, and it can be challenging to meet the company#8217;s very high expectations if you don#8217;t have previous experience. Entrance Sample Essay! It took me a few months to achieve high scores consistently. Overall, I recommend itbut note that you do need a master#8217;s degree or higher. Thanks again for difference essay format and report format, this helpful article! Great info very detailed and enjoyable to read! Thanks #128578; Kavitha Erra Kalappa says. Essay! I have experience in copyediting and proofreading. I am also having experience in aquinas, project handling in typesetting industry. I am looking for an online job. Tom Sarsfield says. There is an college entrance essay, error in the section of your home page entitled #8220;Where can I find online proofreading and editing jobs?#8221; The last sentence should read: If you have experience, check out these 16 companies WHICH frequently hire remote workers to edit and proofread a variety of client documents.

Perhaps you may want to make a correction. Currently, I teach American Literature at a rural high school in Georgia. I am an extreme introvert, so being in in the sun, the classroom environment drains my energy, and I am thinking about leaving the profession. Proofreading and editing have always appealed to me, and college entrance sample essay since I live hours away from a big city, a brick and mortar editing office is what literature, not an entrance sample, option. Natalie French! I have six years of teaching experience, a Bachelor of Arts in essay, English degree, and a Ed. S. in Curriculum and Instruction. Over the years, I have developed a love for proofing and editing and know that I could adapt to working online. Based on your experience with the industry, do you believe that it would be possible to make a living from working online? Would you recommend working for multiple companies to essays, maintain a steady income? What is the job outlook for growth in the online editing industry? Thank you for college entrance sample, posting the of related, list of potential websites.

Very superb info can be found on site . Yosef Trachtenberg says. A very informative article and excellent list of resources. Thank you for putting it together! In (5), it should be #8220;choose whom they work with.#8221; Thank you for sharing such a comprehensive post and list. It has been invaluable and sample essay very much appreciated. I am just starting out suggested thesis working from home and finding reputable jobs has been a mind field to navigate. Thanks for the opportunity to work as freelance editor. I teach English upto the college entrance essay, graduation level and am well acquainted with grammar, punctuation, sentences and paragraph formations and also editing. I hope to be given an thesis, opportunity to work for you. It is amazing to me that so many of you have made mistakes of your own in college sample, leaving your comments, while asking about a proofreading career for yourself!

I want to be online english proofreader. Mrs. Uzma Ibrahim says. This article spreads great help. Excellent work dear Ashlee. Hi Ashlee, I have been reading your posts for suggested, about a year now but this is the first time I have built the college entrance sample, courage to comment. Your blog is one of the few that inspired me to find work online and dedicate myself to building a freelance career. Thank you for this wonderful list of natalie dessay french, jobs you keep updating regularly! Yours is one the go-to sites for college entrance, me to find more jobs. Jeffrey Little says. Great pages.

Very informative. is a great resource for people wanting to learn about proofreading. Just wanted to thank you and let you know that I read this post 3 1/2 years ago, picked out of your list, and applied; I#8217;ve been making about 2/3 of my freelance living working for them ever since. Thank you for a very timely and helpful post. Circling back now as I need to increase my income and want to diversify so I#8217;m not 100% dependent on one online service. Dessay French Arias! I didn#8217;t realize how many other resources you offered!

Looking forward to college entrance sample essay, reading more of your posts. Thanks for stopping by and for sharing your story #128578; I wish you continued success! Cactus is always looking for freelance specialist editors to edit academic papers in the field of engineering, computer science, genetics and is review of related so on. Plus, they respond rather quickly and depending on your skills, you can get chosen to do either standard or premium editing. The rates for standard editing is 14 USD per college entrance sample essay, 1000 words. A Raisin In The Sun! Thank you for this article. Entrance Sample Essay! I am beginning the process of applying to different editorial companies.

However, I#8217;m having difficulty understanding how to make sure I pass proofreading/editorial exams before I am hired. What Is Review Literature! I tried Proofreading Pals, but unfortunately, I didn#8217;t pass and was unable to retake it. Would you happen to know any resources I can look into to prep me for taking pre-screening exams? Thanks for stopping by! It#8217;s a good idea to be familiar with the different styles of proofreading before trying to take the exams. Each company will have different styles they will want you to follow. For example, The Chicago Manual of Style is a big one #128578; There#8217;s also a free workshop you can sign up for that discusses some of the tools needed to be a successful proofreader. You can learn more about the college entrance, 45-minute workshop here. I hope that gives you enough to get started #128578; Let me know if you have any questions! I have a Bachelor#8217;s degree in English with a Communication Media concentration and a minor in Journalism. Natalie Dessay French! I have written, paid and unpaid, for college entrance sample essay, local newspapers.

I had an internship for copyediting at a local newspaper as well. I have a great attention to detail. I absolutely love proofreading and editing and have helped many people write and proofread their assignments throughout the years. What Of Related Literature! I prefer the proofreading and entrance editing, more so the thesis, editing, over writing. I am looking for an opportunity with decent pay and work that is always available. I would like to be able to work at odd hours when I cannot sleep at night, which is often, and just have some extra time. Which opportunity would you recommend for me based on college sample essay this information? I#8217;m just looking for some direction! Thank you! Just a comment on I took their test almost a month ago and I#8217;m sure I did well.

I like sites that actually test your skills, because I#8217;ve seen too many #8220;editors#8221; at various freelance sites whose profiles are full of typos or just very badly written! However, all I have received so far was this email in response: #8220;Thank you for what is review of related, taking;s preliminary proofreading test. Entrance Sample Essay! If you passed, I will contact you to let you know. Between Format! Unfortunately, I’m not able to contact everyone or release your score. Speaking as transparently as possible, I can only hire about one out of every 300 applicants. With this in mind, my team and I wrote a guide to help proofreaders find work-from-home proofreading jobs. College Entrance Sample! If you#8217;re interested in that, here#8217;s the is review of related literature, link:; I#8217;m not sure if he#8217;s being kind in sharing the guide (for whatever price you choose to pay), or if he#8217;s just making money in another way. Essay! I couldn#8217;t tell from the original test how one would even stand out what of related literature amongst 300 people. So I#8217;m not sure if this is a viable option, but at least the test didn#8217;t take long. I was also given a link to this very coolor should I say terrific? brilliant? excellent?infographic: 128 Words to Use Instead of #8220;Very#8221;. Fun! [#8230;] To learn more about college sample, proofreading and dessay arias editing jobs, read this article from Work from Home Happiness. [#8230;] [#8230;] 12 Online Editing and Proofreading Jobs ( Work from Home Happiness) [#8230;] [#8230;] you have excellent grammar and spelling skills, then you can earn a lots of money as an editor working for college sample essay, businesses and individuals across the natalie dessay opera, world.

There are lots of sites where you can find [#8230;] [#8230;] Keep in mind, you don’t have to write for a content mill forever. College Essay! I like to think of them as paid writing internships #8212; you get to earn money while refining your skills. My favorite content mill is Textbroker because it pays once a week, provides feedback that helps you improve, and gives you a chance to work on higher-paying projects and team assignments. You can even work your way up to an online editing job. [#8230;] [#8230;] See: 16 Online Editing and Proofreading Jobs [#8230;] [#8230;] Do you pride yourself on being a grammar nazi? Make money with a host of A raisin sun, online proofreading jobs. [#8230;] Simple answers, easy-to-follow advice, and real reviews are just some of the helpful articles shared on Work From Home Happiness to help you kick your cubicle to the curb.

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fig sample thesis Reconstruction of sample essay ancient documents such as the happiness essays, Cuneiform tablets and stilus tablets provide scientists and scholars with the challenge of transforming their three dimensional characteristics to a two dimensional plane. In the past artists were hired to carefully draw the features of these artifacts by using a magnifying glass or a binocular microscope. This was not only time consuming, but arguably, very subjective. Another method of rendering the surface information was through conventional raking light photography. However, because the surface of the Cuneiform tablet subsists of uneven curves and features of various degrees of depth they present many problems to photographers as well as epistolary scholars who try to college essay, read and represent these images.

One way to construct this relief map is through the use of confocal scanning optical microscopy or near-field microscopy. Suggested. Although this approach is possible, these microscopes are incredibly expensive and they provide a little more power than it is actually needed. (3) Another recent attempt in rendering the three dimensional topography on a two dimensional plane was through the use of stereovision. (4) Although the idea seems promising, since it has been used in astronomical imagery, it does not seem to be applicable in the cases analogous to that of the Cuneiform tablet. College Sample Essay. The surfaces of the tablet include small disparities corresponding to text and depth variations of regions surrounding the text. These differences and subtle variations require extreme care in choosing correct lenses, baseline separation between the two cameras, as well as the appropriate camera mounting apparatus.

It is and report evident, that calculating the college sample essay, topography of the Cuneiform tablets from digital images is a great deal more simple and more affordable. Calculating the topography of the Cuneiform tablets from digital images is a distinct way to essay, extract contour measurements of the wedge shaped characters and cylinder seal impressions found in their surfaces. Using surface topography techniques previously applied to intaglio prints and lithic artifacts as well as implementation of modern digital image processing techniques, images of the Cuneiform text are displayed in their highest potential of entrance sample essay detail and clarity. These techniques not only is review literature provide a qualitative result of the surface topography, but more importantly, they present a quantitative analysis of the entrance, surface of the aquinas happiness, tablet. Figure 1 . Image capture of surface topography. As a result the light reaching the sample, detector as illustrated in Fig. What Is Review Of Related Literature. 1 is controlled by I o , the irradiance of the light incident on the surface of the object, the reflectance factor of the object, R, and the angle of illumination. As a result of essay these assumptions, one can generate Eq.

1, which provides the relationship between surface topography and in the measured irradiance. College Sample. (Eq. 1) Topography can be described in essay format, point by point variation in entrance sample, the angle, a (x), between the object and the mean surface of the object. The height variation at a certain location is between essay and report format related to the surface angle through the derivative. Figure 2. Illustrates the relationship between a horizontal slice of an object and the variation in angle, a (x). Furthermore, because of the Lambertian assumption, the variation in the angle, a acts as a variation only in college sample essay, the illumination angle q . Therefore, topographic information can be related to the irradiance of the camera as follows: (Eq. 3) The angle q (x) in the equation above is the sum of the angle of illumination, q o , and the mean surface angle, a (x). As a result from the analysis above a quantitative relationship between the observed irradiance, I(x) and the topography of an object, h(x) can be derived. The term R(x) in Eq. 3 can be separated from the opera arias, topographic information, sin[ q (x)], by taking the essay, ration of two images captured at two different angle of illumination.

The characteristics of the two images in one dimension would be the following: In Eq. 4 and Eq. 5 the I 1 (x) and I 2 (x) represent the amount of irradiance incident on the CCD array with the light source at two different locations. I o is the irradiance of the light source. R(x) is the reflectance factor at a certain location. q 01 and q 02 are the angles of illumination. a (x) contains the topographical information. As a result of taking the ratio between Eq.

4 and Eq. 5, the reflectance factor, R 1 (x) is removed so that only the topographical information is extracted from the two images. (Eq. 6) Solving Eq. 6 for the topographic features in terms of tan[ a (x) by using appropriate trigonometric identities the aquinas happiness, following expression is derived. The values of tan[ a (x)] are pixel by pixel topographic information of the object under investigation. These values are not integer values; therefore, they must be quantized to 256 gray levels in order to be viewed as images. Taking Eq. 7 along with Eq. 2 the topographic height function can be obtained. Finding topographic information through the proceeding derivation works as long as the source of illumination used for the two images is the same.

A novel device was build to help solve this problem. Furthermore, one has to keep in mind the pixel sensitivity in the CCD array has a small variation associated with it. As a result, each image used in sample essay, the experiment was corrected for this inconsistency by using flat fielding. Flat fielding removes the variation in brightness, which can be caused by suggested thesis the non-uniform illumination and small dark currents in the array. To make this project possible the use of the Kodak professional camera system along with an Apple PowerBook 540c computer were used.

The camera is equipped with a Nikon Nikkor 60mm lens. The Kodak camera collects light on a 1280 by college sample essay 1024 pixel CCD array, each 16-micrometers. Each image is 8-bit and therefore is 1.3MB large. Additionally, the image analysis and image processing were performed in IDL (Interactive Data Language, Research Systems Boulder, CO) on a Power Macintosh 8600/200 system in the Digital Image Restoration Technology Lab at the Chester F. Carlson Center for Imaging Science. In order for this experiment to work, the natalie dessay arias, images captured are required to have the college entrance essay, same source of illumination. As a result a new device was designed and built that consists of aquinas happiness essays a single light source adjustable to any degree from the surface of the sample essay, object under investigation. Fig. 3 illustrates the unique light source apparatus. Figure 3. Illustration of lab setup. As is depicted in Fig.

3, the what is review of related, light source is attached to a graded arc. The light source has the ability to move anywhere along the arc. At the same time, the arc is mobilized so it can be positioned at any desired degree from the base of the mechanism, as well as 360* around the object. The object under investigation is placed in the center of entrance a circular platform that holds the arc. In order to take as many images as desired in where the only variable is the position of the source of illumination, the object is stable in the center of dessay opera this circular platform. In order to use the digital camera as a primary instrument for measuring light it is essential to calibrate or linearize it.

As a result, of this calibration every pixel value will be proportional to the illuminance of the object. College Entrance. This type of calibration is better known as a Flat Fielding procedure. The primary step in flat fielding an image is in the sun capturing the reference image. To achieve this, the camera's field of view was adjusted to about 25mm, while the college, light source was located 30* from the horizontal and about 6cm from the focal point of the camera. The sample object used in this case was a piece of paper with a smooth surface.

Before converting the death of marat, pixel values into sample essay information characteristic to the object, it was necessary to calculate the Tone Transfer Function of the Kodak camera. Fig. 4 represents the relationship of reflectance and pixel value. From these values a third degree polynomial regression function was derived. This function converts measured pixels into linear pixels through a procedure written in IDL. Suggested. Figure 4. Tone Transfer Function for Kodak camera.

Pixel value versus Reflectance. By measuring the entrance sample essay, mean pixel value for the reference image, and assuming that the reflectance of the reference object is A raisin sun equal to 1.0 the following equation for individual pixels in entrance sample, the image was derived: In the preceding equation R (x,y) refers to difference between format, the reflectance at each location in the image. Essay. Furthermore, P(x,y) and Pref(x,y) are the pixel values in the image and in the reference image respectably. Pref represents the mean pixel value of all the values of Pref(x,y). When Eq. 9 is applied to each pixel values in the image, the image is converted into reflectance ranging between 0 and 1. Natalie Dessay French. In order to keep the image in integer units from 0 to 255, the expression below in entrance, applied. Eq.

10 is the suggested, Flat Fielding equation, where Pref(x,y) represents the individual pixel values in the image, while Pref is the mean value from the histogram of the image. As a result of this procedure the flat-fielded image does not contain the college entrance sample, variation in image brightness caused by non-uniform illumination. What Is Review Literature. In other words, the entrance essay, flat field calibration removes experimental artifacts and produces data about the object itself only. This is aquinas notable because pixel values are a characteristic of the CCD camera system and the source of illumination, while the college sample, reflectance, R, is a characteristic solely of the object under examination.(6) Once the procedure for flat fielding was established, the next step in the experiment was to capture images of an object with known topographical characteristics. Because the surface of the A raisin in the sun, Cuneiform table consists of notoriously variable features, which are virtually impossible to measure, it would be difficult to test the validity of the experiment with them. As a result, the object with known topographical features picked was a sphere. The surface geometry of the sphere was calculated and than compared to the experimental results. Two images of the sphere were captured with the college entrance sample, light source located to natalie opera, the left and right at 45* from the college entrance, base of the object.

Moreover, two reference images were captured with the light source at natalie dessay french opera arias the same locations. Fig. 5 and Fig. 6 represent examples of these images. After flat fielding the images were used to create an image representing topographic information of the object. Fig. 7 represents angle, a (x), scaled and quantized to 256 gray levels. From this image a one-dimensional array across the center of the sphere was extracted for further analysis.

Figure 5, 6, and 7: Fig. 5 represents an image of the college entrance sample essay, wooden sphere with light source at 45 degrees to the left of the object. Fig. 6 is the death of marat, reference image with light source at the same location. Fig.

7 represents the matrix of topographic angle values for the wooden sphere. The scan line of topographic values was compared with angle calculated surface angle. Using geometric relationships the calculated surface angle of the sample, sphere was derived. Refer to Fig. 8 for these relationships. Figure 8 : Schematic illustration of the death, geometry of the sphere (Eq. 11) (Eq. 12) (Eq.

13) The calculated angle of the sphere can be determined by using Eq. 13, where ix is the position in the image while i 2 is the position at the edge of the edge of the sphere in entrance essay, the image. The primary objective of difference essay format this experiment was to generate an image consisting only of topographic information of the surface of the entrance sample, wooden sphere and death of marat essay more importantly of the Cuneiform tablet. The image of the topographic angle, a (x) represents the Cuneiform writing as well as the seal impressions qualitatively and quantitatively. By having this image available, scholars have the opportunity to read the contents of the tablet with greater ease as well as extract information about the impressions in the tablet which can offer a clue on entrance sample, the tools used to create this document. This method of extracting topographical information becomes erroneous when the topography of the what is review, object is greater than the angle of illumination. If the college essay, angle of illumination exceeds the surface angle than shadows are introduced. Although shadows might enhance qualitatively the appearance of topographical features, they will actually hide surface information. (7) As the angle of illumination is increased more topographical information becomes available. In The. This is evident in entrance sample, Fig.

9 and 10. When this procedure was applied to the wooden sphere the radius of the object was calculated to be 6.44mm. Is Review. The measured radius of the sphere was approximately 6.5mm. These two results are satisfactory, considering that small random error in entrance sample essay, the angle a (x), results in large error in the height, h(x). The height characteristic of the wooden sphere is illustrated in A raisin sun, Fig. 11.

Figure 11 : Topographic height across the scan line of the wooden sphere. A similar approach was applied to the surface of the cuneiform tablet. Because the Cuneiform tablet has such random variations in its surface, certain features were analyzed independently. College Entrance Essay. One particular region under investigation was the cylinder seal impression, which measures 15mm in length and 6mm in width. The seal impressions are of great importance not only because they secured the integrity of the document at what the time, but more importantly because they are terribly degraded as a result of college sample essay disintegration of the clay. An array of alpha angles was extracted from the topographical matrix of the Cuneiform tablet. The array of angles was plotted against the length of the feature. Fig. 14 illustrates this plot. Figure 14 : Topography information versus the position across the set of alpha values extracted from the Cuneiform tablet matrix. The angle versus the length figure suggests a cross section of the feature, which appears to possess edge enhancement characteristics.

This plot illustrates an obvious increase of the transition at the edge as well as an overshoot on either side of the edge. The edge enhancement attribute is a significant find considering that this form of writing is pre-hieroglyphic and edge enhancement is arias a tool used only in recent years. One of the primary goals in analyzing artifacts is to get an idea of how people in the past lived and worked. This find suggests that scribes, thousands of years ago, possessed the knowledge of using techniques that enhance small, delicate impressions in the soft clay surface to the highest potential. Furthermore, the same set of alpha values was integrated over the particular region and college essay the actual height of the feature was derived. Fig. 15 illustrates the height of the edge of the cylinder seal in millimeters. Figure 15 : Topographic height across the difference and report, scan line extracted from the matrix of the Cuneiform tablet. Conclusion Future projects applying surface topography analysis would be in surfaces of paintings, Indian rock-art, as well as forensic investigations, such as firearm serial numbers. This process is an invaluable technique for detecting changes in height of the features of an object. Because surface topography characterizes the college sample essay, height of an object, this technique would be beneficial in analyzing its characteristics over a period of time.

It would be useful to get angle or height information in the surface of the Cuneiform tablets ten or twenty years from now and compares the death of marat essay, results in degradation. Since surface topography offers a way of measuring changes in the surface evolution of an artifact or a piece of artwork, conservators and archaeologists are presented with a clue in these changes. Hopefully, these clues will present a better understanding of the techniques used to college entrance essay, appropriately conserve these objects.