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amy effect essay tan Mother Tongue, by Amy Tan. I am not a scholar of English or literature. I cannot give you much more than personal opinions on the English language and its variations in this country or others. I am a writer. And by that definition, I am someone who has always loved language. I am fascinated by language in daily life. I spend a great deal of my time thinking about the manager power of language -- the way it can evoke an paper research norway emotion, a visual image, a complex idea, or a simple truth. Language is the tool of my trade. And I use them all -- all the hotel Englishes I grew up with. Tma02 Essay! Recently, I was made keenly aware of the manager different Englishes I do use.
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It has become our language of intimacy, a different sort of English that relates to b120 tma02 essay family talk, the language I grew up with. So you'll have some idea of essay, what this family talk I heard sounds like, I'11 quote what my mother said during a recent conversation which I videotaped and coursework, then transcribed. During this conversation, my mother was talking about a political gangster in Shanghai who had the manager essay same last name as her family's, Du, and how the gangster in his early years wanted to be adopted by her family, which was rich by essay comparison. Later, the gangster became more powerful, far richer than my mother's family, and one day showed up at my mother's wedding to pay his respects. Here's what she said in part: Du Yusong having business like fruit stand. Like off the street kind. Hotel! He is team essay, Du like Du Zong -- but not Tsung-ming Island people.
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He come to my wedding. I didn't see, I heard it. I gone to boy's side, they have YMCA dinner. Hotel Manager! Chinese age I was nineteen. You should know that my mother's expressive command of English belies how much she actually understands. She reads the discursive essay topics for teenagers Forbes report, listens to Wall Street Week, converses daily with her stockbroker, reads all of hotel, Shirley MacLaine's books with ease--all kinds of things I can't begin to understand. Yet some of my friends tell me they understand 50 percent of thesis, what my mother says. Hotel Manager! Some say they understand 80 to 90 percent. Some say they understand none of it, as if she were speaking pure Chinese. But to me, my mother's English is perfectly clear, perfectly natural. It's my mother tongue.
Her language, as I hear it, is vivid, direct, full of observation and imagery. That was the language that helped shape the aqa english coursework way I saw things, expressed things, made sense of the world. Lately, I've been giving more thought to the kind of manager essay, English my mother speaks. Like others, I have described it to people as 'broken or fractured English. Liverpool! But I wince when I say that. It has always bothered me that I can think of no way to describe it other than broken, as if it were damaged and needed to be fixed, as if it lacked a certain wholeness and soundness. I've heard other terms used, limited English, for manager essay, example. But they seem just as bad, as if everything is limited, including people's perceptions of the topics for teenagers limited English speaker. I know this for a fact, because when I was growing up, my mother's limited English limited my perception of her. Hotel! I was ashamed of essay topics, her English.
I believed that her English reflected the quality of what she had to say That is, because she expressed them imperfectly her thoughts were imperfect. Hotel! And I had plenty of empirical evidence to support me: the fact that people in department stores, at banks, and at essay, restaurants did not take her seriously, did not give her good service, pretended not to understand her, or even acted as if they did not hear her. My mother has long realized the limitations of her English as well. When I was fifteen, she used to have me call people on the phone to pretend I was she. Hotel Essay! In this guise, I was forced to paper institute ask for information or even to complain and yell at people who had been rude to hotel essay her. One time it was a call to her stockbroker in aqa english lang/lit coursework New York. She had cashed out manager essay, her small portfolio and liverpool, it just so happened we were going to essay go to essay topics for teenagers New York the next week, our very first trip outside California. I had to get on the phone and say in an adolescent voice that was not very convincing, This is Mrs.
Tan. Hotel Manager! And my mother was standing in tma02 essay the back whispering loudly, Why he don't send me check, already two weeks late. Hotel Manager! So mad he lie to me, losing me money. And then I said in coursework perfect English, Yes, I'm getting rather concerned. You had agreed to hotel send the check two weeks ago, but it hasn't arrived. Then she began to talk more loudly. What he want, I come to New York tell him front of his boss, you cheating me? And I was trying to calm her down, make her be quiet, while telling the stockbroker, I can't tolerate any more excuses. If I don't receive the check immediately, I am going to have to speak to your manager when I'm in New York next week.
And sure enough, the following week there we were in front of paper fibre, this astonished stockbroker, and I was sitting there red-faced and quiet, and my mother, the real Mrs. Hotel Essay! Tan, was shouting at team essay, his boss in her impeccable broken English. Essay! We used a similar routine just five days ago, for a situation that was far less humorous. My mother had gone to lang/lit the hospital for an appointment, to find out about a benign brain tumor a CAT scan had revealed a month ago. She said she had spoken very good English, her best English, no mistakes.
Still, she said, the hospital did not apologize when they said they had lost the hotel manager essay CAT scan and she had come for nothing. She said they did not seem to have any sympathy when she told them she was anxious to know the exact diagnosis, since her husband and son had both died of brain tumors. She said they would not give her any more information until the next time and she would have to b120 essay make another appointment for that. So she said she would not leave until the doctor called her daughter. She wouldn't budge. And when the doctor finally called her daughter, me, who spoke in hotel manager essay perfect English -- lo and behold -- we had assurances the CAT scan would be found, promises that a conference call on Monday would be held, and apologies for any suffering my mother had gone through for dynamics essay, a most regrettable mistake. I think my mother's English almost had an effect on limiting my possibilities in life as well. Sociologists and linguists probably will tell you that a person's developing language skills are more influenced by peers. But I do think that the language spoken in the family, especially in immigrant families which are more insular, plays a large role in shaping the essay language of the liverpool child. And I believe that it affected my results on achievement tests, I.Q. tests, and the SAT. While my English skills were never judged as poor, compared to math, English could not be considered my strong suit.
In grade school I did moderately well, getting perhaps B's, sometimes B-pluses, in hotel essay English and scoring perhaps in the sixtieth or seventieth percentile on research institute norway, achievement tests. But those scores were not good enough to essay override the opinion that my true abilities lay in math and science, because in those areas I achieved A's and scored in the ninetieth percentile or higher. This was understandable. Math is precise; there is only one correct answer. Whereas, for me at least, the answers on team essay, English tests were always a judgment call, a matter of opinion and personal experience. Those tests were constructed around items like fill-in-the-blank sentence completion, such as, Even though Tom was, Mary thought he was --. And the correct answer always seemed to be the most bland combinations of thoughts, for example, Even though Tom was shy, Mary thought he was charming:' with the hotel manager grammatical structure even though limiting the correct answer to some sort of lang/lit coursework, semantic opposites, so you wouldn't get answers like, Even though Tom was foolish, Mary thought he was ridiculous:' Well, according to my mother, there were very few limitations as to hotel manager what Tom could have been and what Mary might have thought of him. So I never did well on tests like that. The same was true with word analogies, pairs of words in which you were supposed to find some sort of logical, semantic relationship -- for team essay, example, Sunset is to nightfall as is to . And here you would be presented with a list of four possible pairs, one of which showed the same kind of relationship: red is to stoplight, bus is to arrival, chills is to fever, yawn is to manager boring: Well, I could never think that way. I knew what the tests were asking, but I could not block out of my mind the images already created by the first pair, sunset is to nightfall--and I would see a burst of colors against a darkening sky, the moon rising, the lowering of a curtain of stars. Paper Research Institute! And all the other pairs of hotel, words --red, bus, stoplight, boring--just threw up a mass of confusing images, making it impossible for me to sort out something as logical as saying: A sunset precedes nightfall is the same as a chill precedes a fever.
The only way I would have gotten that answer right would have been to imagine an associative situation, for example, my being disobedient and staying out past sunset, catching a chill at night, which turns into feverish pneumonia as punishment, which indeed did happen to me. Fibre Research Institute Norway! I have been thinking about all this lately, about hotel manager essay my mother's English, about achievement tests. Because lately I've been asked, as a writer, why there are not more Asian Americans represented in American literature. Why are there few Asian Americans enrolled in creative writing programs? Why do so many Chinese students go into engineering! Well, these are broad sociological questions I can't begin to answer.
But I have noticed in surveys -- in fact, just last week -- that Asian students, as a whole, always do significantly better on math achievement tests than in essay English. And this makes me think that there are other Asian-American students whose English spoken in manager the home might also be described as broken or limited. And perhaps they also have teachers who are steering them away from writing and into math and paper fibre research, science, which is essay, what happened to team me. Fortunately, I happen to manager be rebellious in nature and enjoy the challenge of disproving assumptions made about me. I became an English major my first year in discursive topics for teenagers college, after being enrolled as pre-med. Manager! I started writing nonfiction as a freelancer the week after I was told by my former boss that writing was my worst skill and I should hone my talents toward account management. Liverpool! But it wasn't until 1985 that I finally began to write fiction. And at first I wrote using what I thought to be wittily crafted sentences, sentences that would finally prove I had mastery over the English language.
Here's an example from the manager essay first draft of a story that later made its way into The Joy Luck Club, but without this line: That was my mental quandary in its nascent state. Fibre Research! A terrible line, which I can barely pronounce. Fortunately, for reasons I won't get into today, I later decided I should envision a reader for the stories I would write. Hotel Manager Essay! And the reader I decided upon was my mother, because these were stories about mothers. So with this reader in mind -- and in fact she did read my early drafts--I began to write stories using all the Englishes I grew up with: the English I spoke to my mother, which for lack of for teenagers, a better term might be described as simple; the English she used with me, which for lack of a better term might be described as broken; my translation of hotel manager, her Chinese, which could certainly be described as watered down; and aqa english, what I imagined to be her translation of hotel, her Chinese if she could speak in perfect English, her internal language, and for that I sought to preserve the essence, but neither an b120 essay English nor a Chinese structure.
I wanted to capture what language ability tests can never reveal: her intent, her passion, her imagery, the rhythms of her speech and the nature of hotel manager, her thoughts. Apart from what any critic had to paper research norway say about hotel essay my writing, I knew I had succeeded where it counted when my mother finished reading my book and business continuity assessment, gave me her verdict: So easy to read.
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Hotel Management Essay - 2470 Palabras | Cram
Cisco Network Topologies and manager LAN Design. The questions in the following quiz are designed to help you gauge how well you know the material covered in research norway, this chapter. Compare your answers with those found in Appendix A, Answers to Quiz Questions. If you answer most or all of the questions thoroughly and correctly, you might want to skim the chapter and proceed to hotel essay the QA and Case Studies sections at the end of the chapter. For Teenagers. If you find you need to review only certain subject matter, search the chapter for hotel manager essay, only those sections that cover the objectives you need to review and then test yourself with those question again, as well as the QA and continuity assessment Case Studies questions. If you find the following questions too difficult, read the chapter carefully until you feel you can easily answers these and the QA and essay Case Studies questions. What OSI layer does a bridge operate? The 10Base2 Ethernet media is commonly referred as?
What is the recommended maximum number of nodes that should be used in a multi-protocol LAN segment? Bridges control collision domains, broadcast domains, or both? What is the maximum segment size in a 100BaseT network? What is the maximum segment size in a 10Base2 network? Routers operate on what OSI layer? Fast Ethernet is covered by which IEEE standard? What is 10Base5 commonly referred to as? What device controls a broadcast domain?
You can find the answers to these questions in Appendix A, Answers to Quiz Questions. The CCDA objectives covered in fibre institute, this section are as follows: Describe the advantages, disadvantages, scalability issues, and essay applicability of aqa english lang/lit coursework standard internetwork topologies. Draw a topology map that meets the customer#039;s needs and includes a high-level view of internetworking devices and interconnecting media. This section covers CCDA exam objectives about designing network topologies for the LAN.
LANs provide data transfer rates that are typically much faster than wide-area networks (WANs). Hotel Manager. While most companies own their own LAN infrastructure, wide-area connections between LANs are usually leased on a monthly basis from an outside carrier. With the essay recent developments in Gigabit Ethernet technologies, LAN designs are now capable of 1000 Mbps speeds. High-speed Gigabit links can connect servers to hotel manager essay LAN switches. At these speeds, the capacity is there to aqa english lang/lit meet the performance requirements of current high-bandwidth applications. Various speeds of Ethernet have evolved into the de facto standard for LANs. Ethernet uses a contention-based access method, meaning each device competes simultaneously for access to the network.
All devices attached to the same Ethernet segment form a collision domain. Each device transmitting on that segment may attempt to transmit at the same time as another device on essay the same segment, resulting in a collision. Paper Fibre Research Institute Norway. As the number of hotel manager devices in the same collision domain increases, so do the essay topics for teenagers collisions, resulting in poorer performance. Although not discussed in newer switched (bridged) networks, legacy Ethernet networks with repeaters and hubs should limit the size of the collision domain. To scale multiprotocol networks and networks with high-bandwidth applications, limit the size of collision domains using bridges, switches, and routers. This is manager essay, covered in aqa english, the section LAN Hardware later in the chapter. Three different network topology models are discussed in the following sections: Hierarchical models enable you to hotel manager essay design internetworks in layers.
To understand the fibre institute norway importance of hotel essay layering, consider the discursive essay Open System Interconnection (OSI) reference model, which is manager, a layered model for implementing computer communications. Using layers, the OSI model simplifies the tasks required for essay, two computers to communicate. Hierarchical models for internetwork design also use layers to simplify the manager tasks required for internetworking. Each layer can be focused on specific functions, allowing you to choose the right systems and lang/lit features for each layer. Hotel Manager Essay. Hierarchical models apply to both LAN and WAN design. The many benefits of using hierarchical models for your network design include the following:
Cost savings Ease of tma02 essay understanding Easy network growth Improved fault isolation. After adopting hierarchical design models, many organizations report cost savings because they are no longer trying to do it all in one routing/switching platform. The modular nature of the model enables appropriate use of bandwidth within each layer of the hierarchy, reducing wasted capacity. Keeping each design element simple and small facilitates ease of understanding, which helps control training and essay staff costs. Management responsibility and network management systems can be distributed to the different layers of paper institute norway modular network architectures, which also helps control management costs. Hierarchical design facilitates changes. In a network design, modularity allows creating design elements that can be replicated as the network grows, facilitating easy network growth. As each element in essay, the network design requires change, the cost and business plan risk assessment complexity of making the upgrade is contained to a small subset of the hotel manager essay overall network.
In large, flat, or meshed network architectures, changes tend to impact a large number of systems. Improved fault isolation is facilitated by structuring the network into small, easy-to-understand elements. Team. Network managers can easily understand the hotel transition points in the network, which helps identify failure points. Today#039;s fast-converging protocols were designed for hierarchical topologies. To control the impact of routing overhead processing and bandwidth consumption, modular hierarchical topologies must be used with protocols designed with these controls in mind, such as EIGRP. Route summarization is facilitated by hierarchical network design. Tma02. Route summarization reduces the routing protocol overhead on links in hotel manager, the network and reduces routing protocol processing within the thesis routers. As Figure 4-1 illustrates, a hierarchical network design has three layers:
The core layer provides optimal transport between sites. Hotel Manager Essay. The distribution layer provides policy-based connectivity. The access layer provides workgroup/user access to the network. Figure 4-1 A Hierarchical Network Design Has Three Layers: Core, Distribution, and aqa english Access. Each layer provides necessary functionality to the network. The layers do not need to be implemented as distinct physical entities.
Each layer can be implemented in routers or switches, represented by a physical media, or combined in a single box. A particular layer can be omitted altogether, but for optimum performance, a hierarchy should be maintained. The core layer is the high-speed switching backbone of the network, which is crucial to enable corporate communications. Hotel. The core layer should have the aqa english lang/lit coursework following characteristics: Offer high reliability Provide redundancy Provide fault tolerance Adapt to manager essay changes quickly Offer low latency and good manageability Avoid slow packet manipulation caused by team dynamics filters or other processes Have a limited and hotel consistent diameter. When routers are used in business risk, a network, the number of router hops from edge to edge is called the diameter . As noted, it is considered good practice to design for a consistent diameter within a hierarchical network. This means that from any end station to another end station across the backbone, there should be the hotel manager essay same number of hops.
The distance from any end station to a server on the backbone should also be consistent. Limiting the diameter of the fibre norway internetwork provides predictable performance and ease of troubleshooting. Distribution layer routers and client LANs can be added to the hierarchical model without increasing the diameter because neither will affect how existing end stations communicate. The distribution layer of the network is the demarcation point between the access and core layers of the network. The distribution layer can have many roles, including implementing the following functions: Policy (for example, to ensure that traffic sent from hotel essay, a particular network should be forwarded out business continuity risk, one interface, while all other traffic should be forwarded out another interface) Security Address or area aggregation or summarization Departmental or workgroup access Broadcast/multicast domain definition Routing between virtual LANs (VLANs) Media translations (for example, between Ethernet and Token Ring) Redistribution between routing domains (for example, between two different routing protocols) Demarcation between static and dynamic routing protocols. Several Cisco IOS software features can be used to implement policy at the distribution layer, including the following: Filtering by essay source or destination address Filtering on team dynamics essay input or output ports Hiding internal network numbers by route filtering Static routing Quality of service mechanisms (for example, to ensure that all devices along a path can accommodate the hotel essay requested parameters) The access layer provides user access to local segments on the network.
The access layer is characterized by switched and paper institute norway shared bandwidth LANs in essay, a campus environment. Microsegmentation, using LAN switches, provides high bandwidth to coursework workgroups by dividing collision domains on Ethernet segments and manager essay reducing the business number of stations capturing the token on Token Ring LANs. For small office/home office (SOHO) environments, the access layer provides access for remote sites into the corporate network by using WAN technologies such as ISDN, Frame Relay, and leased lines. Hotel Manager. Features such as dial-on-demand routing (DDR) and static routing can be implemented to control costs. For small- to medium-sized companies, the hierarchical model is often implemented as a hub-and-spoke topology, as shown in Figure 4-2. Corporate headquarters forms the hub and links to the remote offices form the spokes. Figure 4-2 The Hierarchical Model Is Often Implemented as a Hub-and-Spoke Topology. You can implement the hierarchical model by using either routers or switches. Figure 4-3 is an example of a switched hierarchical design, while Figure 4-4 shows examples of routed hierarchical designs. Figure 4-3 An Example of a Switched Hierarchical Design.
Figure 4-4 Examples of Routed Hierarchical Designs. When designing a network topology for a customer who has critical systems, services, or network paths, you should determine the likelihood that these components will fail and design redundancy where necessary. Consider incorporating one of the following types of redundancy into your design: Workstation-to-router redundancy Server redundancy Route redundancy Media redundancy. Each of continuity risk these types of redundancy is hotel manager, elaborated in the sections that follow. When a workstation has traffic to paper fibre institute send to a station that is not local, the workstation has many possible ways to discover the address of hotel manager essay a router on its network segment, including the liverpool thesis following: Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) Explicit configuration Router Discovery Protocol (RDP) Routing Information Protocol (RIP) Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) AppleTalk Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP) The sections that follow cover each of hotel essay these methods. Some IP workstations send an ARP frame to find a remote station. A router running proxy ARP can respond with its data link layer address. Cisco routers run proxy ARP by default.
Most IP workstations must be configured with the IP address of a default router. Coursework. This is sometimes called the default gateway . In an IP environment, the most common method for a workstation to find a server is via explicit configuration (default router). If the workstation#039;s default router becomes unavailable, the essay workstation must be reconfigured with the thesis address of a different router. Some IP stacks enable you to configure multiple default routers, but many other IP stacks do not support redundant default routers. RFC 1256 specifies an extension to the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) that allows an IP workstation and router to manager essay run RDP to facilitate the workstation learning the address of a router. An IP workstation can run RIP to aqa english learn about routers. RIP should be used in passive mode rather than active mode. (Active mode means that the station sends RIP frames every 30 seconds.) The Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protocol also supports a workstation running RIP. An IPX workstation broadcasts a find network number message to essay find a route to discursive topics a server. A router then responds. If the client loses its connection to manager the server, it automatically sends the message again. An AppleTalk workstation remembers the address of the router that sent the last Routing Table Maintenance Protocol (RTMP) packet.
As long as there are one or more routers on an AppleTalk workstation#039;s network, it has a route to plan assessment remote devices. Cisco#039;s HSRP provides a way for essay, IP workstations to keep communicating on the internetwork even if their default router becomes unavailable. HSRP works by creating a phantom router that has its own IP and MAC addresses. The workstations use this phantom router as their default router. HSRP routers on for teenagers a LAN communicate among themselves to designate two routers as active and standby.
The active router sends periodic hello messages. The other HSRP routers listen for the hello messages. If the active router fails and the other HSRP routers stop receiving hello messages, the standby router takes over and becomes the active router. Because the new active router assumes both the IP and MAC addresses of the phantom, end nodes see no change at all. They continue to send packets to the phantom router#039;s MAC address, and the new active router delivers those packets. HSRP also works for proxy ARP. Hotel. When an active HSRP router receives an b120 tma02 essay ARP request for a node that is hotel manager essay, not on the local LAN, the router replies with the discursive phantom router#039;s MAC address instead of its own.
If the router that originally sent the ARP reply later loses its connection, the new active router can still deliver the traffic. Figure 4-5 shows a sample implementation of hotel manager HSRP. Figure 4-5 An Example of HSRP: The Phantom Router Represents the Real Routers. In Figure 4-5, the following sequence occurs: The Anderson workstation is configured to aqa english use the Phantom router as its default router. Upon booting, the routers elect Broadway as the hotel manager HSRP active router. The active router does the work for the HSRP phantom. Central Park is the discursive topics HSRP standby router. When Anderson sends an ARP frame to hotel manager find its default router, Broadway responds with the Phantom router#039;s MAC address. If Broadway goes off line, Central Park takes over as the for teenagers active router, continuing the delivery of Anderson#039;s packets. The change is transparent to Anderson.
If a third HSRP router was on the LAN, that router would begin to act as the essay new standby router. In some environments, fully redundant (mirrored) file servers should be recommended. For example, in a brokerage firm where traders must access data in order to liverpool buy and essay sell stocks, the continuity risk assessment data can be replicated on two or more redundant servers. Hotel. The servers should be on different networks and power supplies. If complete server redundancy is not feasible due to cost considerations, mirroring or duplexing of the file server hard drives is a good idea. Mirroring means synchronizing two disks, while duplexing is the same as mirroring with the additional feature that the two mirrored hard drives are controlled by different disk controllers.
Designing redundant routes has two purposes: load balancing and minimizing downtime. AppleTalk and IPX routers can remember only b120 essay, one route to a remote network by default, so they do not support load balancing. You can change this for hotel manager, IPX by using the b120 tma02 ipx maximum-paths command and for manager, AppleTalk by using the appletalk maximum-paths command on a Cisco router. Most IP routing protocols can load balance across up to six parallel links that have equal cost. Liverpool. Use the maximum-paths command to change the number of links that the manager router will load balance over for IP; the default is four, the maximum is six. To support load balancing, keep the bandwidth consistent within a layer of the hierarchical model so that all paths have the same cost. (Cisco#039;s IGRP and business continuity plan risk assessment EIGRP are exceptions because they can load balance traffic across multiple routes that have different metrics by using a feature called variance .) A hop-based routing protocol does load balancing over unequal bandwidth paths as long as the hop count is equal. After the slower link becomes saturated, the higher-capacity link cannot be filled; this is called pinhole congestion . Pinhole congestion can be avoided by designing equal bandwidth links within one layer of the hierarchy or by using a routing protocol that takes bandwidth into account. IP load balancing depends on hotel essay which switching mode is used on a router.
Process switching load balances on a packet-by-packet basis. Fast, autonomous, silicon, optimum, distributed, and NetFlow switching load balance on a destination-by-destination basis because the processor caches the research institute encapsulation to a specific destination for essay, these types of switching modes. In addition to liverpool thesis facilitating load balancing, redundant routes minimize network downtime. As already discussed, you should keep bandwidth consistent within a given layer of a hierarchy to facilitate load balancing. Manager Essay. Another reason to keep bandwidth consistent within a layer of a hierarchy is that routing protocols converge much faster if multiple equal-cost paths to team a destination network exist. By using redundant, meshed network designs, you can minimize the effect of link failures. Depending on the convergence time of the manager routing protocols being used, a single link failure will not have a catastrophic effect. A network can be designed as a full mesh or a partial mesh. B120. In a full mesh network, every router has a link to every other router, as shown in Figure 4-6.
A full mesh network provides complete redundancy and also provides good performance because there is manager essay, just a single-hop delay between any two sites. Paper Institute Norway. The number of links in a full mesh is hotel essay, n(n#150;1)/2, where n is the thesis number of hotel manager essay routers. Each router is connected to team dynamics essay every other router. (Divide the result by 2 to avoid counting Router X to Router Y and Router Y to Router X as two different links.) Figure 4-6 Full Mesh Network: Every Router Has a Link to Every Other Router in the Network. A full mesh network can be expensive to implement in wide-area networks due to the required number of links. In addition, practical limits to scaling exist for groups of routers that broadcast routing updates or service advertisements. As the number of router peers increases, the amount of bandwidth and CPU resources devoted to processing broadcasts increases. A suggested guideline is to keep broadcast traffic at less than 20 percent of the manager bandwidth of each link; this will limit the number of peer routers that can exchange routing tables or service advertisements. When planning redundancy, follow guidelines for paper research norway, simple, hierarchical design. Figure 4-7 illustrates a classic hierarchical and hotel manager essay redundant enterprise design that uses a partial mesh rather than a full mesh architecture. For LAN designs, links between the access and tma02 distribution layer can be Fast Ethernet, with links to the core at Gigabit Ethernet speeds.
Figure 4-7 Partial Mesh Design with Redundancy. In mission-critical applications, it is often necessary to provide redundant media. In switched networks, switches can have redundant links to hotel manager each other. This redundancy is good because it minimizes downtime, but it may result in broadcasts continuously circling the network, which is called a broadcast storm . Because Cisco switches implement the IEEE 802.1d Spanning-Tree Algorithm, this looping can be avoided in the Spanning-Tree Protocol. The Spanning-Tree Algorithm guarantees that only one path is paper fibre institute norway, active between two network stations. Hotel. The algorithm permits redundant paths that are automatically activated when the active path experiences problems. Because WAN links are often critical pieces of the internetwork, redundant media is essay, often deployed in WAN environments. As shown in Figure 4-8, backup links can be provisioned so they become active when a primary link goes down or becomes congested. Figure 4-8 Backup Links Can Be Used to manager essay Provide Redundancy. Often, backup links use a different technology.
For example, a leased line can be in parallel with a backup dialup line or ISDN circuit. By using floating static routes , you can specify that the backup route has a higher administrative distance (used by Cisco routers to lang/lit coursework select which routing information to hotel manager use) so that it is not normally used unless the primary route goes down. When provisioning backup links, learn as much as possible about the actual physical circuit routing. Different carriers sometimes use the dynamics essay same facilities, meaning that your backup path is susceptible to the same failures as your primary path. Hotel Manager Essay. You should do some investigative work to aqa english ensure that your backup really is acting as a backup. Backup links can be combined with load balancing and channel aggregation. Manager. Channel aggregation means that a router can bring up multiple channels (for example, Integrated Services Digital Network [ISDN] B channels) as bandwidth requirements increase. Cisco supports the Multilink Point-to-Point Protocol (MPPP), which is an Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standard for paper fibre research institute norway, ISDN B channel (or asynchronous serial interface) aggregation.
MPPP does not specify how a router should accomplish the decision-making process to bring up extra channels. Instead, it seeks to ensure that packets arrive in sequence at the receiving router. Then, the data is encapsulated within PPP and hotel manager the datagram is given a sequence number. Thesis. At the receiving router, PPP uses this sequence number to re-create the original data stream. Multiple channels appear as one logical link to essay upper-layer protocols. This section introduces secure topology models. The information in this book is not sufficient to learn all the nuances of internetwork security. To learn more about paper fibre research institute norway, internetwork security, you might want to read the book Firewalls and Internet Security , by Bill Cheswick and Steve Bellovin, published by Addison Wesley. Also, by searching for manager, the word security on Cisco#039;s web site (http://www.cisco.com), you can keep up to date on security issues. Secure topologies are often designed by using a firewall. A firewall protects one network from another untrusted network.
This protection can be accomplished in many ways, but in principle, a firewall is a pair of mechanisms: One blocks traffic and the other permits traffic. Some firewalls place a greater emphasis on blocking traffic, and others emphasize permitting traffic. B120 Tma02 Essay. Figure 4-9 shows a simple firewall topology using routers. Figure 4-9 A Simple Firewall Network, Using Routers. You can design a firewall system using packet-filtering routers and bastion hosts. A bastion host is a secure host that supports a limited number of applications for use by outsiders.
It holds data that outsiders access (for example, web pages) but is strongly protected from outsiders using it for anything other than its limited purposes. The classic firewall system, called the three-part firewall system , has the following three specialized layers, as shown in Figure 4-10: Another router that acts as an outside packet filter between the isolation LAN and the outside internetwork. An isolation LAN that is a buffer between the corporate internetwork and hotel manager essay the outside world. (The isolation LAN is called the demilitarized zone (DMZ) in some literature.) A router that acts as an inside packet filter between the business corporate internetwork and the isolation LAN.
Figure 4-10 Structure and Components of a Three-Part Firewall System. Services available to the outside world are located on manager bastion hosts in the isolation LAN. Example services in liverpool, these hosts include: Anonymous FTP server Web server Domain Name System (DNS) Telnet Specialized security software such as Terminal Access Controller Access Control System (TACACS) The isolation LAN has a unique network number that is different than the corporate network number. Manager. Only the isolation LAN network is visible to the outside world. On the outside filter, you should advertise only the route to the isolation LAN. If internal users need to get access to dynamics essay Internet services, allow TCP outbound traffic from the hotel manager essay internal corporate internetwork. Essay. Allow TCP packets back into the internal network only if they are in response to a previously sent request. All other TCP traffic should be blocked because new inbound TCP sessions could be from hackers trying to manager essay establish sessions with internal hosts.
To determine whether TCP traffic is a response to a previously sent request or a request for essay, a new session, the router examines some bits in the code field of the hotel TCP header. If the thesis acknowledgement field (ACK) is valid or reset the connection (RST) bits are set in hotel essay, a TCP segment header, the segment is a response to b120 tma02 a previously sent request. The established keyword in hotel manager essay, Cisco IOS access lists (filters) is used to indicate packets with ACK or RST bits set. The following list summarizes some rules for the three-part firewall system: The outside packet filter router should allow inbound TCP packets from established TCP sessions. The outside packet filter router should also allow packets to specific TCP or UDP ports going to specific bastion hosts (including TCP SYN packets that are used to establish a session).
The inside packet filter router should allow inbound TCP packets from established sessions. Always block traffic from coming in from between the firewall routers and hosts and the internal network. The firewall routers and hosts themselves are likely to be a jumping-off point for hackers, as shown in Figure 4-11. Figure 4-11 Firewall Routers and Hosts May Make Your Network Vulnerable to Hacker Attacks. Keep bastion hosts and firewall routers simple.
They should run as few programs as possible. The programs should be simple because simple programs have fewer bugs than complex programs. Bugs introduce possible security holes. Do not enable any unnecessary services or connections on fibre research the outside filter router. A list of suggestions for implementing the outside filter router follows: Turn off Telnet access (no virtual terminals defined). Use static routing only. Do not make it a TFTP server. Hotel Manager Essay. Use password encryption. Turn off proxy ARP service. Turn off finger service.
Turn off IP redirects. Turn off IP route caching. Do not make the aqa english router a MacIP server (MacIP provides connectivity for IP over AppleTalk by tunneling IP datagrams inside AppleTalk). To provide stalwart security, hardware firewall devices can be used in essay, addition to or instead of packet-filtering routers. For example, in discursive essay for teenagers, the three-part firewall system illustrated earlier in Figure 4-10, a hardware firewall device could be installed on hotel the isolation LAN. Business Continuity Plan Assessment. A hardware firewall device offers the following benefits: Less complex and more robust than packet filters No required downtime for installation No required upgrading of hosts or routers No necessary day-to-day management. Cisco#039;s PIX Firewall is a hardware device that offers the features in the preceding list, as well as full outbound Internet access from hotel essay, unregistered internal hosts.
IP addresses can be assigned from the private ranges, as defined in dynamics, RFC 1918 (available at ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc1918.txt). The PIX Firewall uses a protection scheme called Network Address Translation (NAT) , which allows internal users access to the Internet while protecting internal networks from unauthorized access. The PIX Firewall provides firewall security without the administrative overhead and risks associated with UNIX-based or router-based firewall systems. The PIX Firewall operates on a secure real-time kernel, not on UNIX. The network administrator is manager essay, provided with complete auditing of plan risk all transactions, including attempted break-ins. The PIX Firewall supports data encryption with the hotel manager Cisco PIX Private Link, a card that provides secure communication between multiple PIX systems over the Internet using the fibre data encryption standard (DES). The PIX Firewall provides TCP and UDP connectivity from internal networks to the outside world by using a scheme called adaptive security . Manager Essay. All inbound traffic is b120 tma02 essay, verified for correctness against the following connection state information: Source and destination IP addresses Source and destination port numbers Protocols TCP sequence numbers (which are randomized to eliminate the possibility of hackers guessing numbers) The CCDA objective covered in this section is as follows: Draw a topology map that meets the customer#039;s needs and includes a high-level view of internetworking devices and interconnecting media.
Local-area networks can be classified as a large building LAN, campus LAN, or small/remote LAN. Manager. The large building LAN contains the major data center with high-speed access and floor communications closets; the large building LAN is liverpool thesis, usually the headquarters in larger companies. Campus LANs provide connectivity between buildings on a campus; redundancy is usually a requirement. Small/remote LANs provide connectivity to remote offices with a small number of nodes. It is important to remember the Cisco hierarchical approach of network design. First, build a high-speed core backbone network. Second, build the distribution layer, where policy can be applied. Finally, build the hotel manager essay access layer, where LANs provide access to the network end stations. Large building LANs are segmented by floors or departments.
Company mainframes and servers reside in business plan risk assessment, a computing center. Media lines run from the computer center to the wiring closets at the various segments. From the wiring closets, media lines run to hotel essay the offices and cubicles around the work areas. Research Institute. Figure 4-12 depicts a typical large building design. Each floor may have more than 200 users. Hotel. Following a hierarchical model of access, distribution, and core, Ethernet and Fast Ethernet nodes may connect to hubs and paper research switches in the communications closet. Hotel Manager Essay. Uplink ports from closet switches connect back to one or two (for redundancy) distribution switches. Distribution switches may provide connectivity to server farms that provide business applications, DHCP, DNS, intranet, and other services. A campus LAN connects two or more buildings located near each other using high-bandwidth LAN media.
Usually the media (for example, copper or fiber) is owned. High-speed switching devices are recommended to minimize latency. In today#039;s networks, Gigabit Ethernet campus backbones are the lang/lit standard for new installations. Manager Essay. In Figure 4-13, campus buildings are connected by using Layer 3 switches with Gigabit Ethernet media. Ensure that a hierarchical design is implemented on business plan the campus LAN and hotel essay that network layer addressing is assigned to control broadcasts on discursive essay for teenagers the networks. Each building should have addressing assigned in such a way as to maximize address summarization. Apply contiguous subnets to manager buildings at the bit boundary to essay apply summarization and ease the design. Campus networks can support high-bandwidth applications such as video conferencing.
Although most WAN implementations are configured to support only IP, legacy LANs may still be configured to support IPX and manager essay AppleTalk. Small/remote sites usually connect back to the corporate network via a small router (Cisco 2500). The local-area network service is provided by a small hub or LAN switch (Catalyst 1900). The router filters broadcasts to the WAN circuit and forwards packets that require services from the corporate network. Aqa English Coursework. A server may be placed at the small/remote site to provide DHCP and other local applications such as NT backup domain controller and DNS; if not, the router will need to be configured to forward DHCP broadcasts and other types of hotel essay services. Topics. Figure 4-14 shows a typical architecture of a small or remote LAN. Building Cisco Remote Access Networks from Cisco Press is an manager essay excellent resource for more information on remote access. The CCDA objectives covered in this section are as follows: Recognize scalability constraints and issues for standard LAN technologies.
Recommend Cisco products and essay LAN technologies that will meet a customer#039;s requirements for hotel manager, performance, capacity, and scalability in small- to medium-sized networks. This section identifies some of the constraints that should be considered when provisioning various LAN media types. For additional reference material on this subject, refer to Appendix D, LAN Media Reference. Table 4-1 provides scalability information that you can use when provisioning IEEE 802.3 networks. Table 4-1 Scalability Constraints for IEEE 802.3. Maximum Segment Length (meters) 100 from hub to station. 100 from hub to station. Maximum Number of liverpool Attachments per Segment. 2 (hub and station or hub-hub)
2 (hub and station or hub-hub) Maximum Collision Domain. 2500 meters of 5 segments and hotel essay 4 repeaters; only 3 segments can be populated. 2500 meters of 5 segments and 4 repeaters; only fibre research institute, 3 segments can be populated. 2500 meters of 5 segments and 4 repeaters; only 3 segments can be populated.
See the details in essay, the section 100 Mbps Fast Ethernet Design Rules later in this chapter. The most significant design rule for Ethernet is that the discursive round-trip propagation delay in one collision domain must not exceed 512 bit times, which is hotel, a requirement for collision detection to tma02 essay work correctly. This rule means that the maximum round-trip delay for a 10 Mbps Ethernet network is hotel manager essay, 51.2 microseconds. The maximum round-trip delay for a 100 Mbps Ethernet network is only 5.12 microseconds because the bit time on a 100 Mbps Ethernet network is 0.01 microseconds as opposed to tma02 essay 0.1 microseconds on manager essay a 10 Mbps Ethernet network. To make 100 Mbps Ethernet work, distance limitations are much more severe than those required for 10 Mbps Ethernet. The general rule is that a 100 Mbps Ethernet has a maximum diameter of 205 meters when unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cabling is essay topics for teenagers, used, whereas 10 Mbps Ethernet has a maximum diameter of 500 meters with 10BaseT and manager 2500 meters with 10Base5. 10 Mbps Fiber Ethernet Design Rules. Table 4-2 provides some guidelines to team dynamics essay help you choose the right media for your network designs. 10BaseF is based on the fiber-optic interrepeater link (FOIRL) specification, which includes 10BaseFP, 10BaseFB, 10BaseFL, and a revised FOIRL standard. Manager Essay. The new FOIRL allows data terminal equipment (DTE) end-node connections rather than just repeaters, which were allowed with the older FOIRL specification. Table 4-2 Scalability Constraints for 10 Mbps Fiber Ethernet.
Backbone or repeater fiber system. Allows DTE (End Node) Connections? Maximum Segment Length (Meters) Allows Cascaded Repeaters? Maximum Collision Domains in Meters. 100 Mbps Fast Ethernet Design Rules. 100 Mbps Ethernet, or Fast Ethernet, topologies present some distinct constraints on the network design because of their speed. Thesis. The combined latency due to hotel manager essay cable lengths and risk assessment repeaters must conform to the specifications in order for the network to work properly. Manager. This section discusses these issues and discursive essay provides example calculations. The overriding design rule for 100 Mbps Ethernet networks is that the hotel essay round-trip collision delay must not exceed 512 bit times. However, the bit time on a 100 Mbps Ethernet network is 0.01 microseconds, as opposed to business plan risk assessment 0.1 microseconds on hotel essay a 10 Mbps Ethernet network.
Therefore, the maximum round-trip delay for a 100 Mbps Ethernet network is 5.12 microseconds, as opposed to the more lenient 51.2 microseconds in a 10 Mbps Ethernet network. For a 100 Mbps Ethernet to work, you must impose distance limitations based on the type of repeaters used. The IEEE 100BaseT specification defines two types of aqa english lang/lit coursework repeaters: Class I and manager essay Class II. Aqa English Coursework. Class I repeaters have a latency (delay) of 0.7 microseconds or less. Only one repeater hop is allowed. Class II repeaters have a latency (delay) of hotel manager 0.46 microseconds or less. Fibre Research Norway. One or two repeater hops are allowed. Table 4-3 shows the maximum size of collision domains, depending on hotel the type of essay repeater. Table 4-3 Maximum Size of Collision Domains for 100BaseT. Mixed Copper and Multimode Fiber. DTE-DTE (or Switch-Switch)
412 meters (2000 if full duplex) One Class I Repeater. One Class II Repeater. Two Class II Repeaters. The Cisco FastHub 316 is hotel manager, a Class II repeater, as are all the Cisco FastHub 300 series hubs. Research. These hubs actually exceed the Class II specifications, which means that they have even lower latencies and therefore allow longer cable lengths. For example, with two FastHub 300 repeaters and copper cable, the hotel maximum collision domain is 223 meters.
Figure 4-15 shows examples of 100BaseT topologies with different media. Figure 4-15 Examples of 100BaseT Topologies with Various Media and Repeaters. Other topologies are possible as long as the round-trip propagation delay does not exceed 5.12 microseconds (512 bit times). When the delay does exceed 5.12 microseconds, the network experiences illegal (late) collisions and CRC errors. To determine whether configurations other than the standard ones shown in Figure 4-15 will work, use the team dynamics following information from the IEEE 802.3u specification. To check a path to manager essay make sure the business continuity plan assessment path delay value (PDV) does not exceed 512 bit times, add up the hotel following delays: All link segment delays All repeater delays DTE delay A safety margin (0 to 5 bit times) Use the liverpool thesis following steps to calculate the PDV: Determine the delay for each link segment; this is the hotel essay link segment delay value (LSDV), including interrepeater links, using the following formula. (Multiply by two so it is a round-trip delay.)
For end-node segments, the segment length is the cable length between the physical interface at the repeater and the physical interface at the DTE. Use your two farthest DTEs for fibre research institute norway, a worst-case calculation. For interrepeater links, the segment length is the hotel manager essay cable length between the repeater physical interfaces. Cable delay is the delay specified by the manufacturer if available. When actual cable lengths or propagation delays are not known, use the delay in bit times as specified in Table 4-4. Cable delay must be specified in bit times per meter (BT/m). Add together the LSDVs for all segments in the path. Determine the tma02 delay for each repeater in the path. If model-specific data is not available from the manufacturer, determine the class of repeater (I or II). MII cables for 100BaseT should not exceed 0.5 meters each in length. When evaluating system topology, MII cable lengths need not be accounted for separately.
Delays attributed to the MII are incorporated into DTE and repeater delays. Use the DTE delay value shown in Table 4-4 unless your equipment manufacturer defines a different value. Decide on an appropriate safety margin from 0 to 5 bit times. Five bit times is hotel, a safe value. Insert the values obtained from the aqa english coursework preceding calculations into the formula for calculating the PDV:
If the PDV is less than 512, the path is manager, qualified in topics, terms of worst-case delay. Table 4-4 shows round-trip delay in bit times for hotel manager essay, standard cables and maximum round-trip delay in bit times for DTEs, repeaters, and maximum-length cables. Note that the values shown in team dynamics essay, Table 4-4 have been multiplied by two to provide a round-trip delay. If you use these numbers, you need not multiply by two again in the LSDV formula (LSDV = 2 _ segment length _ cable delay for this segment). Table 4-4 Network Component Delays 1. Round-Trip Delay in Bit Times per Meter.
Maximum Round-Trip Delay in Bit Times. One T4 DTE and one TX/FX DTE. Category 3 cable segment. Category 4 cable segment. Category 5 cable segment. 111.2 (100 meters) STP cable segment. 111.2 (100 meters) Fiber-optic cable segment. Class I repeater.
Class II repeater with all ports TX or FX. Class II repeater with any port T4. Example Network Cabling Implementation. See Figure 4-16 for this example. Company ABC has all UTP Category 5 cabling. Two Class II repeaters are separated by 20 meters instead of the manager essay standard 5 meters. The network administrators are trying to determine whether this configuration will work.
Figure 4-16 An Example Network Cabling Implementation for Company ABC (Showing the Two Most Distant DTEs) To ensure that the PDV does not exceed 512 bit times, the network administrators must calculate a worst-case scenario using DTE 1 and DTE 2, which are 75 meters from their repeaters. Assume that DTE 1 starts transmitting a minimum-sized frame of 64 bytes (512 bits). DTE 2 just barely misses hearing DTE 1#039;s transmission and starts transmitting also. The collision happens on the far-right side of the network and lang/lit coursework must traverse back to DTE 1. These events must occur within 512 bit times. Manager Essay. If they take any longer than 512 bit times, then DTE 1 will have stopped sending when it learns about the collision and will not know that its frame was damaged by the collision. To calculate the link delays for the Category 5 cable segments, the repeaters, and DTEs, the administrators use the values from Table 4-4. B120 Essay. (Remember that Table 4-4 uses round-trip delay values, so you need not multiply by two.) To test whether this network will work, the network administrators filled in Table 4-5. Table 4-5 Delays of Components in Company ABC#039;s Network.
Calculation of Network Component Delay. Total (Bit Times) 75m _ 1.112 bit times/m. 75m _ 1.112 bit times/m. 20m _ 1.112 bit times/m. Add Individual Totals. The grand total in Table 4-5 is fewer than 512 bit times, so this network will work.
Some cable manufacturers specify propagation delays relative to the speed of light or in manager, nanoseconds per meter (ns/m). To convert these values to bit times per meter (BT/m), use Table 4-6. Table 4-6 Conversion to liverpool thesis Bit Times per Meter for Cable Delays 1. Speed Relative to Speed of Light. Nanoseconds per hotel manager essay, Meter (ns/m) Bit Times per Meter (BT/m)
Table 4-7 lists some scalability concerns when designing Token Ring segments. Refer to IBM#039;s Token Ring planning guides for more information on the maximum segment sizes and discursive maximum diameter of a network. Table 4-7 Scalability Constraints for Token Ring. Maximum Segment Length (Meters) Depends on type of cable, number of MAUs, and so on. Depends on type of manager cable, number of MAUs, and so on. Maximum Number of Attachments per topics, Segment. 260 for hotel essay, STP, 72 for UTP. Maximum Network Diameter. Depends on type of cable, number of lang/lit MAUs, and so on.
Depends on type of cable, number of MAUs, and so on. The most recent development in the Ethernet arena is manager essay, Gigabit Ethernet. Gigabit Ethernet is business assessment, specified by two standards: IEEE 802.3z and 802.3ab. The 802.3z standard specifies the operation of Gigabit Ethernet over fiber and coaxial cable and introduces the hotel manager Gigabit Media Independent Interface (GMII). The 802.3z standard was approved in June 1998. The 802.3ab standard specifies the operation of tma02 essay Gigabit Ethernet over Category 5 UTP.
Gigabit Ethernet still retains the frame formats and frame sizes and it still uses CSMA/CD. As with Ethernet and Fast Ethernet, full duplex operation is possible. Manager Essay. Differences can be found in the encoding; Gigabit Ethernet uses 8B/10B coding with simple nonreturn to zero (NRZ). Because of the 20 percent overhead, pulses run at 1250 MHz to achieve a 1000 Mbps. Paper Research Norway. Table 4-8 covers Gigabit Ethernet scalability constraints.
Table 4-8 Gigabit Ethernet Scalability Constraints. Maximum segment length. 1000BaseLX (long wave) Single/multiple mode fiber. 1000BaseSX (short wave) 62.5 micrometers: 220m.
50 micrometers: 500m. Shielded balanced copper. The FDDI specification does not actually specify the hotel maximum segment length or network diameter. It specifies the amount of allowed power loss, which works out to the approximate distances shown in Table 4-9. Table 4-9 Scalability Constraints for FDDI. Dual ring, tree of concentrators, and others. Dual ring, tree of continuity assessment concentrators, and others. Maximum Segment Length.
2km between stations. 60km between stations. 100m from hub to station. Maximum Number of Attachments per Segment. 1000 (500 dual-attached stations) 1000 (500 dual-attached stations) 2 (hub and station or hub-hub)
Maximum Network Diameter. The CCDA objectives covered in this section are as follows: Describe the advantages, disadvantages, scalability issues, and applicability of essay standard internetwork topologies. Recognize scalability constraints and issues for thesis, standard LAN technologies. This section covers the following hardware technologies as they can be applied to manager LAN design: Repeaters are the basic unit used in topics, networks to manager connect separate segments. Repeaters take incoming frames, regenerate the preamble, amplify the signals, and send the frame out dynamics essay, all other interfaces. Repeaters operate in the physical layer of the OSI model.
Because repeaters are not aware of hotel manager essay packets or frame formats, they do not control broadcasts or collision domains. Repeaters are said to be protocol transparent because they are not aware of upper-layer protocols such as IP, IPX, and so on. One basic rule of using repeaters is the 5-4-3 Rule. The maximum path between two stations on the network should not be more than 5 segments with 4 repeaters between those segments and no more than 3 populated segments. Repeaters introduce a small amount of latency, or delay, when propagating the lang/lit frames. Hotel Manager. A transmitting device must be able to detect a collision with another device within the specified time after the delay introduced by the cable segments and repeaters is factored in. The 512 bit-time specification also governs segment lengths. A more detailed explanation of the specification can be found at essay, http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/cisintwk/ito_doc/ethernet.htm. Figure 4-17 illustrates an example of the 5-4-3 Rule.
With the manager increasing density of LANs in the late 80s and early 90s, hubs were introduced to concentrate Thinnet and 10BaseT networks in the wiring closet. Traditional hubs operate on the physical layer of the OSI model and perform the team dynamics same functions as basic repeaters. Bridges are used to connect separate segments of a network. They differ from repeaters in that bridges are intelligent devices that operate in the data link layer of the hotel OSI model. Continuity Plan Risk. Bridges control the hotel essay collision domains on the network. Bridges also learn the MAC layer addresses of coursework each node on each segment and on hotel manager essay which interface they are located. For any incoming frame, bridges forward the essay frame only if the hotel manager destination MAC address is on another port or if the bridge is not aware of aqa english coursework its location.
The latter is called flooding . Hotel Essay. Bridges filter any incoming frames with destination MAC addresses that are on the same segment from b120 tma02 essay, where the frame arrives; they do not forward the hotel manager essay frame on. Bridges are store and forward devices. Business Continuity Assessment. They store the hotel manager essay entire frame and verify the CRC before forwarding. If a CRC error is detected, the discursive for teenagers frame is discarded. Bridges are protocol transparent; they are not aware of the upper-layer protocols like IP, IPX, and hotel essay AppleTalk. Bridges are designed to flood all unknown and broadcast traffic. Bridges implement the aqa english Spanning-Tree Protocol to build a loop free network topology. Bridges communicate with each other, exchanging information such as priority and bridge interface MAC addresses.
They select a root bridge and then implement the Spanning-Tree Protocol. Some interfaces are placed in a hold state, while other bridges will have interfaces in forwarding mode. Hotel. Looking at Figure 4-18, note that there is no load sharing or dual paths with bridge protocols as there is in routing. Switches are the evolution of bridges. Switches use fast integrated circuits that reduce the latency that bridges introduce to b120 the network. Switches also enable the manager capability to run in cut-through mode. In cut-through mode, the switch does not wait for the entire frame to enter its buffer; instead, it forwards the frame after it has read the destination MAC address field of the frame. Cut-through operation increases the probability that error frames are propagated on the network, which increases CRC and runt frames on the network. Because of these problems, most switches today perform store-and-forward operation with CRC check as bridges do. Figure 4-19 shows a switch; note that it controls collision domains but not broadcast domains.
Figure 4-19 Switches Control Collision Domains. Switches have characteristics similar to bridges; however, they have more ports and run faster. Switches keep a table of MAC addresses per port, and they implement Spanning-Tree Protocol. Switches also operate in the data link layer and are protocol transparent. Each port on a switch is a separate collision domain but part of the same broadcast domain. Paper Fibre Research Norway. Switches do not control broadcasts on hotel the network. Routers make forwarding decisions based on network layer addresses.
In addition to controlling collision domains, routers control broadcast domains. Each interface of a router is a separate broadcast domain defined by a subnet and a mask. Routers are protocol aware, which means they are capable of forwarding packets of routed protocols such as IP, IPX, Decnet, and liverpool thesis AppleTalk. Figure 4-20 describes a router; each interface is a broadcast and a collision domain. Figure 4-20 Routers Control Broadcast and hotel manager essay Collision Domains. Routers exchange information about destination networks by using one of several routing protocols. The following are lists of routing protocols. The lists are divided by the protocols that can be routed.
For routing TCP/IP: Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Routing Information Protocol (RIP) Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (ISIS) Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM) For routing Novell: Novell Routing Information Protocol (Novell RIP) NetWare Link Services Protocol (NLSP) Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) For routing AppleTalk: Routing Table Maintenance Protocol (RTMP) Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) Routing protocols are discussed in discursive for teenagers, further detail in hotel manager essay, Chapter 6, Designing for Specific Protocols. Routers are the preferred method of forwarding packets between networks of differing media, such as Ethernet to Token Ring, Ethernet to FDDI, or Ethernet to Serial. They also provide methods to filter traffic based on the network layer address, route redundancy, load balancing, hierarchical addressing, and multicast routing. LAN switches that are capable of running routing protocols are Layer 3 switches . These switches are capable of business plan running routing protocols and communicating with neighboring routers.
An example is a Catalyst 5500 with a Routing Switch Module (RSM). Layer 3 switches have LAN technology interfaces that perform network layer forwarding; legacy routers provide connectivity to essay WAN circuits. The switches off-load local traffic from the business plan risk WAN routers. Layer 3 switches perform the functions of both data link layer switches and network layer routers. Manager. Each port is a collision domain. Interfaces are grouped into broadcast domains (subnets) and business a routing protocol is selected to manager provide network information to other Layer 3 switches and routers.
Combining Hubs, Switches, and Routers. Available in aqa english, Ethernet and Fast Ethernet, hubs are best used in manager essay, small networks where there are few nodes on the segment. Hubs do not control the broadcasts nor do they filter collision domains on the network. If higher bandwidth is required, use 100 Mbps hubs. When the lang/lit number of nodes on the network grows, move to switches. With the cost of switch ports comparable to hotel essay hubs, use switches as the basic network connectivity devices on the network.
Switches reduce collisions and resolve media contention on the network by providing a collision domain per port. Replace hubs with switches if the utilization is over 40 percent on Ethernet networks or above 70 percent on liverpool Token Ring and hotel manager essay FDDI networks. Paper Fibre Research Institute. Switches cannot resolve broadcast characteristics of protocols; use routing to resolve protocol-related problems. As you can see in the sample in hotel, Figure 4-21, the repeaters are pushed to the outer layer of the design, connecting to switches. Switches control the liverpool collision domains. Fast Layer 3 switches are used for hotel manager, routing between LAN segments, and the router provides access to the WAN. Figure 4-21 Combining Routers, Switches, and Hubs. Use routers for segmenting the network into aqa english coursework, separate broadcast domains, security filtering, and access to the WAN. Manager Essay. If broadcast traffic on essay topics for teenagers the network is over 20 percent, use routing. The CCDA objectives covered in this section are as follows:
Assemble Cisco product lines into manager essay, an end-to-end networking solution. Recommend Cisco products and coursework LAN technologies that will meet a customer#039;s requirements for performance, capacity, and scalability in small- to essay medium-sized networks. Update the network topology drawing you created in thesis, the previous section to hotel manager essay include hardware and tma02 media. A CCDA must be familiar with Cisco products, product capabilities, and hotel manager how to dynamics best apply the hotel manager essay products to essay meet performance, scalability, redundancy, and cost requirements. This section lists and explains Cisco equipment for LAN requirements. A complete list of manager Cisco products can be found at the CCO web site.
The FastHub 400 10/100 series is a full line of products that includes 12- and 24-port 10/100 Fast Ethernet repeaters in essay topics, managed and essay manageable versions. The FastHub 400 10/100 series provides low-cost 10/100 autosensing desktop connectivity where dedicated bandwidth is not required. The Cisco 412 provides 12 UTP ports of 10/100 Fast Ethernet. Discursive Essay Topics For Teenagers. The Cisco 424M provides 24 UTP ports of 10/100 Fast Ethernet in a SNMP-managed version. The Catalyst 1900 and 2820 series provide 12- or 24-switched, 10-Mbps 10BaseT ports. Different models provide Fast Ethernet uplinks in 100BaseT and manager 100BaseF media. Different models can keep 1KB, 2KB, or 8KB storage of MAC addresses. The specifications of the various models in these series are presented in Table 4-10.
Table 4-10 Catalyst 1900 and b120 2820 Series Specifications. 12 10BaseT Two 100BaseTX 1KB MAC Enterprise Edition. 12 10BaseT One 100BaseTX One 100BaseFX 1KB MAC Enterprise Edition. 24 10BaseT Two 100BaseTX 1KB MAC Enterprise Edition. 24 10BaseT One 100BaseTX One 100BaseFX 1KB MAC Enterprise Edition. 24 10BaseT Two 100BaseFX 1KB MAC Enterprise Edition. 24 10BaseT Two 100BaseTX 48-volt DC Dual-Feed Power System 1KB MAC Enterprise Edition. 24 10BaseT Two slots 2KB MAC Enterprise Edition. 24 10BaseT Two slots 8KB MAC Enterprise Edition. For higher speeds, the Catalyst 2900 series provides 10/100 ports with Gigabit Ethernet uplinks. Catalyst 2948G offers 48 ports of essay 10/100 Ethernet with two Gigabit Ethernet uplinks.
Catalyst 3000 Series Stackable Switches. The Catalyst 3100 switch is designed for networks that require flexibility and growth with minimal initial investment. This switch contains 24 fixed 10BaseT Ethernet ports, one StackPort slot for scalability, and one expansion FlexSlot for fibre research institute, broad media support. It is designed for a variety of campus LAN and enterprise WAN solutions; the Catalyst 3100 switch fits well in manager essay, a wiring closet and branch office applications. The Catalyst 3200 is a high port density stackable switch chassis with a modular Catalyst 3000 architecture supervisor engine and seven additional media expansion module slots. The expansion slots are backward compatible with all existing Catalyst 3000 media expansion modules. The seventh slot, called FlexSlot , is an lang/lit expansion slot that accepts either a standard Catalyst 3000 expansion module or new doublewide expansion modules providing forward and backward investment protection. The 3011 WAN access module for hotel, the Catalyst 3200 and Catalyst 3100 provides WAN interconnect integrated with the switch backplane.
The 3011 WAN access module was the first FlexSlot module to be introduced. Based on the Cisco 2503 router, the 3011 provides two high-speed serial ports, an ISDN BRI port, and an auxiliary (AUX) port. Catalyst 3900 Token Ring Stackable Switch. The Catalyst 3920 switch provides 24 Token Ring ports. Liverpool. With the Catalyst 3920 switch, you can start with a single 24-port switch and add capacity as you need it, while still managing the entire stack system as one device. Catalyst 3500 10/100 Autosensing Switch. The Catalyst 3500 XL architecture is manager essay, designed to meet the technical requirements of autosensing 10/100BaseT Ethernet interfaces. Business Plan Risk. Autosensing enables each port to self-configure to the correct bandwidth upon determining whether it is connected to a 10- or 100-Mbps Ethernet channel.
This feature simplifies setup and configuration and provides flexibility in the mix of 10 and 100 Mbps connections the essay switch supports. Network managers can alter connections without having to replace port interfaces. Each Catalyst 3500 XL comes with two or eight Gigabit Ethernet gigabit interface connector (GBIC) ports. Customers can use any of the following IEEE 802.3z-compliant GBICs based on team essay their connection needs: 1000BaseSX, 1000BaseLX/LH, or the Cisco GigaStack stacking GBIC. Manager Essay. These GBIC ports support standards-based, field-replaceable media modules and liverpool provide unprecedented flexibility in switch deployment while protecting customers#039; investments. The Catalyst 4912G is a 12-port dedicated Gigabit Ethernet switch featuring high-performance Layer 2 switching and intelligent Cisco OSI network (Layer 3) services for high-speed network aggregation. The Catalyst 4003 offers 24 Gbps of switching bandwidth and provides expansion to 96 ports of 10/100 Ethernet or 36 ports of Gigabit Ethernet. Up to 96 10/100 Ethernet ports, or up to 36 Gigabit Ethernet ports, can be installed into manager, one managed unit. The Catalyst 4000 series provides an advanced high-performance enterprise switching solution optimized for wiring closets with up to 96 users and data center server environments that require up to 36 Gigabit Ethernet ports.
New FlexiMod uplinks support up to eight 100BaseFX riser connections with EtherChannel benefits. The Catalyst 4000 series provides intelligent Layer 2 services leveraging a multiGigabit architecture for 10/100/1000-Mb Ethernet switching. The modular three-slot Catalyst 4003 system leverages the software code base from the industry-leading Catalyst 5500/5000 series to provide the rich and proven feature set that customers demand in the wiring closet for true end-to-end enterprise networking. The Cisco Catalyst 5000 series features modular chassis in 2-, 5-, 9-, and 13-slot versions. All chassis share the same set of line cards and software features, which provides scalability while maintaining interoperability across all chassis. The Catalyst 5002 is positioned to deliver a consistent architecture and features set in a smaller package that addresses the needs of smaller wiring closets. The Catalyst 5002 switches at the 1 Mpps (million packets per liverpool thesis, second) range. The Catalyst 5002 is essay, a fully modular, two-slot Catalyst 5000 series member, using the same architecture and b120 tma02 software as the Catalyst 5000.
The switch can deliver more than one million packets per second throughput across a 1.2-Gbps, media-independent backplane that supports Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, FDDI, Token Ring, and ATM. The Catalyst 5000 will continue to address the needs of hotel switched 10BaseT and group switched wiring closets with performance in the 1#150;3 Mpps range. The Catalyst 5505, a five-slot chassis like the Catalyst 5000, is designed for a high-end wiring closet and data applications with performance in the 1#150;25 Mpps range. Business Plan Assessment. The Catalyst 5505 combines the size of the original Catalyst 5000 with the performance boost and essay added features of the Catalyst 5500 series. The Catalyst 5509 supports high-density 10/100 Ethernet for aqa english lang/lit, the wiring closet, or high-density Gigabit Ethernet for hotel essay, backbone applications, delivering over team dynamics essay 25-Mpps switching performance. The Catalyst 5509 provides dedicated switching for up to 384 users, making this chassis an essay ideal platform for liverpool, wiring closet solutions. The Catalyst 5509 also supports high-density Gigabit Ethernet for switched intranet backbones and data centers. The Catalyst 5500 is the most versatile switch in hotel manager, the Catalyst family, able to support LightStream 1010 ATM switching or Catalyst 8500 Layer 3 switching line cards in addition to all the Catalyst 5000 family line cards. The Catalyst 5500 is positioned as a high-capacity wiring closet or data center switch, delivering over business plan 25-Mpps switching performance. The Catalyst 5500 is a 13-slot chassis that is rack-mountable using the rack-mount kit.
All functional components, including power supplies, fan trays, supervisors, ATM switch processors (ASPs), and hotel manager essay interface modules are accessible and hot-swappable from the institute norway network side of the chassis. This setup ensures ease of use in tight wiring closets. Cisco Programmable Fabric Using VXLAN with BGP EVPN By David Jansen, Lukas Krattiger Feb 9, 2016 Cisco Video Surveillance By Brian Morgan, Jason Ball Jan 25, 2016 CCNA Collaboration CICD 210-060 Official Cert Guide: Managing Endpoints and End Users in CUCM By Michael Valentine Nov 9, 2015. 2017 Pearson Education, Cisco Press . All rights reserved. 800 East 96th Street , Indianapolis , Indiana 46240.