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Criminology/ Boot Camps term paper 18534. The questions put forth in this research paper are: whether participants in juvenile boot camps receive the services prescribed for them, what impact juvenile boot camps have on recidivism rates, what benefits juvenile offenders derive from boot camps, and word problems worksheets whether juvenile boot camps are cost effective. Is There Homework In College! Other topics that will arise in the course of this paper are the definition of boot camp, and goals of juvenile boot camps. Responding to increasing juvenile arrests, several states and math problems worksheets localities established juvenile boot camps. Modeled after boot camps for bag book report, adult offenders, the first camps emphasized military discipline and 4th grade math problems physical conditioning. In response to increases in juvenile crime and the high cost of formal lab report template traditional confinement, the number of boot camps for juvenile offenders has grown in the last several years. Concurrently, much has been learned about juvenile boot camps and 4th grade problems worksheets about their effectiveness as an intermediate corrections option. In other words are boot camps maximizing their chances of developing an effective program to help steer juvenile offenders back onto aqa a essays the pathway to responsible citizenship(Austin, 1993). A considerable body of thought concerning correctional boot camps has evolved from the inception of the first adult camp in 1983 through the development of the 4th grade problems worksheets, current juvenile camps. Several studies have surveyed the status of boot camps (Parent, 1989; MacKenzie and Souryal, 1991; Austin, Jones, and Bolyard, 1993; U.S. Lab Report Template! General Accounting Office, 1993; Cronin and Han, 1994).
MacKenzie and Hebert's Correctional Boot Camps: A Tough Intermediate Sanction, published by 4th grade math problems worksheets the National Institute of Justice in 1996, provides the most recent comprehensive assessment of the state of boot camps. Certain issues must be considered prior to any indepth discussion of juvenile boot camps. These issues include: A definition of boot camp. The goals of is there homework juvenile boot camps. Findings from evaluations of adult boot camps (American Correctional Association, 1995). A definition of boot camp
The very use of the term boot camp and 4th grade worksheets its connotations are still being debated. Retailing! The media tend to focus on the confrontational element of boot camps -- the element that juvenile practitioners like the least. Dr. MacKenzie, who has been studying adult boot camps since 1987, holds that defining the word worksheets, term boot camp has been a major issue and remains one. Her 1991 survey of adult boot camps (MacKenzie and Souryal, 1991) found some common boot camp characteristics, including: A military-style environment. Separation of boot camp participants from 2008, regular prison inmates when they are housed in 4th grade problems worksheets collocated facilities.
The participants' perception that boot camp is an alternative to a longer term of confinement. Some hard labor (MacKenzie, 1991). The most noteworthy finding from Dr. MacKenzie's survey, however, was that boot camp programs differ widely, particularly with regard to in college, the amount of time participants spend in therapeutic activity and in the aftercare they are provided (MacKenzie, 1991). The definition of boot camps given by OJP in 1995 is:
Participation by nonviolent offenders only (to free up space in traditional facilities for violent felony offenders, i.e., those who have used dangerous weapons against another person, caused death or serious bodily injury, or committed serious sex offenses). A residential phase of 6 months or less. 4th Grade Math Worksheets! A regimented schedule stressing discipline, physical training, and work. Participation by inmates in appropriate education opportunities, job training, and substance abuse counseling or treatment. Provision of aftercare services that are. coordinated with the program that is provided. during the homework in college, period of confinement (Office of Justice Programs, 1995). OJP has encouraged the consideration and development of innovative program delivery in this initiative, including designs that are in addition to or other than the military model (Office of 4th grade word problems Justice Programs, 1995), such as the Outward Bound model, environmental reclamation projects, and community service. The program guidelines also identify six key components to maximize the effectiveness of research juvenile boot camp programs: Education and job training and placement. Substance abuse counseling and word problems worksheets treatment. Health and in college mental health care. Continuous, individualized case management. Intensive aftercare services that are fully integrated with the camp program (OJP, 1995).
Therapeutic elements notwithstanding, the term boot camp implies a military environment. The OJP program guidelines require a regimented schedule. Dr. Hamburg pointed out that although juveniles can benefit from the 4th grade math word, structure and discipline of the formal lab report template, boot camp model, the different branches of the U.S. 4th Grade Worksheets! armed services provide different kinds of basic training, and there is an array of military and nonmilitary models to english outline, borrow from in word problems designing the most appropriate boot camp model (OJP, 1995). The goals of juvenile boot camps. Parent addressed the issue of goals for juvenile boot camps. He identified five commonly expressed sentencing goals for adult boot camps:
Cost control (Parent, 1995). Of these, rehabilitation and cost control are the goals cited most often by correctional practitioners and policymakers. Is There In College! The object of rehabilitation, Parent said, is to achieve some reduction in ?further criminality, either by changing an offender's attitudes and values, perhaps leading to some behavioral change, or by addressing some of the math word, personal deficiencies or problems that are believed to be linked to criminal activity (Parent, 1995), such as lack of education, substance abuse, and/or lack of economique social skills. Thus far the research on the effect of 4th grade problems rehabilitation in boot camps has been inconclusive. English Thesis Statement Outline! Similarly, few hard data are available on cost, although it is known that adult boot camps cost as much as traditional prisons per inmate per day. Parent stated that his simulation model has demonstrated that four conditions must be met to 4th grade problems worksheets, reduce costs: The target population must be confinement bound. The boot camp population should not be selected by judges, but by correctional officials, who would choose juveniles for boot camp from among those who have already been sentenced to or confined in a facility.
The term of confinement must be cut significantly. However, this condition for cutting costs is easier to implement in aqa a level an adult facility than in a juvenile facility, because adults usually receive longer sentences than juveniles. Program failures must be minimized. 4th Grade Worksheets! There are several ways to do this: Minimize voluntary dropout rates. Orientation should give potential participants a very clear understanding of what to expect in the boot camp so that they are not surprised. Minimize expulsions. Participants should be given more chances for successful completion.
This can be accomplished by level essays establishing graduated sanctions and by allowing participants to repeat the program (recycle). Minimize post-release failure. 4th Grade Math Word Worksheets! The recycling option should again be available. In addition, support should be provided through a long-term, support-oriented aftercare component. Levels of dissertation crise economique surveillance during aftercare should be linked to specific risk factors and, therefore, should vary among program graduates. The boot camp must have a large capacity.
If substantial reductions in the confinement population are planned to reduce costs, large-scale boot camps are needed (Parent, 1995). Parent stated that currently there are two boot camp models -- treatment and population reduction and that it is difficult to accomplish the aims of both models simultaneously. The population reduction model, which emphasizes cost control, would be difficult to replicate for juveniles because they generally serve much shorter sentences than adult offenders. Rehabilitation, therefore, may be the word, only logical goal in opening a juvenile correctional boot camp. Findings from evaluations of adult boot camps. Dr.
MacKenzie's study of Multisite Evaluation of Shock Incarceration (MacKenzie and Souryal, 1994), was conducted in eight States and involved young male offenders between the ages of 19 and 21 who had been referred from the ? adult court system. According to Dr. MacKenzie, the lab report template, most surprising finding of the evaluation was that in each of the 4th grade math word problems worksheets, boot camps studied, regardless of the amount of therapeutic treatment, all participants who completed the program were more positive about their experiences than were offenders in a traditional prison setting. She also found that programs lacking in therapeutic components were working to add them to the boot camp regimen (MacKenzie, 1994). Some evidence indicated that the rate of recidivism declined in programs where offenders spent 3 or more hours per day in therapeutic activity and had some type of aftercare or intensive supervision after release. However, the finding of differences in recidivism came from an bag book report, exploratory analysis. In general, the MacKenzie and 4th grade math word worksheets Souryal evaluation found similar recidivism rates for crise, those who completed boot camps and comparable offenders who spent long periods of time in prison (MacKenzie, 1994). The selection of boot camp youths.
Even if, as Parent suggests, the primary goal of 4th grade math worksheets juvenile boot camps ought to be rehabilitation, the cost-control argument for targeting confinement-bound youth is a valid one (Parent, 1995). Dr. Altschuler, who has found that most juvenile boot camps are being used as an alternative to probation, raised another reason for targeting confinement-bound youth for boot camp rather than those who receive probation. According to Altschuler, research has demonstrated that low- or moderate-risk juvenile and adult offenders who are subjected to high levels of supervision (as in a boot camp program that includes a structured aftercare component) actually do worse than those left on traditional probation (Altschuler, 1992). It is thesis, therefore important to distinguish between juveniles who should be placed on math problems worksheets probation with minimal supervision and those who need more supervision. This caution touches on lab report another issue related to selection: net widening. Judges may find appealing the math problems, option of assigning a youth to boot camp rather than to some other available intermediate sanction. The result may be confinement of a youth who previously would not have been confined.
Under these premises, the formal lab report, final effect is actually an increase in the number of youth who are confined and 4th grade math word problems thereby an increase in cost. Lab Report! There is 4th grade word, also the issue of the high percentage of minority youth (as many as 80 percent) among those who are confined in boot camps. This can be attributed to the fact that boot camps typically serve urban areas with a high percentage of minority youth. Often, however, the boot camp model fails to connect with this population (Altschuler, 1992). Boot camp design. In addition to size, another consideration concerning the boot camp's physical environment is whether it is located in a general population facility or is a stand-alone camp. In the english thesis statement outline, adult system, general population facilities collocate the inmates of medium- or maximum-security prisons with adult boot camp inmates. The housing is word problems, separate, however, and the common areas of the facilities are used by adult boot camp inmates and adult prison inmates at different times. Stand-alone adult boot camps avoid this operational concern.
Separation from more hardened prisoners protects the boot camp inmates from a higher level of contraband and physical violence. Staffing also benefits because potential conflict between the boot camp staff and the prison staff of a collocated facility -- for example, conflict arising from the promotion or demotion of a prison staff member versus a boot camp staff member -- is thesis statement outline, eliminated in math problems a stand-alone facility (Parent, 1996). Aqa A! In a paper delivered at OJP's 1995 technical assistance workshop for applicants seeking funding under the Corrections Boot Camp Initiative, Parent stated that there is no empirical evidence to support one type of facility over another in relation to the impact on an offender's development (OJP, 1995). He does, however, cite certain perceived advantages of each type of facility. For example, the advantages of worksheets locating a boot camp in a general population facility include cost savings derived from sharing infrastructure, goods, and services with the prison. Crise Economique! In addition, it is problems, easier to recruit and replace boot camp staff, because they do not have to move to a new community. Because of concerns about harmful influence and physical violence, the collocation of an aqa a, adult prison or boot camp with a secure juvenile boot. camp requires adherence to statutory separation requirements as implemented by 4th grade word problems worksheets OJJDP rules (U.S. Department of Justice, 1996): Juveniles must be separated from incarcerated adults by architectural or procedural means that prevent sustained sight or sound contact. Retailing! Brief and 4th grade worksheets inadvertent or accidental sight or sound contact is only considered to be a violation if it occurs in a secure area that is dedicated to use by lab report template juvenile offenders, including any residential area (Parent, 1996). 4th Grade Word Problems! The best model to induce behavioral change. The basic premise of the military boot camp model is that the military atmosphere acts as a catalyst to dissertation, facilitate changes in offenders' behavior.
The military atmosphere, however, may vary widely, from a confrontational model to 4th grade worksheets, a developmental one. The only conclusion that can be largely agreed is that a confrontational model is counterproductive to changing juvenile behavior. Dr. Marty Beyer, a psychologist experienced in dissertation 2008 improving the effectiveness of 4th grade math word problems services to english thesis statement outline, delinquents. Three things known about adolescent development, she said, should be considered when designing any program for youth: Adolescents are fairness fanatics. Running any adolescent group care program is difficult because adolescents are very sensitive to anything they perceive as unfair, particularly anything that applies to word, the whole group. Adolescents reject imposed structure and assistance.
Adolescents respond to encouragement, not punishment. Bag Book Report! Although they may change their behavior to avoid punishment, their attitudes and behaviors do not change in response to punishment (Andrews, 1990). The implications of these three factors are that youth will defend themselves against what they see as unfair, regardless of the motivation of the adults who are caring for them, and will reject what may be offered as assistance because they do not recognize the providers of that assistance as being part of their support system. Dr. Beyer suggested that this rejection of assistance is positive. It is the way youth have survived poverty and adverse conditions. If this natural inclination is subdued, it will undermine the very survival technique that has allowed these youth to make it this far (Andrews, 1990).
According to Dr. Beyer, delinquents change their behavior when services are based on strengths and needs. If youth are only math word problems worksheets offered what adults think they need, they will not accept assistance (Andrews, 1995). Effective services will help youth set up their own notions of what they need and then make it possible for them to meet their needs through nondelinquent behavior. The services developed should be based on the individual strengths of the youth. It must also be asked whether juvenile boot camps, in both their residential and aftercare components, meet common needs of is there in college youth, such as the need to be competent at something, to feel a sense of belonging, to feel in charge (especially for those who have been victims of math word discrimination and research papers abuse), and to feel a connection to their families. Dr. Beyer reiterated that punitive programs driven by imposed structure, group practices, and services that are not individually tailored to each young person's strengths and concepts of his or her own needs will not be effective, no matter what they are called (Andrews, 1990). The confrontational model is problems, full of potentially abusive situations and is antithetical to level biology essays, the development of the kind of healthy, productive relationship with an adult that a youth needs to develop maturity (Andrews, 1990).
The suitability of boot camps for introducing therapeutic intervention was questioned, and problems worksheets it was also pointed out that the confrontational model is difficult, if not impossible, to monitor. Bag Book Report! However, although the adult boot camp model may not work for juveniles, it was noted that adolescents do like structure and want some structure in their lives. Therefore, it is 4th grade math word, clear that there is a need to develop other models, particularly in urban areas. Suggestions included the biology essays, following: Models that incorporate mentoring and job skills. Models such as Outward Bound, which has been successful in challenging youth individually in neighborhoods such as Washington Heights in NewYork City. Models with varying goals and structures that could meet a wide range of adolescent needs. Such models would especially integrate the residential and aftercare phases of the boot camp experience, so that goals, treatment methods, and programming would be the same for both phases. Coordination with all levels of the aftercare agencies during the math word, planning and execution of the residential phase would partially ensure this desired continuity (Andrews, 1990). Aftercare is the last phase before total release from juvenile court supervision.
Dr. Altschuler asserted that reintegration into the community is the level essays, key to boot camp success. Continuity between the residential and aftercare phases of the boot camp experience is paramount (Altschuler, 1994). In general, proper reintegration requires adequate funding for problems, both the boot camp and aftercare programs, management that is coordinated throughout the aqa a biology essays, entire program, and graduated sanctions and incentives. 4th Grade Math Word! The Intensive Aftercare Program (IAP) model of Altschuler and Armstrong, described in Intensive Aftercare for homework in college, High-Risk Juveniles: A Community Care Model (1994), stresses overarching case management as fundamental to successful reintegration. Overarching case management helps the offender move from the residential phase to the aftercare phase. The IAP model divides case management into five components: Assessment, classification, and selection criteria. Selecting youth at the highest risk of recidivism requires appropriate assessment and classification measures.
These measures give weight to justice system factors, such as age at first offense, and to need-related factors, such as substance abuse. 4th Grade Word Problems Worksheets! The accuracy of the measures chosen is bag book report, directly related to the success of other design choices: for example, staffing levels, the size of the inmate population, and the boot camp as a whole. Individual case planning incorporating family and community perspectives. Individualized case planning should address how the special needs of the math problems worksheets, youth are linked to his or her social network (e.g., family, close friends, and peers in general) and community (e.g., schools, workplace, church, training programs, and specialized treatment programs). To ensure continuity from the residential phase to retailing papers, the aftercare phase, an aftercare counselor should be involved from the. beginning of the residential phase.
At a minimum, contact between the counselor and the offender should be made before discharge from the residential phase. A mix of intensive surveillance and services. Because justice system factors accompany need-related factors in the average offender, successful aftercare must strike a balance between surveillance and services. Worksheets! Neither one alone will suffice. Services should be tailored to the individual -- for example, continuing drug treatment for the substance abuser. Surveillance should exceed the old purpose of simply jailing recidivists by identifying impending recidivism and, ideally, reversing it through rewards and graduated sanctions. A balance of incentives and graduated consequences coupled with the imposition of realistic, enforceable conditions. Positive reinforcement can induce healthy behavioral change. On the other hand, overly burdensome parole conditions can undermine healthy change or even contribute to recidivism -- from a psychological effect or merely from increased contact with those who record acts of economique recidivism. Service brokerage with community resources and linkage with social networks.
The workload that results from trying to create better conditions and from the growth of boot camp populations makes it. impossible for the aftercare counselor to succeed without help. Service brokerage with community resources and linkage with social networks is critical. Worksheets! Service brokerage helps to meet the needs for job training and education, among others. Linkage with social networks helps to heal those common divisions exhibited by formal template high-risk youth in the areas of family relationships, peer relationships, and school (Altschuler, 1994). At this point in their development, boot camps do not appear to 4th grade math problems, be the crise economique, panacea that many hoped they would become. Nonetheless, boot camps do appear to offer certain practical advantages and future promise that warrant continued testing and examination. As an intermediate sanction, boot camps are a useful alternative for offenders for whom probation would be insufficiently punitive, yet for whom long-term incarceration would be excessive. As such, under certain conditions, boot camps can free bed space for more hardened offenders, thereby reducing the financial burden on correctional budgets.
Future research must focus on the kinds of questions that have been raised here to provide the 4th grade math problems, information needed to enable the english statement, justice system to maximize the benefits of boot camps as an intermediate corrections option. The next section describes ongoing Federal support for the implementation and evaluation of boot camp programs. Altschuler, D.M., and T.L. Armstrong. 1994. (September). Intensive Aftercare for math worksheets, High-Risk. Juveniles: A Community Care Model. Program Summary. Outline! Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and.
Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. Altschuler, D.M., and T.L. Armstrong. 1994. (September). 4th Grade Word Problems! Intensive Aftercare for economique, High-Risk. Juveniles: Policies and Procedures.
Program. 4th Grade! Summary. Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice. and Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice. Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. Altschuler, D.M., and T.L. Armstrong. 1992 (June).
Intensive Aftercare for High-Risk Juvenile. Parolees: A Model Program Design. Homework! Baltimore, MD: Institute for Policy Studies, The Johns Hopkins. American Correctional Association. 1995. Standards. for Juvenile Correctional Boot Camp Programs. Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and. Delinquency Prevention, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice.
Andrews, D.A., I. Zinger, H.D. Hoge, J. Bonta, P. 4th Grade Word Problems! Gendreau, Beyer, M., and F.T. Homework! Cullen. 1990. Does Correctional. Treatment Work? A Clinically Relevant and. Psychologically Informed Meta-analysis.
Armstrong, T.L., and D.M. Problems! Altschuler. 1993. Intensive Interventions With High-Risk Youths: Promising Approaches in Juvenile Probation and. Parole. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press. Austin, J.M., M. Jones, and M. Bolyard. 1993. Is There Homework! (October). The Growing Use of Jail Boot Camps: The. Current State of the Art.
Research in Brief. 4th Grade! Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of. Brame, R., and D.L. MacKenzie. 1996. Shock. Incarceration and Positive Adjustment During.
Community Supervision: A Multisite Evaluation. In. Correctional Boot Camps: A Tough Intermediate. Sanction, edited by D.L. MacKenzie and E.E. Hebert. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of. Castellano, T.C.
1995. Enhancing the Evaluation. Outcomes of retailing research Innovative Boot Camp Programs. Progress report presented to the National Institute. of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice, September 27, 1995. Cronin, R., and M. Han. 4th Grade Word Worksheets! 1994.
Boot Camps for Adult. and Juvenile Offenders: Overview and Update. Research Report. Washington, DC: National Institute. of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. Gransky, L.A., T.C.
Castellano, and E.L. Cowles. 1995. Is There a `Second Generation' of Shock. Incarceration Facilities?: The Evolving Nature of. Retailing Research! Goals, Program Elements, and 4th grade problems worksheets Drug Treatment. Services in retailing research Boot Camp Programs. In Intermediate. Sanctions: Sentencing in the 1990's, edited by word problems J. Smykla and W. Selke. English Statement! Cincinnati, OH: Anderson. Publishing Company, pp.
89-112. Greenwood, P., E. Deschenes, and J. Adams. Word Problems Worksheets! 1993. Chronic Juvenile Offenders: Final Results from retailing research, the. Skillman Aftercare Experiment. Santa Monica, CA: The RAND Corporation. Institute for math word problems, Criminological Research and American. Institutes for Research.
1992 (September). Boot. Camps for Juvenile Offenders: Constructive. Intervention and Early Support -- Implementation. Evaluation. Washington, DC: National Institute of. Is There Homework! Justice, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice.
Krisberg, B. 1991 (July). Juvenile Intensive. Supervision Program Model, Operations Manual and. Guide. Special report submitted to problems, the Office of. Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office. of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. Little, G., and K. Robinson. 1994.
Cost-effectiveness, Rehabilitation Potential, and. Safety of Intermediate Sanctions: Mixed Results. Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment Review 3(1):4-7. MacKenzie, D.L. 1993 (November). Boot Camp Prisons. in 1993.
National Institute of Justice Journal, MacKenzie, D.L., and E.E. Hebert, eds. 1996. Template! Correctional Boot Camps: A Tough Intermediate. Sanction. Washington, DC: National Institute of. Justice, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. Word Worksheets! MacKenzie, D.L., and J.W. Shaw. 1990.
Inmate. Adjustment and Change During Shock Incarceration: The Impact of Correctional Boot Camp Programs. Justice Quarterly 7:125-150. MacKenzie, D.L., and C. Souryal. Is There Homework In College! 1994. Multisite. Math Word Problems Worksheets! Evaluation of Shock Incarceration.
Washington, DC: National Institute of 2008 Justice, Office of 4th grade word problems Justice. Programs, U.S. Department of aqa a Justice. MacKenzie, D.L., and C.C. Souryal. 1991 (October). Boot Camp Survey: Rehabi Alitation, Recidivism. Reduction Outrank Punishment as Main Goals.
Corrections Today 53(6):90-92, 94-96. Marlette, M. 1991. Math Word Problems Worksheets! Boot Camp Prisons Thrive. Retailing Research! Corrections Compendium 16(1):1-12. Office of Justice Programs. 1995. Fiscal Year 1995. 4th Grade Math Word Worksheets! Corrections Boot Camp Initiative: Violent Offender. Incarceration Grant Program. Program Guidelines and. Application Information.
Washington, DC: Office of. Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. Parent, D.G. 1996. Boot Camps and Prison. Crowding. In Correctional Boot Camps: A Tough. Intermediate Sanction, edited by D.L.
MacKenzie and. E.E. Hebert. Washington, DC: National Institute of. Justice, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. Parent, D.G. Bag Book Report! 1995.
Planning a Bootcamp: An Overview. of Five Critical Elements. Paper presented at the. 4th Grade Problems! Office of Justice Programs Boot Camp Technical. Assistance Workshop, Atlanta, Georgia, April 1, Parent, D.G. Thesis Statement! 1994. Boot Camps Failing to Achieve. Goals. Overcrowded Times 5(4):8-11.
Parent, D.G. 1989. Shock Incarceration: An Overview. of Existing Programs. Washington, DC: National. Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. 4th Grade Math Word! Department of Justice. Word Count: 4063. Our writers are all Uni graduates able to work effectively on any level under time constraints. Well-versed in most subjects and citation styles, our writers have years of ghostwriting experience doing both academic and professional projects. Every paper is written from scratch based on your instructions and there is formal lab report, no plagiarism of any kind.
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Part 8 - Examples of Good and Bad Writing. Learning to write often works best by 4th grade math word example. The following are excerpts from nine first-year student essays. Aqa A Level Essays? Most of the examples are bad, although I did find a two good examples in the bunch. In most cases, the names and dates from the 4th grade word, essays have been changed to formal lab report template not compromise the subject matter for future students (in other words, don't use any of the apparent research information here in your papers). I have tried to word problems worksheets categorize the errors as best as I could. Errors or bad portions are usually bolded to formal lab report template help you identify them. Smith was a religious, Christian man. His notion of monads included contextual references to God. He believed that God controls the harmony of life through these monads. The essay then goes on to discuss these monads in a Christian context.
Had the student omitted the above sentences, however, the discussion of religion would have been completely out of place, given the essay's topic. But since the person being discussed had religious views that affected his theories and work, it is relevant to mention the religious aspect. Had Smith's religion not been a direct influence on his work, it would have been irrelevant. Similarly, you wouldn't mention other things about someone in word problems worksheets an essay if it wasn't relevant to the topic. For example, it is irrelevant to mention a scientist's race in in college an essay about their discovery unless the race impacted the discovery. Word Problems? An example of this might be if a black scientist's prime motivation to find a cure for sickle cell anemia was because that disease strikes black people in proportionally higher numbers. If the same scientist was researching some aspect of physics, it would probably not be relevant to mention the race at all. An introductory paragraph: On March 4, 1849, John Smith was born to thesis Anna Bradcock Smith and James Smith. Word Problems Worksheets? Although certainly not of humble origins, John was acquainted with several prominent and influential men of formal lab report politics with whom he discussed matters of mathematics, history, science, logic, law, and math word theology.
Smith was brilliant in each of these fields, but he became known particularly for his contributions in the fields of philosophy, mathematics, and logistics. Aqa A Level Biology Essays? This paper will not only shed light on some of Smith's theories and 4th grade math word problems words regarding these three areas, but will also tell of the events in his life that made him the man that he was. This is the introduction to a chronologically-ordered essay about Smith's life and discoveries. As such, the lab report, choice to begin with his date of birth is a good one. The paragraph summarizes the fields touched by Smith and also mentions the key areas he studied. The paper sets up an 4th grade math problems, expectation for retailing papers the reader of both a detailed explanation of Smith's discoveries and anecdotes describing his personality. The sentence structure is grammatically sound and flows well. In the late 1650's , Smith's mother returned to London , she then pulled him out of school with the intent to make him a farmer . Apostrophes indicate possessiveness or contractions, not plurality. The decade is the 4th grade math word problems worksheets, 1650s. The sentence is a run-on.
It should either end after London, beginning a new sentence with She then, or the she then should be changed to and. To make someone a farmer is to create a farmer for bag book report them. The student meant: to turn him into a farmer or to encourage him to be a farmer. Smith invented the widgetiscope and paved the way for future widget watching. All-the-while remaining a simple and humble man who considered himself to be part of a team working for the greater good. The bolded part is not a complete sentence. The entire thing should be one sentence. All-the-while does not require hyphenation.
The two differing approaches of development already described, eventually led to the development of the two original branches of widgetry; fingleish and fnordleish. This sentence is mispunctuated. The comma is 4th grade worksheets confusing and should be removed, and the semicolon should be a colon. Another of Smith's ideas was the lab report template, method of differentiation. The university re-opened after the plague in 1667. Math Problems? Smith was elected to template a minor fellowship, and awarded a major fellowship after he received his Master's Degree (Bogus 4). After the realization that Calculus was important, and math problems worksheets was being recognized, a document to record all of the theories became a necessity. The Methodis Differantium, the in college, document that contained the elements of the 4th grade, theory of differentiation, was created in 1667. English Outline? Smith believed he was being pulled in two directions when it came to math worksheets publishing his theories and making his work known. Is There Homework In College? He felt a need for fame and 4th grade problems fortune, yet on the other hand he had an abundant fear of rejection.
To the dismay of many future mathematicians, it was never published because of Smith's fear of criticism. Since he was not focusing on publishing his work, Smith pursued his career as a professor. This so-called paragraph is an utter mess. There are far too many ideas in it, all of which are strung together haphazardly without any logical flow. I'll try to dissect and rewrite it, but I won't make errors bold because the entire paragraph would be bold if I did. First, let's pick out the different topics being addressed: the method of differentiation the formal, university re-opening after the plague Smith's ascension through the university ranks the need of a document detailing differentiation, which was eventually created Smith's mental state, desires and fears. Now, if we replace each sentence with the number of the corresponding idea, we can see what a jumbled mess this is: 1, 2, 3, 4, 4, 5, 5, 4, 3. Don't introduce a paragraph with one topic and then leap to another topic in the next sentence. Problems Worksheets? While it may sometimes be necessary to mention something as an aside to complement the topic, the return to the topic should be swift and easy to understand.
Don't bounce around within the paragraph as this student has done. Another problem: there doesn't seem to be a coherent timeline within the paragraph. Did the university re-open in 1667, or was the plague in retailing 1667? Is the student saying that Smith was elected to a minor fellowship that year or another year? Similarly, when did the 4th grade math word worksheets, major fellowship and biology essays Master's Degree come in? It's unlikely to have all happened in one year, though it is 4th grade math word possible. The document was created in retailing papers 1667, it seems, but when did Smith decide not to publish and seek work as a professor instead? Also 1667? It sounds like that was a very busy year for poor Smith! The sentences themselves are also awkwardly constructed, making the entire thing hard to understand. I'll make some assumptions regarding the confusing date information.
Here is how this information should have been presented: Smith's ideas on the method of differentiation were gaining recognition in the mathematical community, which made it necessary for him to produce a document detailing all of 4th grade worksheets his theories on the subject. Thus, when the university re-opened in 1667 following the plague and Smith was elected to a minor fellowship, he wrote Methodis Differantium. Although Smith wished to attain fame and fortune, he also feared rejection. This dichotomy resulted in his failure to publish Methodis Differantium; a failure that would be mourned by mathematicians well into the future. Still, Smith was awarded a major fellowship after receiving his Master's Degree in [insert year]. Since he was not interested in publishing his work, he concentrated instead on pursuing a position as a professor.
Queen Esmerelda knighted Jones in 1705 to is there in college be given the title of Sir Joe Smith, which made him the first scientist to be so honored for 4th grade math word his work (Bogus) . The phrase to be given is crise economique 2008 awkward here. It would be better written: Queen Esmerelda knighted Jones in 1705, which gave him the title of Sir. 4th Grade Math Word Worksheets? Who else could be honoured for Smith's work other than Smith? It should say: . which made him the first man to be honored for scientific work. There probably should be a page number listed in the citation.
Jones had a main idea of analytic geometry. What does this mean? Does the student mean that one of Jones' main ideas concerned analytic geometry? Does he mean that one of the main ideas of analytic geometry was conceived by Jones? Or does he mean something else entirely? This makes little sense and is very awkward. Whether Smith made no use of the manuscript from which he had copied abstracts , or whether he had previously invented the widgetiscope, are questions on which at this distance of time no direct evidence is available . If Smith made no use of the manuscript, he can't have used it to copy abstracts. This is a very awkward way of saying that the is there in college, events in question happened so long ago that there is no longer sufficient evidence to answer certain questions.
It would be better written: Questions as to whether Smith made further use of the manuscript from which he copied abstracts or whether he had previously invented the widgetiscope are rooted so far in the past that it is impossible to gather sufficient direct evidence to provide answers. This is still a bit awkward. It's best when broken up into smaller sentences: There are still questions as to whether Smith made further use of the manuscript from 4th grade word problems worksheets which he copied abstracts or whether he had previously invented the widgetiscope. Such questions are rooted so far in the past, however, that it is impossible to gather sufficient direct evidence to provide answers. Smith formed a political plan to try to persuade the in college, Germans to attack the French due to him not agreeing with their political agendas and this proved the means of his visiting Hamburg.
Due to him not agreeing with is a very awkward way of saying: because he disagreed with. The second bolded part should be a separate sentence. Proved the means of his visiting is word a very awkward way of saying is why he visited. Jones explained ideas too enormous to understand, and aqa a biology simplified problems too complex to approach. Not only is this hyperbole, it's also logically impossible. If the ideas were too complicated to understand, Jones couldn't have understood them himself.
If the problems were too complex to approach, Jones could not have approached them. Mismatched Words, Phrases, and Pronouns. After marrying Elizabeth, Smith's father fell ill for word worksheets several months. After no sign of recovery, a lawyer was summoned to research the manor. Math? A will was drawn up, including one hundred acres of aqa a level essays land, the manor house, livestock, grain, and Smith Senior's death (Bogus 10). Math Word Problems Worksheets? His mother gave birth to Smith three months after Smith senior died. He was premature after suffering from biology essays illness due to the shock of her husband's passing during the fall . The phrase after no sign of recovery is not properly attached to Smith's father. Instead, it is math word problems worksheets saying that the lawyer did not recover from something.
A will does not include land, a house, etc. It states to whom such things are bequeathed. This should say: A will was drawn up leaving one hundred acres of land, the manor house, livestock and grain to [whomever]. I don't even understand how and lab report template Smith Senior's death fits into this sentence. His in the sentence His mother gave birth. refers to the antecedent Smith Senior. Thus, Smith Senior's mother gave birth to Smith Senior's son. That would necessitate incest, and is clearly not what the student meant to say.
They should have simply said Elizabeth gave birth. Problems Worksheets? Who else but someone's mother gives birth to them anyway? Given the confusions regarding the various Smiths, it would have been better if the student had used first names during this part of the english thesis outline, essay. There is inconsistency in capitalization. It is Smith Senior once, and Smith senior another time. The he in he was premature again refers to the wrong antecedent. Smith Senior was not premature. Smith did not suffer illness due to the shock of Smith Senior's passing. Elizabeth did.
This sentence says that Smith suffered the illness. The student suddenly introduces the phrase during the fall when no other mention of the season has been made. Worksheets? This could be confused with Smith Senior dying from a fall. Lastly, the inverse relationship between area and the tangent were never attained. The relationship is singular, even though it refers to multiple elements. English Statement? Thus, the verb were should be singular as well, and changed to was. It was this century where many of the 4th grade math word, worlds most honorable and highly respected mathematicians created what we know today as calculus. A century is not a place, it is a section of time. Say it is a place where. or a time when. Lab Report Template? In this case, It was this century when. Adding an problems, 's' without an apostrophe in this case is pluralization, not indicative of formal possession.
The student means world's. But perhaps the largest obstacle , which the Greeks could not overcome, were their insufficient number and measuring system . Were is plural, but obstacle and system are singular. It should be was. Tragically at the age of six, Smith's father died. This says that Smith's father died at the age of six. The student means: Tragically, when Smith was six years old his father died. Jones, now familiar with Smith's discoveries, wrote Smith a letter soon after the publication of his discoveries.
After the publication of whose discoveries: Jones' or Smith's? Jones reasoned that if he could calculate the angles of the math word, projected colour, a new law of is there in college refraction could be made . People can make legal laws, but natural or scientific laws are discovered. To make a new law of refraction, Jones would have to alter physics. During the seventeenth century, the inhabitants of England did not realize the importance of scientific advancement. Inhabitants could well mean non-human creatures, and is thus a poor choice of a word. Are we to understand that ALL of the people in England failed to realize the importance of scientific advancement for an entire century?
It would have been better if the student had said most people in England. At the current time, the dominant belief was that light traveled in problems worksheets wave . The current time is the bag book report, moment the reader is reading the sentence. The student meant to say that the word worksheets, belief was such during the historical time period being discussed. Crise 2008? Current should be omitted. Math Word Worksheets? The phrase in wave has an error.
It should either be in waves or in formal template a wave. Word Worksheets? Both may be correct, but such an retailing papers, error can be misunderstood if one is 4th grade word worksheets incorrect. This would likely have been caught if the student had read the paper out loud. Secondly, Jones' reliance on aqa a geometric algebra rather than symbolic notation created considerable impedance to the identification of solutions of computational features found frequently to different problems. Here is an example of a student not knowing the proper meaning of a word.
Impedance means opposition to the flow of electric current. It does not mean the same as to 4th grade word impede, which is to be an essays, obstacle. Math Problems? This could be an instance where a student used the thesis statement, thesaurus in 4th grade math problems worksheets a word processor to come up with a word without bothering to check if the lab report template, word fit the context. It could also simply be that the 4th grade math worksheets, student had mislearned the word themselves. Incidentally, a quick check of MS Word 97 shows synonyms to impedance to be obstruction, block, baffle, hindrance, breakwater, fin, and maze. So here is direct proof that you shouldn't always trust what a word processor thesaurus tells you is an equivalent word.
Be diligent and is there homework in college look up unfamiliar words in the dictionary before using them in your essay. In studying widgetry, it serves as great importance that one is aware of the two systems of widgetry; fingleish and fnordleish. Something does not serve as great importance, and one being aware doesn't fit either. This is a student trying to sound fancy but instead making no sense. Word Worksheets? The sentence should read: In studying widgetry, one should be aware of the two systems of widgetry; fingleish and is there fnordleish.
It was thought that Jones hated his stepfather and his mother, partly for math word problems abandoning him at such a young age. Who thought so? This entire statement, which implies something that cannot be proven and is thus not a basic fact, had no attribution in the essay. Since it was about bag book report someone historical and the student couldn't possibly have known this unless they got it from a source, it was plagiarism to include it without attribution. Smith managed one friendship through this time and the value of that is 4th grade word problems worksheets always questioned.
Who is questioning the bag book report, value? There is no attribution to 4th grade math word explain who questions it or to prove that it is dissertation 2008 questioned by anyone other than the student. What precisely is being questioned? The value of only math problems having one friend, or the value of the bag book report, one friendship to Smith in math problems worksheets particular? . which means that the cut in the # of points is equal to the degree of the formal lab report, curve. Using the math word, # symbol instead of the word number is a bad short cut, and certainly inappropriate for retailing papers a formal essay. Smith also helped to improve the scientific community ; his focus was mainly regarding widgetry. How does a focus on a subject help to improve a community? It might improve the math problems, understanding of the subject in the community, but does that improve the is there homework, community itself? This is 4th grade math word problems a badly worded assertion.
If it truly did benefit the scientific community as a whole, the economique 2008, student should cite a source demonstrating that to 4th grade problems worksheets be the case. No attribution was present. In one day, John's attitude towards school changed for is there homework in college the better. A boy ranked just above him kicked him in 4th grade math worksheets the stomach. Is There Homework In College? At the end of the day John challenged the boy to a fight. 4th Grade Math Problems Worksheets? Even though John was much smaller than his opponent, his determination overtook the boy.
Winning the fight was still not enough. John applied himself in class, and soon became the top student in the school. This entire paragraph introduces an anecdote for the purpose of explaining what drove John to become a better student. Incredibly, it manages to completely fail to mention the relationship between the anecdote and John's new-found classroom enthusiasm. The relationship is implied and the reader can guess that John wished to beat the boy in more than just a physical fight, and thus worked hard to outrank the research, boy in the classroom, but that is not stated. The paragraph is very choppy and the sentences do not flow well.
Read it out loud, and you'll hear how it sounds like a grade school book instead of a university essay. During this time, Smith constructed a water clock. He constructed the clock out of an old box. This is choppy. It could be easily combined into one sentence. Jones became began to study motion.
This error was probably due to a sentence that once legitimately contained the word became being edited without became being removed. Word Problems Worksheets? If the student had read the essay out homework, loud or given it to 4th grade math word a friend to read, this error likely would have been noticed. Yet, in 1679, Jones would discover that his initial calculation the Moon's distance from economique 2008 Earth was incorrect. Here is another example of a simple error of word problems omission that could have been caught if the student had read the essay aloud or given it to a friend to read. The word of should be between calculation and the. That one small error makes the entire sentence awkward and confusing. If the instructor has to reread the sentence to research try to 4th grade understand its meaning, the flow of the essay is interrupted. If this happens often enough in retailing research papers the essay, it gives an 4th grade word worksheets, overall bad impression on what otherwise might be a very good paper in terms of bag book report research. More examples of errors that could have been caught if the students had bothered to read their essay:
One of Smith's main contribution was his use of. Widgetry emphasized the notion of the infinite widget, which in fact cam as a great service to 4th grade math word Smith in that it served as an dissertation economique 2008, important too in helping explain his branch of widgetry. Jones might have in fact perputuated the problems, ideas, but he was also at a loss when he could not make good sense of them from the beginning. Admiration for Smith grew in the filed of widgetry. With Jones' encouragement, Smith drafter a number of level monographs on religious topics. Smith considers out universe to be a gravitational system. On August 10, 1777, Jones was ent a letter from. In later research , it was proven that Jones was incorrect and science rejected his theories about math worksheets light until the next century. Thus, it was scientifically proven that Jones' theories about quanta (tiny particulate packets of energy) were indeed correct . The wave formulation was also correct . When was this later research? Who performed the research? In discussing whether someone was proven incorrect or not, it is a good idea to fully explain who did the proving when, and possibly even how they came to their conclusion.
These sentences contradict each other. Was Jones proven incorrect or correct? Does the student mean that Jones was erroneously proven incorrect, but science later found that he was correct after all? Or was Jones correct about some things and not others? The use of Thus implies causality. How does the proof that Jones is incorrect and the rejection by science suddenly become scientific proof of research his theory being correct? Regardless of what the student meant by math the flip from incorrect to correct, there is nothing given to establish causality. It's disappointing to see such sloppiness as this in an essay. This particular essay featured clipart, so it was obviously done on a computer with a modern word processor. It clearly wasn't spell-checked.
Such complete disregard is automatically indicative of a student who doesn't care about their final product, and while the error itself is english outline minor, it gives a bad impression to the grader. In fact, this essay had several spelling errors that could have been caught. That's inexcusable at 4th grade word problems worksheets the university level. It was also during this time that he traveled to his uncle's place in Brunswick. Place is colloquial. Use home, apartment, residence or other such appropriate word instead. Smith attempted to obtain his doctorate of law degree at the University of Anytown but was denied because positions were being held for the older students -- and Smith was much too young. Smith's secretary claims that he was told many times, however, that Smith was denied admission because of retailing research papers negative feelings that the math worksheets, Dean's wife held for him.
Smith's secretary is probably dead, since this essay is about someone from the 19th century. Formal Template? Therefore, they no longer claim anything. It should be past tense. Since the student doesn't cite this, there is an implication that perhaps the math word problems worksheets, secretary is bag book report not dead and the student went so far as to interview the math word problems, secretary personally. That is, of course, quite unlikely, meaning that this student has plagiarised this information from aqa a essays one of their sources. The following are a few concepts that form the basis of Leibnizian calculus: [followed by three bulleted paragraphs comprised mostly of direct quotation]
Using bullets in a formal essay is rarely appropriate. It is preferable to write out the bulleted information into proper paragraph form. This student seems to have been too lazy to bother paraphrasing a bunch of direct quotations into math a formal essay structure. Along came the bag book report, Joe Smith, a mathematician considered by numerous scholars to be a pioneer of calculus, including other renowned mathematician, Bill Jones. The Joe Smith? There has only been one? The student means another, not other. Math Problems Worksheets? Sloppy. The first page of the essay starts with: have been developed (5). The second page starts with the header Introduction and the opening paragraph.
Clearly, the biology, student stapled the pages out of order. What a sloppy mistake! Pages should be numbered unless you're specifically instructed not to for some reason, and you should always ensure that all of the problems, pages are present and in proper order before binding the economique, essay. 4th Grade Word? If the instructor has to begin by figuring out what the aqa a level biology essays, heck is going on, they will automatically have a bad impression of your essay and possibly of 4th grade word worksheets you. Jones was quite a busy man in that along with his position in is there homework in college the Court of Mainz, he also managed to serve as Baron Johann Christian von Boineburg as secretary, librarian, lawyer, advisor, assistant, and most importantly, friend. Quite a busy man is 4th grade word problems a bit colloquial. A busy man would do.
The first as is an error, since Jones did not serve as the Baron, he served the Baron. This may have been caught if the crise economique 2008, student had read their essay out 4th grade problems, loud. His Chummy, Bill Jones, who Smith shared a room with until his resignation from this fellowship in 1683. Chummy should only be included if it was Smith's actual word for Jones. If this is the case, it is a quotation from dissertation crise 2008 a source and word worksheets should be cited. Biology Essays? If not, it is colloquial and should just say His friend Bill Jones. Who should be whom in this case. Math Problems Worksheets? A site called Grammar and Style has information on how to use who and whom. This isn't even a complete sentence. Smith was born prematurely and was so small when he was born that they thought he might not live. Repeating that he was born is redundant.
Who does they refer to? Doctors? Parents? Relatives? Townsfolk? It is a pronoun without an antecedent. In this publication, Jones has a discourse between the in college, belief systems of the natural philosophical world around him. Has is the wrong word here because the math, essay is about a person who is research papers now dead. Dead people don't have discourse with anyone in the present, so the word should at least be had. But even had is awkward, and a better word would be wrote. Discourse means to converse, especially orally.
One does not speak orally in a publication. It is written. This word should be omitted. 4th Grade Word? Between denotes at least two participants, but Jones is the aqa a essays, only one having the supposed discourse. This too should be omitted. Natural philosophical world is confusing.
Does the student mean the natural, philosophical world, which would be the world described as both natural and philosophical? Or do they mean natural philosophical world, in which natural modifies philosophical and not world, in which case the grammatically correct phrase would be naturally philosophical world? This would be better written as: In this publication, Jones wrote of the belief systems of the math problems worksheets, natural, philosophical world around him. or, depending on the answer to the fourth point: In this publication, Jones wrote of the belief systems of the naturally philosophical world around him.
He was home for is there homework approximately 18 months, according to Jones the 18 months was the most predominant time period of his life. This is a run-on sentence. Word Problems Worksheets? It should either end between 18 months and according, or it should be rewritten to make it a proper sentence. 18 months is repeated for no reason. 18 months is plural, so it should be 18 months were not 18 months was. Predominant means superior especially in power or numbers. Something cannot be most superior. Most should be omitted. Predominant is not the best word in this case anyway. If the student means it was the most powerful time of Jones' life, they should be clear about that.
If they mean it was the thesis outline, most superior numerical time of 4th grade word problems his life, then he logically cannot have been more than 36 months old. Simpson was content after his ability to reproduce Smith's experiment. Bag Book Report? Jones was not that easy, the two men fought constantly. The student probably means that Simpson was content once he was able to reproduce Smith's experiment. The current phrasing doesn't quite say that, and is awkward and confusing. Jones was not that easy to 4th grade worksheets what? The student probably means Jones was not that easy to satisfy or something equivalent. This is bag book report a run-on sentence.
It should end after easy, or be rewritten to word problems worksheets be grammatically correct. Which two men? Simpson and Jones or Smith and Jones? The information on physics before this section is important to understanding whom Newton was, but arguably, his greatest advancements were in the field of mathematics, most importantly Calculus. Incorrect use of whom. Should be who. Aqa A Biology? A site called Grammar and Style has information on how to use who and whom. There should not be a comma between arguably and his. 4th Grade Math Worksheets? There is no citation as to anyone arguing that Newton's greatest advancements were in mathematics. This might be because it would be difficult to prove in aqa a level biology essays the face of the importance of Newtonian physics.
Advancements is probably the wrong word. Achievements or discoveries would be better. Newton's advancements are more likely to be funds paid in advance of publication. The addition of most importantly is awkward. Particularly would have been a better word. The use of greatest and 4th grade math problems worksheets most importantly referring to homework Calculus is hyperbole. Given that this essay was for a Calculus class, it sounds like a kiss-up. The declarations of superiority are superfluous, unattributed, probably erroneous, and possibly pandering. It's all very ugly. A concluding sentence:
Smith's great work, theories, and studies will continue to live on forever in the ever-changing world of science and math mathematics . How can the student know that Smith's work will live on forever? That's an impossible assertion to make. Work, theories and studies don't live. They exist, but they are not organic creatures. If the thesis, world is ever-changing, how again can the student know that Smith's work won't one day be considered nonsense? Or lost entirely?
World is singular, but it refers to two worlds, one of science and one of mathematics. This conclusion reeks of hyperbole. (So does the math word problems worksheets, phrase reeks of hyperbole, but this is not a formal essay.) A scientist before Smith by the name of Jones knew that he could demonstrate the essays, ration between two infinite sums. The phrasing here is a bit awkward. It would be better phrased: Jones, a predecessor of Smith, knew that. Ration is the wrong word.
The student meant ratio. This is one of those errors that a spell-check cannot find, but if the essay had been read aloud it may have been noticed. One man was proclaiming to be the inventor of the widgetiscope and another man was proclaiming the exact same thing; who is telling the truth? The main problem here is the change in tense. You can't go from was to is if the subject remains fixed in time. Furthermore, it is incorrect to math word refer to someone who is dead as doing anything in the present besides being dead (and possibly rotting).
A dead person is not telling anything right now, but they were in the past. Try to avoid using the passive form was proclaiming and crise economique instead use proclaimed. This particular statement is also bad because of the subject matter. The student has already shown in worksheets the essay that both men happened to independently invent the widgetiscope, but the level biology essays, issue is who deserved the title for 4th grade word problems inventing it first . So actually, neither one was necessarily lying, and the student should not make it appear that one or the dissertation 2008, other may have been doing so. You must be careful not to libel people. The phrasing here is awkward and possibly a bit too conversational in the final question. A better way of writing this would be: Two men proclaimed to 4th grade worksheets be the inventor of english statement outline calculus, but only one could be given the credit. The argument was so drawn out that a decision was not easy to 4th grade math worksheets come by which worked against dissertation crise economique 2008 Smith's favor. Jones had been considered the sole inventor of the math word, widgetiscope for is there homework fifteen years already, which gave him the upper hand. The student meant to say that the duration of the argument caused Smith to lose.
But because the student failed to put the necessary comma between the bolded words, this sentence actually says, by means of a complicated string of multiple negatives, that it was not easy to come to a decision against Smith, meaning he won. This sentence would be better worded this way: Because the argument took so long, Smith lost. But then, at the beginning of the next paragraph, the student writes: The argument took years to unravel and never really came to a definitive decision. This negates what the student had asserted before: that Smith lost because of the duration of the argument. This also repeats the fact that it was a long argument, which is redundant. It was from the Greeks, where the underlying of widgetry emerged and word worksheets set the papers, basis of what widgetry has become. The Greeks are a people, not a place, so things come from whom, not where. The comma in this sentence should not be there. It sets up an expectation that the portion after the 4th grade problems, comma is a separate clause, as in: It was from the Greeks, who also invented blodgetry, that widgetry came forth.
Note that because the who is in the separate clause, it should not be whom. The underlying what ? You can't just say the underlying of widgetry. Bag Book Report? It has to be the underlying something of widgetry, whether that something is basis, foundation, etc. Although there was a time of intellectual heightening , there came a period of darkness in the development of mathematics (Ewards 45) . Intellectual heightening is an icky, awkward phrase. Intellectual development would have been much better. In going over this old essay, I wondered if perhaps this was a typo of the name Edwards. I checked the 4th grade math word problems worksheets, bibliography to bag book report confirm the name, and discovered that nothing by Ewards, Edwards, or any similar name was there at all. Had this gone noticed when the paper was being graded, serious questions would have been raised as to the validity of the student's sources and bibliography.
Be sure to list all sources in 4th grade math word worksheets your bibliography, and be sure to spell them correctly when citing! One motive of Sumerian algebra was to is there in college impose on themselves a concepts that they could not fully understand and precisely compute, and for this reason, rejected concepts of irrational as numbers, all traces of the infinite, such as limit concepts, from their own mathematics. Motive applies to Sumerian algebra, not Sumerians. Therefore, that motive cannot be imposed on themselves. It should be written: One motive of the Sumerians concerning their algebra was to impose on themselves. 4th Grade? although that is aqa a still an awkward phrase. Concepts should not be plural. This is math word sloppiness that probably could have been detected if the student had bothered to retailing papers read over worksheets, his essay. The sentence should end after compute. A new sentence should begin, For this reason. The word they should be put between reason and formal lab report template rejected to say: For this reason, they rejected concepts. This sentence is math word problems worksheets so garbled with mismatched subclauses that adding another is just icky.
I'd put such as limit concepts in parenthesis, or rewrite the sentence to bring that idea out on its own. If Greek rigor had surmounted their need to thesis succeed in 4th grade math word problems these elements and refused to lab report use real numbers and limits till they had finally understood them, calculus may have never formed and 4th grade math word problems worksheets mathematics as a whole would be obsolete (Apostal 102). The verb refused applies to Greek rigor, not Greeks, which is nonsensical. Be careful to ensure that your verbs match the aqa a essays, subject you intend for them. Don't use till when you mean until.
That's colloquial at 4th grade math worksheets best, and not really a proper use of the word at all at worst. The proper phrase is have never been formed. To say something never formed begs the question: What didn't it form? Even though there is dissertation crise a citation for this extreme declaration that mathematics as a whole would be obsolete, it's still probably hyperbole. I wonder if the source actually said that, or if the student's paraphrasing has overstated the source's point that mathematics might be different without the advent of calculus. Be careful that you don't paraphrase in such a way as to 4th grade worksheets claim a source said something that they did not. If this source really says mathematics would be obsolete without calculus, it's a bad source. Such a statement would render even basic arithmetic and counting as obsolete, which is ridiculous. Essentially , it is english outline a case of Smith's word against a number of 4th grade math word problems suspicious details pointing against him. He acknowledged possession of a copy of part of one of Jones' manuscripts, on retailing research more than one occasion he deliberately altered or added to important documents before publishing them, and math word a material date I none of his manuscripts had been falsified (1675 had been changed to 1673) (Bogus, 78)
Essentially isn't technically incorrect here, but students do have a tendency to use words like essentially and basically too often. It's somewhat conversational, and possibly colloquial. Try to avoid it unless something is truly essential. A number of suspicious details pointing against dissertation crise 2008 him is an awkward way of saying: suspicions of his guilt. But what the student means is not suspicions, but points of evidence. 4th Grade Math Worksheets? When you list several examples of something you've indicated, the way to punctuate it is as follows (note the placement of the is there, colon and subsequent semicolons): [Point being made]:[proof 1];[proof 2];[proof 3]; and[proof 4]. This way each proof can have punctuation such as commas without being confused with other points, and each proof still points to 4th grade problems the main part of the sentence. This entire thing should be rewritten to say: It is a case of Smith's word against the evidence of his guilt: he acknowledged possession of a copy of Jones' manuscripts; on more than one occasion he deliberately altered or added to important documents before publishing them; and his manuscripts had been falsified by changing 1675 to 1673 (Bogus, 78). After quoting a dictionary definition:
The editors of the famous dictionary are probably unaware of the statement, fact that they have just committed a cardinal sin in math problems the mathematical world , in that they only described fingleish widgetry, and failed to formal template include an explanation of fnordleish widgetry. It's okay to question a source, and at higher levels of education it might even be required. But if you're going to do it, be careful to do it well and with evidence. Word Worksheets? This just sounds presumptuous. Crise Economique 2008? The student has not shown whether or not the worksheets, dictionary has separate definitions for widgetry or otherwise accounts for its apparent lack of sufficient definition. Aqa A Level Biology? Saying the dictionary is famous is probably unnecessary, and possibly hyperbole. A cardinal sin is math problems a sin of fundamental importance. In the Judeo-Christian context, this would mean something very bad, like murder. Aqa A? Thus, calling a disagreement in 4th grade math worksheets definition in dissertation 2008 a dictionary a cardinal sin is definitely hyperbole. Even if it was a cardinal sin, the sin was committed in the dictionary, not in the mathematical world.
The student meant against the mathematical world. It is surprising how people could be satisfied such a vague definition, as was the case in 4th grade math word problems Webster's Dictionary, on a subject that has tested such great minds for centuries upon centuries . It is surprising how students could be satisfied with such drivel in their essays. That sounds nasty, doesn't it? That's because it is. Sentences like this are insulting and dissertation crise economique 2008 off-putting, and worksheets don't belong in a formal essay. Papers? Such great minds requires an example. The word such should be omitted. Centuries upon centuries is redundant. Just say centuries and word problems leave it at that. Jones' first object in Paris was to formal make contact with the French government but, while waiting for such an opportunity, he made contact with mathematicians and philosophers there, in particular Davis and math word problems Myers, discussing with Davis a variety of topics but particularly church reunification (Bugle 57).
An object is a thing. Dissertation Economique 2008? The student means Jones' first objective. This is a bad run-on. It should be broken up like this: Jones' first objective in Paris was to make contact with the French government, but while waiting for an opportunity to do so, he made contact with mathematicians and word worksheets philosophers such as Davis and essays Myers. Problems? He discussed a variety of topics with Davis, particularly church reunification (Bugle 57). Smith's contribution to math has helped our society become more technological in building things . In this particular case, Smith made many contributions, not just one. Math is the colloquial version of mathematics. Did Smith's contributions only help our society? What about other societies? More technological in building things is bag book report a really awkward way of saying improved our technological aptitude.
Undoubtedly, Jones was one of the greatest geniuses that ever lived and this paper will demonstrate that, starting from his childhood until his death . Smith may have been a genius, but to blow that up to one of the greatest geniuses that ever lived is hyperbole. Even if it is true, the paper didn't demonstrate it because the paper didn't compare Smith to other great geniuses that have lived. The paper showed that Smith was a genius, perhaps, but not his rank amongst all of the math, geniuses that have ever lived. If you start from something, you go to or follow through to lab report another something. 4th Grade Word? The phrase starting from his childhood until his death actually means you're starting from the section of economique time inclusively between his childhood and death and not saying where you're going.
Furthermore, the paper does not start from Smith's childhood because it was not being written when Smith was a child. The student means, starting with his childhood and following through to his death. That is still awkward, and the sentence would be best written: Undoubtedly, Jones was a genius, and this paper will demonstrate that by examining his entire life. So John lived for seven years with his mother's parents who did not really show him any affection . So in this context is colloquial and should be omitted.
This really should be cited. Word Problems Worksheets? John's address may be a matter of public record and therefore doesn't have to be cited, but comments on level essays the emotional quality of the household imply research, and the student should give credit to the source. Really is 4th grade word worksheets colloquial, and should be omitted. While at Cambridge, Smith's genius was most productive in research his dedication to math . Who is Smith's genius? The student means Smith's intellect, but an intellect cannot be productive. It facilitates productivity, but it is 4th grade math word worksheets not productive itself. A better way to write this would be: Smith's intellect was best displayed in his dedication. Math is colloquial.
It should be mathematics. This information helps us to retailing research understand how we, as humans stay on the ground; we are matter as well and do have an invisible force weighing us down as we push against it and problems worksheets it pushes back against us . Formal Lab Report Template? This hand full of knowledge has helped our scientist understand our universe of heavenly bodies and their movement. It has also allowed scientist to delve further in exploring our galaxy. Does gravity only affect humans? Granted, the student is trying to make the science seem more personal, but this is an awkward way of doing it. It is also something that seems to indicate an essay geared to children. Problems? While you should usually write essays so they can be understood by laypersons, you can assume those laypersons are your age and intellectual peers. The description of the invisible force is aqa a essays very awkward. A better wording would be: do have an invisible force that we push against as it pushes back against word problems us. Gravity does not, in fact, weigh people down. The student's own definition of it earlier in the essay mentions this, and here too it is accurately described as a push, not a pull.
To add in bag book report the bit about it weighing us down is contradictory. The student means handful. This is a bad description anyway, since the student is trying to show how this knowledge is monumental to scientists. Both instances of scientist should be pluralized. One delves further into something, not in it. The Royal Society always had someone coming in each week they met to show off their invention . Always had someone coming in is colloquial and worksheets awkward. It should say: The Royal Society hosted a guest each week. The second part of this is research papers a separate sentence and should be capitalized and punctuated accordingly, or else brought into the first sentence with appropriate conjunctions. 4th Grade Word Problems? Show off is retailing colloquial.
Demonstrate would be better. Since more than one invention was demonstrated, invention should be plural. A concluding paragraph: Jones was a great man who made an impact in all of our lives . He is word problems recognized as one of the centuries brilliant-minded people who helped to aqa a level essays further math along. This intellectual man has created something which has and will be used for years to 4th grade math problems come. Dissertation 2008? This is an important part of history which will and should never be forgotten. The essay has shown that Jones was brilliant and invented some useful things. It has not, however, demonstrated that he was a great man. A great man is one that embodies greatness in all things, including attitude, relationships with others, and their contributions to their society. Jones may have been all of this, but the essay did not reflect it, so it is hyperbole to declare it in the conclusion. It is also a highly subjective comment; what makes someone great to one person may not for another.
Centuries is the plural of century, not the possessive. The student means century's. But Jones was not of our current century, so the student should define which century they mean. Impacts are made on, not in. If by 4th grade math word all of us the is there homework in college, student means everyone on the planet, this is incorrect. Jones' contributions to mathematics hardly impact the word, life of someone living in dissertation economique a non-literate, non-industrialized society. 4th Grade Problems? Even if the student merely means her peers, it is lab report still hyperbole to declare that everyone has been impacted. If you're going to 4th grade word problems worksheets mention that the person did something in your conclusion, mention what that something is. While it is unlikely that Jones' history will be forgotten, the student cannot effectively predict the future in this way. Some of in college these comments may seem nitpicky, but the fact of the matter is errors such as these reflect poorly on you and your essay.
No one is math problems worksheets perfect, and an essay with one or two awkward phrases won't be marked down just for those instances. But an formal template, essay that is full of the errors listed above prevents the reader from understanding the content. Math Word? If the aqa a essays, instructor doesn't know what you mean, they can't possibly give you a good grade. Last updated in 4th grade word problems worksheets February 2005. Copyright #169 2000-2005 Kimberly Chapman. Retailing? All rights reserved.
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Very Short Stories for High School Middle School. If your students are struggling to get into the short story, or you're pressed for time, here are some very brief stories to get you started. They're not as short as Hemingway's famous six-word story ( For sale: baby shoes, never worn. ), but they're manageable even for reluctant readers. Most are under 2,000 words; I've included an approximate word count where I could. These stories offer a complete reading experience with great economy of words. Looking for Short Stories on a Particular Subject or Theme?
Visit Short Story Guide to find the right one. The Story of an Hour | Kate Chopin. A woman is given the news that her husband has been killed in a railroad accident. In the math problems worksheets, next hour, she experiences a range of emotions as she contemplates her life. The Secret Life of Walter Mitty | James Thurber. A passive and put-upon man has a series of daydreams while driving his wife on her weekly errands. The Use of Force | William Carlos Williams. A doctor makes a house call on a sick young girl. She has hidden the severity of dissertation economique 2008, her symptoms and resists the examination. A mother imparts advice to her daughter on how to behave and how to be a woman.
This is a prose/poem hybrid; it’s one long run-on sentence. Miss Brill, a middle-aged woman, takes her weekly Sunday walk in the park to observe and listen to people. She overhears some remarks that upset her routine. Lather and 4th grade math word worksheets, Nothing Else | Hernando Tellez. An armed man enters a barbershop for a shave. The barber recognizes him; they are on opposite sides of some kind of political conflict that has turned violent.
He has to decide what he will do with this opportunity. Luck | Samuel Langhorne Clemens (Mark Twain) An English military captain wins all his campaigns and continues to advance his career despite blundering at every turn. A young man buys a love potion, but is economique 2008 surprised to find it only costs a dollar. The merchant sells another product at a much higher price to make up for it. A king wants the 4th grade math word, answers to what he considers to be the dissertation crise economique 2008, three most important questions. His experience with a wise hermit gives him the answers he seeks. A woman recounts the time she spent in the country with her lover and realizes that he viewed the same events differently. A Continuity of math word worksheets, Parks | Julio Cortazar. A man resumes reading a novel that he had started a few days earlier.
It’s about thesis outline lovers who are plotting against math word, the woman’s husband. The man who's reading becomes immersed in the story. A scientist on formal lab report template, a deserted island conducts experiments to try to increase the intelligence of a rat. Egbert tries to 4th grade worksheets, break the ice with his wife whom he had argued with earlier. English Thesis Statement Outline. She doesn’t respond to his efforts. There are several witty lines in this brief story. One of These Days | Gabriel Garcia Marquez. A corrupt mayor goes to an unlicensed dentist for treatment of an abscessed tooth. The dentist refuses to 4th grade math word worksheets, help and they have a hostile exchange.
This is papers about an old man. The entire story is only 100 words long, so there's no need for me to say anything else about it. Old Man at the Bridge | Ernest Hemingway. An old man sits at the side of a country road during the Spanish civil war. Everyone is fleeing the area, and although he has already traveled 12 kilometers, he is too exhausted and distracted to math word, continue.
In a monologue, a teacher relates all the experiences with death that his class had one year. This story is written in a conversational style. It’s humorous and research papers, easy to math problems worksheets, read. A man tries to get an extension on his mortgage payments. His family waits for english thesis, him on the front porch, eager to know if the house will be lost. Home is math problems a chapter from the novel Maud Martha , but it has often been anthologized as a short story. Allison, thirty-five, and her husband Clark, seventy-eight, carve pumpkins in the evening until one o'clock the next morning. This story has a bit of a twist ending.
It packs a great deal of english thesis statement, meaning into few words, and would allow for a lot of discussion. In a train carriage in math word problems Italy during WW1, several passengers talk about their sons who have been sent to war. They argue over who among them feels the research, most grief. Some of the themes in War include sacrifice, patriotism, and intellectualizing our emotions. My Lucy Friend Who Smells Like Corn | Sandra Cisneros. A young girl admires her friend Lucy and math word problems worksheets, wants to formal lab report template, be around her all the time and math problems, be just like her. This story deals with friendship, identity, and Hispanic culture. Popular Mechanics | Raymond Carver. A man is packing his suitcase to leave home for good.
He and his wife have an argument that escalates quickly. This is an example of a minimalist story, stripped down and without judgment, leaving readers to interpret for themselves. Michael Obi is appointed headmaster of an African school. He and his wife are eager to modernize it and formal lab report template, educate the locals, ridding them of 4th grade math word problems, their superstition. Obi restricts access to the school grounds even though the use of a path running through is is there homework in college very important to local religious beliefs. The Death of a Government Clerk | Anton Chekhov. While at the opera, a government office manager sneezes, accidentally spraying the word problems worksheets, man in retailing research papers front of him, a fellow office manager. He apologizes profusely but isn't satisfied that the matter is closed. While in his front yard, a man gets the feeling that something terrible is about to happen.
He tries to figure out math what to do. Read Grace Period (scroll down to dissertation crise economique 2008, exercise 2J; 690 words) A Conversation From the Third Floor | Mohamed El-Bisatie. A woman goes to the outside of a prison to try to speak to her incarcerated husband. What I Have Been Doing Lately | Jamaica Kincaid. The narrator answers the door but finds no one there. After looking around, she takes a dreamlike walk. I couldn't find an online version, but there's a download available of the story with background information.
Just search the title and author name and math word problems, include the word cabarrus. Papers. It's a PDF that should be the first result. (1,375 words) On Discovery | Maxine Hong Kingston. Tang Ao, a Chinese explorer, discovers The Land of Women. He is captured and problems, has a physical transformation inflicted upon him as a prerequisite to meeting the queen. This story can be read as an allegory for the experiences of Chinese immigrants in America.
It could also represent the treatment of Chinese women or women in general at formal, different times. They're Made Out of 4th grade math worksheets, Meat | Terry Bisson. Speaker #1 reports that they've discovered a planet where all the inhabitants are entirely made of meat. Speaker #2 is english statement outline confused; he wants to locate the beings who sent out the radio signals, not meat. This in an all-dialogue story, amusing but also with the possible theme of isolation. A husband and wife are doing the dishes together when the 4th grade problems, question of interracial marriage arises.
They have different views on the subject. The husband wants to drop it but the wife wants to talk it out. The Zebra Storyteller | Spencer Holst. A Siamese cat learns to level essays, speak Zebraic. When he speaks to Zebras in their own language, they are stunned; the cat takes the 4th grade word worksheets, opportunity to tie up the zebras and kill them. This short fable illustrates the function of the storyteller. The narrator reports for duty to Commander Savitsky, leader of a Cossack Division of the Red Army.
The narrator is educated, weak, and Jewish; he knows he won't be readily accepted by bag book report the soldiers. He has to find a way to fit in. A marshal handcuffed to a prisoner boards a train and sits across from a beautiful woman. She recognizes the marshal and they catch up with each other. Marc and Alice are out for 4th grade math word worksheets, supper when he sees his ex-wife seated nearby.
They talk about his ex and their new happiness. Someone tries to tell a traditional fairy tale but is constantly interrupted by crise economique the listener who objects to all the cliched and politically incorrect elements. The announcement of a new headmaster puts a female teacher in a haze. He had been her private tutor many years ago and 4th grade math word, had taken advantage of the relationship. Marta, a nineteen-year-old, lets herself fall off a skyscraper balcony after looking at the rich, important people in the city. She doesn’t fall in real-time; she has interactions on the way down and sees others falling as well. The Oval Portrait | Edgar Allan Poe. The injured narrator seeks shelter in an abandoned mansion. There are many paintings with an accompanying book that describes them.
The narrator focuses on bag book report, a painting of a young woman and looks up the story of when she modeled for the portrait. Ethel and Rupert have five sons. Skipper is the youngest son, and Ethel wants to keep him from his father’s world, the world that claimed her other four sons – working at the mill, getting drunk, and abusing his family. A Letter to God | Gregorio Lopez y Fuentes. Lencho is a hard worker who has experienced misfortune.
He is confident that this year's crop will be excellent because rain is 4th grade math word coming. It rains and hails too much, ruining the crop, prompting Lencho to english thesis statement, write a letter. This story has a humorous ending. While out walking, a young woman suddenly changes her course and goes into the Shandar Cloth Store. She quickly enters the show window, removes the mannequin, and strikes its pose. Early every Friday morning, rabbi Nemirov vanishes. His followers wonder where he goes and math problems worksheets, what he does.
One of them decides to find out for sure. Important Things | Barbara L. Greenberg. Children are pestering their parent to tell them about the dissertation crise 2008, Important Things. Math Problems Worksheets. When they get a bit older, the parent imparts some advice, but the children aren't impressed with it. The Golden Kite, the Silver Wind | Ray Bradbury. A city is surrounded by a wall shaped like an orange. The leader finds out that the neighboring city, Kwan-Si, is going to build a wall shaped like a pig. Since a pig can eat an orange, the citizens are worried that their city will suffer and Kwan-Si will prosper. His daughter suggests that he consult with the city’s stonemasons and builders to dissertation economique, come up with a plan. This story is an allegory for the cold war.
The narrator works at a reformatory for worksheets, young boys in Johannesburg. He likes to make small connections with his charges and ask about their families. One boy, Ha'penny, tells a story about homework his family that motivates the narrator to look into his background. A rich Englishman and 4th grade problems worksheets, his daughter are sailing in pursuit of his hobby, collecting ancient blue china, when the ship catches fire and sinks. Retailing Research. His daughter gets left behind, but is rescued at math problems worksheets, the last minute by dissertation crise 2008 a young sailor.
The Man in 4th grade word worksheets the Brown Coat | Sherwood Anderson. A historian writes while his wife works around the biology essays, house and goes about her daily routine. Math Word. The man is comfortable with books and writing, but there is distance between him and his wife. In ancient China, Emperor Yuan is relaxing when a servant excitedly gives him the news that a man was seen flying with wings. The Emperor enjoys simple things, and this amazing development makes him think about his people’s safety and way of life.
This parable could illustrate resistance to change or a desire to hold on to power. The Spirit of Giving | Maxine Chernoff. A woman sends her sister an Eskimo calendar, but she doesn't like it. She also buys earmuffs for biology, a friend, but he doesn't like them. 4th Grade Math Problems. She tries to papers, choose gifts with more care. The Japanese Quince | John Galsworthy.
Mr. Nilson feels a bit peculiar. He takes a walk in the nearby gardens. Math Problems Worksheets. He sees his neighbor, which makes him feel awkward because they have never spoken. A man completes a circuit that connects all the supercomputers of outline, all the inhabited planets of the universe – all ninety-six billion of them. In ten years of taking evening walks, Leonard Mead has never met up with another person; it's common for math word, everyone to stay inside and watch television. He is spotted by the police and approached.
The Awful Fate of Melpomenus Jones | Stephen Leacock. Melpomenus is a clergyman who has trouble saying goodbye after visiting people. Before his vacation starts, he visits a couple for tea. He is persuaded to statement, stay much longer than he wanted. This is math problems worksheets a humorous story. So What Are You, Anyway? | Lawrence Hill. Carole, a young girl, is on retailing papers, a plane by herself going to see her grandparents.
The couple seated by her start asking about her background. Bill and 4th grade math, Ruthie are on a road trip. Bill finds her conversation simplistic; she refuses to argue anything. Barbarita goes to the doctor so she can get her green card approved. Her friend Mima comes with her to biology essays, translate. It doesn't go smoothly. A local despot proclaims that all aged people are to be put to death. A poor farmer prepares to let his mother die in a humane way – by math problems bringing her to a mountain and leaving her there. The Sheriff locks up Jim in the town jail. Lots of people come by to get the in college, details, asking him if it was an accident.
He keeps saying his daughter was hungry, and she had been a lot lately. A man returns to his campsite with freshly-picked blackberries. His wife starts talking about being out of milk, and of a theater tour in New York. He talks about frying up some cattails and other things they can do where they are. An English professor's father is math word worksheets enrolled in thesis outline his class. He feels his father had been hard on him so he returns the favor by giving him a C. Judson and 4th grade problems worksheets, Mabel Webb are preparing to leave their mountain cottage for the winter to return to bag book report, the city.
When they left last winter, someone broke in and stole some of Judson's liquor. He expects the 4th grade math word worksheets, thief to return, so he prepares a surprise. A young girl is attending Catholic school her first year in the United States. She learns some English words, eventually becoming aware of the communist threat. In the bag book report, year 2157 Tommy finds a real book. It is about how school was in the old days.
He and Margie talk about how different school used to be with human teachers. The Far and the Near | Thomas Wolfe. An express train passes by a cottage on the outskirts of a town for over a twenty year period. On each pass the math word, train’s engineer blows the whistle, bringing a woman and her daughter out of a cottage to wave. Aqa A Biology. This means a lot to the engineer. A young girl and her brother find a fish in 4th grade math worksheets a narrow well.
She doesn't know how it got there, and homework, she thinks about how it has been alone for 4th grade math word, so long. The Appointment in Samarra | W. Somerset Maugham. A servant meets Death in a Baghdad marketplace and flees from him. This parable shows it’s impossible to lab report template, avoid death. A two hundred foot high cliff has developed a cavern at its base from “battling” the incoming waves over thousands of years. 4th Grade Word Worksheets. They keep crashing in, and level essays, high tide is approaching. This story has no human or animal characters. The “characters” are the cliff and the waves. A Dead Woman’s Secret | Guy de Maupassant. A dead woman’s adult children, a judge and math word problems worksheets, a nun, sit vigil over her body. They decide to read some of her old letters, which reveals an lab report template old secret.
The narrator remembers a feeling from her childhood when she was unselfconscious about her body and 4th grade math word problems worksheets, appearance. Ivan is known in dissertation his village as a timid, fearful man. When he walks home at night he goes the long way around the cemetery, even though it's cold. One night he is challenged to math word, cross the cemetery. Moved by childhood memories, a man leaves his own affluent neighborhood and goes exploring. He ends up in a seedy area. English Outline. He can't blend in because he's driving a Mercedes. Flash Fiction: Genre Facts, Writing Tips, and Stories. by Linda Crampton 72. Fatal Vows: 8 True Crime Books about word problems worksheets Marriages That Ended In Murder.
10 Best Science Fiction Short Stories of All Time: From the Golden Age to the Modern Era. by Chris Telden 31. Differences Between a Short Story, Novelette, Novella, a Novel. by Syed Hunbbel Meer 47. Horror Story Ideas - Story Writing For Scaring People. by danthemans lm 64. Story Setting Ideas for Writers: Fantastic Places Make for Fantastic Tales. Short Story Analysis Where Are You Going?
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Action Verbs #8212; By Skills Categories. 4th Grade Math Problems! Remember to use the below action verbs when describing your skills and aqa a level essays, accomplishments in a resume or cover letterby doing so, you’ll maximize the effectiveness of 4th grade math word worksheets, your accomplishments, and make potential employers take notice. Thesis! Be sure to use these action verbs in their proper context. Always use action verbs in 4th grade math, the past tense when describing responsibilities and crise economique 2008, accomplishments from a previous job . 4th Grade Math Word Problems Worksheets! Here’s an dissertation economique, example: Trained, led, and 4th grade worksheets, supervised a team of content editors in the development, structuring, and is there in college, writing of online classes. Always use action verbs in the present tense when describing responsibilities and accomplishments in a current job . Remember, these are leads words that start off each descriptive bullet point of math worksheets, a job description. Train, lead, and bag book report, supervise a team of content editors in 4th grade problems worksheets, the development, structuring, and lab report template, writing of math problems, online classes.
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essays film history Doing Film History. Nearly everybody loves movies. We aren’t surprised that people rush to see the latest hit or rent a cult favorite from the video store. Word Worksheets! But there are some people who seek out old movies. And among those fans there’s a still smaller group studying them. Let’s call “old movies” anything older than twenty years. Thesis! This of course creates a moving target. Baby boomers like us don’t really consider The Godfather or M*A*S*H to be old movies, but many twentysomethings today will probably consider Pulp Fiction (1994) to be old maybe because they saw it when they were in 4th grade math worksheets, their teens. Thesis! Our twenty-year cutoff is arbitrary, but in many cases that won’t matter. Everybody agrees that La Grande Illusion from 1935 is an old movie, though it still seems fresh and vital.
Now for the real question. Why would anyone be interested in watching and studying old movies? Ask a film historian, professional or amateur, and you’ll get a variety of answers. For one thing, old films provide the same sorts of insights that we get from watching contemporary movies. Some offer intense artistic experiences or penetrating visions of human life in other times and places.
Some are documents of everyday existence or of extraordinary historical events that continue to reverberate in our times. Still other old movies are resolutely strange. They resist assimilation to our current habits of thought. They force us to acknowledge that films can be radically different from what we are used to. They ask us to adjust our field of view to accommodate what was, astonishingly, taken for granted by people in earlier eras. Another reason to problems, study old movies is that film history encompasses more than just films. By studying how films were made and received, we discover how creators and audiences responded to their moment in history. By searching for social and cultural influences on films, we understand better the ways in which films bear the traces of the bag book report, societies that made and consumed them. Film history opens up a range of important issues in politics, culture, and the artsboth “high” and math word worksheets, “popular.”
Yet another answer to our question is this: Studying old movies and the times in which they were made is intrinsically fun. As a relatively new field of academic research (no more than sixty years old), film history has the excitement of a young discipline. Over the past few decades, many lost films have been recovered, little-known genres explored, and neglected filmmakers reevaluated. Ambitious retrospectives have revealed entire national cinemas that had been largely ignored. Even television, with some cable stations devoted wholly to the cinema of the past, brings into our living rooms movies that were previously rare and little-known. And much more remains to statement, be discovered. There are more old movies than new ones and, hence, many more chances for fascinating viewing experiences.
We think that studying film history is so interesting and important that during the late 1980s we began to math word problems worksheets, write a book surveying the level biology essays, field. Word! The first edition of Film History: An Introduction appeared in 1994, the second in 2003, and the third will be published in spring of 2009. Research Papers! In this book we have tried to word problems, introduce the history of cinema as it is formal template, conceived, written, and taught by its most accomplished scholars. But the book isn’t a distillation of 4th grade math word problems worksheets, all film history. We have had to rule out certain types of cinema that are important, most notably educational, industrial, scientific, and pornographic films. We limit our scope to theatrical fiction films, documentary films, experimental or avant-garde filmmaking, and 2008, animationrealms of filmmaking that are most frequently studied in college courses. Researchers are fond of saying that there is no film history, only film histories. Word Problems Worksheets! For some, this means that there can be no intelligible, coherent “grand narrative” that puts all the facts into place. The history of avant-garde film does not fit neatly into the history of color technology or the development of the level essays, Western or the life of John Ford. For others, film history means that historians work from 4th grade word various perspectives and with different interests and purposes.
We agree with both points. There is no Big Story of Film History that accounts for thesis statement all events, causes, and consequences. And the variety of historical approaches guarantees that historians will draw diverse conclusions. We also think that research into film history involves asking a series of questions and searching for evidence in order to answer them in the course of an argument. When historians focus on different questions, turn up different evidence, and formulate different explanations, we derive not a single history but a diverse set of historical arguments. What Do Film Historians Do? While millions are watching movies at this moment, a few thousand are studying the films of the past. One person is trying to ascertain whether a certain film was made in 1904 or 1905.
Another is 4th grade math word worksheets, tracing the retailing papers, fortunes of a short-lived Scandinavian production company. Another is 4th grade word, poring over a 1927 Japanese film, shot by shot, to find out how it tells its story. Some researchers are comparing prints of an obscure film to determine which one can be considered the original. Other scholars are studying a group of films signed by the same director or set designer or producer. Some are scrutinizing patent records and technical diagrams, legal testimony, and production files. And still others are interviewing retired employees to aqa a biology, discover how the Bijou Theater in their hometown was run during the 1950s. One reason is evident. Most film historiansteachers, archivists, journalists, and word worksheets, freelancersare cinephiles, lovers of cinema. Like bird-watchers, fans of bag book report, 1960s television, art historians, and other devotees, they enjoy acquiring knowledge about the object of their affection.
Movie fans may stop there, regarding the accumulating of facts about their passion as an problems, end in itself. But whatever the pleasure of knowing the names of all the Three Stooges’ wives, most film historians are not trivia buffs. Film historians mount research programs , systematic inquiries into the past. A historian’s research program is organized around questions that require answers. A research program also consists of assumptions and background knowledge. Dissertation Economique! For a film historian, a fact takes on significance only in the context of a research program. Consider this image, from a film of the 4th grade math word worksheets, silent era. A film archivistthat is, someone who works in a library devoted to collecting and preserving motion picturesoften comes across a film that is unidentified.
Perhaps the title credit is dissertation economique 2008, missing or the print carries a title that differs from that of the original film. The archivist’s research program is, broadly, identification. The film presents a series of questions: What is the date of 4th grade math word problems worksheets, production or of release? In what country was it made? What company and personnel made the film?
Who are the statement outline, actors? Our mysterious film carries only the math word, French title Wanda l’espione (“Wanda the Spy”)most likely a title given to it by a distributor. It was probably imported rather than made in Belgium, where the print was discovered. Is There In College! Fortunately there are some clues in the print itself. The lead actress, seated in word, the foreground, is a famous star, Francesca Bertini. Identifying her makes it almost certain that the film is Italian. But Bertini was a star from 1907 into biology the 1930s. Word Worksheets! How can we narrow the dates further? The film’s style helps. The camera points straight toward the back wall of the set, and the actors seldom move closer to the camera than they are seen here. Lab Report Template! The editing pace is slow, and the action is 4th grade problems, staged so that performers enter and exit through a rear doorway.
All these stylistic features are typical of European filmmaking of the mid-1910s. Such clues can be followed up by english thesis referring to a filmography (a list of math word problems, films) of Bertini’s career. A plot description of a 1915 film in which she starred, Diana l’affascinatrice (“Diana the Seductress”), matches the action of the unidentified print. Note that the identification depended on certain assumptions. For example, the researcher assumed that it’s extremely unlikely for a modern filmmaker to bag book report, create a fake 1915 Italian film, just to baffle archivists. (Film historians need not worry about forgeries, as art historians must.) Note, too, that the researcher needed some background knowledge. She had reason to believe that films staged and cut a certain way are characteristic of the 4th grade word problems, mid-1910s, and she recognized a star from other films of the period.
Most historians go beyond identification and tackle broader subject areas. Consider another common situation. An archive holds many films made by the same production company, and english, it also has numerous filing cabinets bulging with documents concerning that company’s production process. Its collection also includes scripts in various drafts; memos passed among writers, directors, producers, and other staff; and sketches for sets and costumes. This is a rich lode of datatoo rich, in fact, for one researcher to tackle. The historian’s problem is now selecting relevant data and salient facts. What makes a datum relevant or a fact salient is the historian’s research program and word problems, its questions. One scholar might be interested in tracing common features of the company’s production process; he might ask something like, “In general, how did this firm typically plan, execute, and market its movies?” Another historian’s research program might concentrate on the films of a certain director who worked for the company.
She might ask, “What aspects of visual style distinguish the director’s films?” Some facts would be central to one program but peripheral to another. The historian interested in the company’s business routines might not particularly care about a daring visual innovation introduced by the director who is the focus of the other historian’s inquiry. In turn, the stylistic historian might be uninterested in how the company’s producers promoted certain stars. Again, assumptions exert pressure on the researcher’s framing of questions and thesis statement, pursuit of information. The company historian assumes that he can trace general tendencies of production organization, largely because film companies tend to make films by 4th grade word worksheets following fairly set routines. The director-centered researcher assumes that her director’s films do have a distinct style.
And both historians would mobilize background knowledge, about homework how companies work and how directors direct, to guide their research. Historians in any discipline do more than accumulate facts. No facts speak for themselves. Facts are interesting and important only as part of research programs. 4th Grade Word Problems Worksheets! Facts also help us ask and answer questions. Film History as Description and Explanation.
Inevitably, a historian needs at least a little information, along with background knowledge and assumptions, to prod her to ask questions. But the historian does not necessarily sift through mountains of facts and level essays, then judiciously ask a question. 4th Grade Math Problems! A historian may begin with a question, and outline, sometimes that question might be better described as a hunch or an intuition or even just an itch. For example, one young historian saw a few of the “anarchic” American comedies of the 1930s and 4th grade problems, noticed that their vulgar gags and absurd situations were very different from the more sophisticated comedy of the period. Suspecting that stage comedy might have been a source, he framed a question: “Might vaudeville and its performance style have shaped these particular comedies of the 2008, early 1930s?” He began to gather information, examining films, reading coverage of the comedians in the Hollywood trade press, and studying shifts in American taste in humor. Problems! The process of research led him to refine his question and to bag book report, mount a detailed account of how comedians introduced a vaudeville aesthetic into sound films but then muted it in accord with Hollywood’s standards of 4th grade math word problems worksheets, taste. 1. Nonhistorians often visualize the historical researcher as a cousin to Indiana Jones, braving library stacks and is there homework in college, crawling through attics in 4th grade math, quest of the template, treasure-lode of documents that overturn popular opinion. Certainly new documentation has a key role to play in historical research.
One scholar gained entry to the long-inaccessible files of Hollywood’s self-censorship agency, the Hays Office, and she was able to put forth a new account of the office’s procedures and functions. 2 Similarly, the increasing availability of films from math word problems cinema’s earliest era has created an entire subfield of cinema history. 3. Still, many research programs rely more on dissertation crise economique asking new questions than on unearthing new data. Problems! Sometimes the research question seems to 2008, have been answered by previous historians, but another researcher comes along and suggests a more complete or complex answer. For example, no historian disputes the math word problems, fact that Warner Bros. was quick to invest in talking pictures in the mid-1920s. For a long time most historians believed that Warners took this risky step because it was on retailing papers the verge of bankruptcy and was desperate to save itself. But another historian with economic training concluded that the evidencewhich had long been publicly available to researcherspointed to a quite different conclusion. Far from facing bankruptcy, Warners was quickly expanding and investing in sound films was part of a carefully planned strategy for breaking into the ranks of the major studios. 4.
Our examples all indicate that the historian’s research program aims to do at math problems worksheets least two things. First, the homework, historian tries to describe a process or state of problems, affairs. She asks What and who and retailing research, where and when. What is 4th grade math worksheets, this film, and level, who made it, and where and when? In what ways does this director’s work differ from that of others? What was the vaudeville comedic style? What evidence is 4th grade problems worksheets, there that a studio was nearly bankrupt?
Who is the actor in this shot? Who was responsible for scripts at this company? Where was this film shown, and homework, who might have seen it? Here the historian’s problem is largely one of finding information that will answer such questions. Accurate description is indispensable for all historical research.
Scholars have spent countless hours identifying films, collating versions, compiling filmographies, establishing timelines, and creating reference works that supply names, dates, and the like. The more sophisticated and 4th grade problems worksheets, long-lived a historical discipline is, the statement outline, richer and more complete its battery of descriptive reference material will be. Second, the historian tries to explain a process or state of affairs. He asks, How does this work? and Why did this happen? How did this company assign tasks, lay out responsibilities, carry a project to 4th grade word worksheets, completion? How did this director’s work influence other films from the dissertation, company? Why did Warners pursue talkies when larger companies were reluctant to do so? Why did some sound comedians adopt the vaudeville comedic style while others did not? The film historian, like a historian of art or politics, proposes an explanatory argument . Having asked how or why, she puts forward an answer, based on an examination of evidence in light of math worksheets, assumptions and background knowledge. In reading historical writings, we need to recognize that the essay or book is template, not just a mass of facts but an argument.
The historian’s argument consists of evidence marshalled to create a plausible explanation for an event or state of affairs. That is, the argument aims to 4th grade worksheets, answer some historical question. Most arguments about film history rely on bag book report evidence. Evidence consists of math word problems, information that gives grounds for believing that the argument is sound. Evidence helps us judge whether the historian has presented a plausible answer to the original question. Film historians work with evidence of many sorts.
For many historians, copies of the films they study are central pieces of evidence. But this data set is partial. Although the cinema is a relatively young medium, invented only a little over english thesis outline a century ago, many films have already been lost or destroyed. For decades, movies were seen as products with temporary commercial value, and companies did little to ensure their preservation. Even when film archives began to be founded in the 1930s, they faced the daunting task of collecting and 4th grade word worksheets, sheltering the thousands of films that had already been made. Archivists had to papers, choose what they could afford to retain.
Moreover, the 4th grade math, nitrate film stock, upon which most films up to the early 1950s were shot and printed, was highly flammable and retailing research papers, deteriorated over time. Deliberate destruction of films, warehouse fires, and the gradual decomposition of nitrate stored in bad conditions have led to 4th grade word, the loss of many titles. Retailing Research Papers! In the frame below, from 4th grade problems worksheets Willy Reilly and aqa a biology essays, His Colleen Bawn , an Irish film from 1918, severe nitrate deterioration has obliterated the most important figures. According to word, rough estimates, only crise economique 2008, about 20 percent of silent films are known to survive. Many of these are still sitting in 4th grade math word problems worksheets, vaults, unidentified or unpreserved due to lack of funds. More recent films may be inaccessible to the researcher as well. Films made in some small countries, particularly in Third World nations, were not made in many copies and did not circulate widely.
Small archives may not have the facilities to preserve films or show them to english statement outline, researchers. In some cases, political regimes may choose to suppress certain films and promote others. Finding reliable copies to study is a major challenge for the historian whose questions center on math word the films. Historians also rely on print sources. These may be published sources, such as books, magazines, trade journals, and newspapers, or unpublished ones, like memoirs, letters, notes, production files, scripts, and english statement, court testimony.
Historians of film technology scrutinize cameras, sound recorders, and other equipment. A film studio or an important location might also serve as a source of evidence. Usually historians must verify their evidence. Often this depends on using the sort of 4th grade math word problems, descriptive research we have already mentioned, such as combing primary documents, checking filmographies and reference works, and the like. The problem of verification is particularly acute with film prints. Films have always circulated in differing versions. In the 1920s, Hollywood films were shot in two versions, one for the United States and one for export.
These could differ considerably in thesis, length, content, and even visual style. To this day, many Hollywood films are released in 4th grade math worksheets, Europe in more erotic or violent versions than are screened in the United States. In addition, many old films have deteriorated and been subject to cutting and revision. Even modern restorations do not always reproduce the original release version. Often, then, the statement outline, historian doesn’t know whether the print she is seeing represents anything like an original, if indeed there can be said to be a single original version. 4th Grade Worksheets! Historians try to be aware of the differences among the versions of the thesis statement outline, films they are studying. The fact that there are different versions can itself be a source of 4th grade problems worksheets, questions. Historians generally distinguish between primary and secondary sources. As applied to film, primary usually refers to sources the dissertation 2008, people directly involved in whatever is being studied. For example, if you were studying Japanese cinema of the 1920s, the worksheets, surviving films, interviews with filmmakers or audience members, and contemporary trade journals would count as primary material. Retailing Research Papers! Later discussions concerning the period, usually by another historian, would be considered secondary.
Often, though, one scholar’s secondary source is another’s primary source, because the 4th grade word worksheets, researchers are asking different questions. Papers! A critic’s 1966 essay about 4th grade problems a 1925 film would be a secondary source if your question centered on the 1925 film. If, however, you were writing a history of dissertation crise 2008, film criticism during the 1960s, the word, critic’s essay would be a primary source. Explaining the Past: Basic Approaches. There are distinct types of explanation in in college, film history. Word Worksheets! A standard list would include:
Biographical history: focusing on an individual’s life history. Industrial or economic history: focusing on thesis outline business practices. Aesthetic history: focusing on 4th grade math problems film art (form, style, genre) Technological history: focusing on thesis statement the materials and machines of film. Social/cultural/political history: focusing on the role of cinema in the larger society. This sort of inventory helps us understand that there is not one history of film but many possible histories, each adopting a different perspective. Typically, the 4th grade math word, researcher begins with an interest in one of these areas, which helps him to formulate his initial question. Nevertheless, such a typology shouldn’t be taken too rigidly. Not all questions the aqa a biology, historian may ask will fall neatly into only one of these pigeonholes. If you want to know why a film looks the 4th grade math worksheets, way it does, the question may not be purely aesthetic; it might be linked to retailing, the biography of the filmmaker or to 4th grade word problems, the technological resources available when the film was made. A study of film genres might involve both aesthetic and cultural factors.
A person’s life cannot easily be separated from his or her working conditions within a film industry or from the contemporary political context. We propose that the student of film history think chiefly in terms of questions, keeping in mind that some interesting questions are likely to cut across categorical boundaries. Explaining the Past: Organizing the Evidence. Finding an answer to a historical question may involve both description and explanation, in different mixtures. The techniques of descriptive research are specialized and require a wide range of background knowledge. For example, some experts on english statement early silent cinema can determine when a film copy was made by examining the stock on which it is printed.
The number and shape of the sprocket holes, along with the manner in which a manufacturer’s name is printed along the edge of the film strip, can help date the print. Knowing the age of the stock can in turn help narrow down the film’s date of math word problems, production and country of origin. Historical explanation also involves concepts that organize the evidence produced by specialized knowledge. Here are some of lab report, them. Chronology Chronology is essential to historical explanation, and descriptive research is an indispensable aid to 4th grade math problems worksheets, establishing the sequence of events. The historian needs to know that this film was made before that one or that event B took place after event A. Retailing Papers! But history is not mere chronology. A chronology stops short of explanation, just as a record of 4th grade problems worksheets, high and low tides gives no hint as to why tides change. English! History, as we have already seen, centrally involves explanation.
Causality Much historical explanation involves cause and effect. 4th Grade Problems Worksheets! Historians work with conceptions of various kinds of causes. Individual Causes People have beliefs and desires that affect how they act. In acting, they make things happen. It is often reasonable to research, explain a historical change or a past state of word problems worksheets, affairs in light of the attitudes or behavior of individuals. This is not to say that individuals make everything happen or that things always happen as people originally intended or that people always understand just why they did what they did.
It is 2008, simply to say that historians may justifiably appeal to 4th grade word problems worksheets, what people think and in college, feel and do as part of an explanation. Some historians believe that all historical explanation must appeal to person-based causes sooner or later. This position is usually called methodological individualism. A different, and math, even more sweeping, assumption is that only individuals, and exceptional individuals at that, have the power to crise economique, create historical change. This view is sometimes labeled the Great Man theory of math word problems, history, even though it is applied to women as well. Earlier generations of film historians, for example, were inclined to formal template, treat D.W. 4th Grade Math Problems! Griffith as the most important figure in the U.S. silent cinema because it seemed that he invented a number of editing techniques that became widespread. More recent historians have developed a counterargument, thanks to thesis statement outline, the greater availability of films by other directors and a more comparison-based method. These scholars claim that Griffith developed certain tendencies that were already present, pushing them to a new level of expression. Moreover, his most original techniques were not picked up by others, so in word worksheets, some respects other directors had more influence on standard editing practice.
As an individual Griffith remains important, but he is probably not the Great Innovator that people once considered him. Group Causes People often act in groups, and at times we speak of the group as having a kind of existence over and above the individuals who compose it. Is There Homework In College! Groups have rules and roles, structures and routines, and often these factors make things happen. We speak of a government’s declaring war, yet this act may not be reducible to more detailed statements about what all the individuals involved believed and 4th grade math worksheets, did. When we say that Warner Bros. decided to adopt sound, we are making a meaningful claim, even if we have no information about the formal template, beliefs and desires of the individual decision makers at the company; we may not even fully know who they were. Some historians assert that any historical explanation must, sooner or later, ground itself in group-based causes. This position is 4th grade worksheets, usually called holism, or methodological collectivism, as opposed to methodological individualism. Several sorts of groups are important to the history of bag book report, cinema. Throughout our book we talk about institutions government agencies, film studios, distribution firms, and other fairly formal, organized groups.
We also talk about more informal affiliations of filmmakers. These are usually called movements or schools, small assemblies of filmmakers and critics who share the same interests, beliefs about cinema, conceptions of film form and style, and the like. The Soviet filmmakers of the 1920sLev Kuleshov, Sergei Eisenstein, V.I. Pudovkin, and 4th grade math word problems worksheets, many othersare a classic instance of a movement. Despite their individual differences, these men held in common a commitment to editing, often disjunctive editing, as central to retailing papers, a movie’s effects on a viewer. Less well-defined cases of a movement would be German Expressionist film of the 1920s, Italian neorealism after World War II, and French New Wave filmmaking during the math word problems worksheets, 1960s. In these instances, the filmmakers often insisted that they shared no consciousness of research, belonging to a movement. Math Problems Worksheets! Still, historians often find common trends in the films, in the production circumstances, and in the local film culture, and these factors justify treating the filmmakers as a group, even if not a full-fledged movement.
Influence Most historians use some notion of influence to explain change. Bag Book Report! Influence describes the inspiration that an individual, a group, or a film can provide for others. Members of a movement can deliberately influence a director to 4th grade worksheets, make a film a certain way, but a chance viewing of a movie can also influence a director. Influence does not mean simple copying. You may have been influenced by a parent or a teacher, but you have not necessarily mimicked his or her behavior. Lab Report! In the arts, influence is often a matter of one artist’s getting ideas from other artists’ work but then pursuing those ideas in a personal way.
The result may be quite different from the initial work that stimulated it. The contemporary director Jean-Luc Godard was influenced by Jean Renoir, although their films are markedly different. Sometimes we can detect the influence by examining the films; sometimes we rely on the testimony of the filmmaker. A body of work by a group of directors may also influence later films. Soviet cinema of the 1920s influenced the word worksheets, documentary director John Grierson. The Hollywood cinema, as a set of films, has been enormously influential throughout film history, although all the directors influenced by it certainly did not see exactly the same films. Influences are particular kinds of causes, so it is not surprising that influences may involve both individual activity and crise economique 2008, group activity.
Trends and Generalizations Any historical question opens up a body of data for problems investigation. Once the historian starts to look closely at the datato go through a studio’s records, examine the films, page through the level, trade pressshe discovers that there is 4th grade word, much more to explore than the english thesis outline, initial question touches on. It’s like looking into a microscope and discovering that a drop of water teems with organisms of 4th grade word problems, confounding variety, all going about very different business. Every historian omits certain material. Papers! For one thing, the historical record is already incomplete. Many events go unrecorded, and many documents are lost forever. Further, historians inevitably select. Word Worksheets! They unweave the tangles of history and create a more coherent pattern. A historian simplifies and formal lab report, streamlines according to the question he is pursuing.
One principal way historians go about such simplification is by postulating trends. Lots of things are going on, they admit, but “by and large” or “on the whole” or “for the most part,” we can identify a general tendency. Most Hollywood films of the 1940s were made in black and white, but most Hollywood films today are in color. On the whole, there has been a change, and we can see a trend toward the increasing use of color film stock between the 1940s and the 1960s. 4th Grade Problems! Our task is to explain how and why this trend occurred. By positing trends, historians generalize. They necessarily set aside interesting exceptions and aberrations. But this is formal lab report template, no sin, because the answer to a question is necessarily pitched at a certain level of generality. All historical explanations pull back from the throbbing messiness of reality. By recognizing that tendencies are “for-the-most-part” generalizations, the scholar can acknowledge that there is word problems worksheets, more going on than she is trying to level essays, explain.
Periods Historical chronology and worksheets, causation are without beginning or end. The child who incessantly asks what came before that or what made that happen soon discovers that we can trace out a sequence of events indefinitely. Historians necessarily limit the stretch of time they will explore, and they go on is there in college to divide that stretch into 4th grade word problems meaningful phases or segments. For example, the aqa a biology, historian studying American silent cinema already assumes that this period within film history ran from about 1894 to around 1929. The historian will probably further segment this stretch of worksheets, time. She might break it down by decade, treating the 1900s, the 1910s, and the 1920s. Retailing Papers! Instead, she might divide it with respect to changes external to filmsay, preWorld War I, World War I, and postWorld War I. Another possibility is creating periods that mark phases in the development of storytelling style, such as 18941907, 19081917, and 4th grade word, 19181929. Every historian marks out periods according to retailing papers, the research program he adopts and the question he asks.
Historians recognize that periodization can’t be rigid: trends do not follow in neat order. It is illuminating to think of the 4th grade problems worksheets, American “structural” film of the early 1970s as a response to the “lyrical” film of the dissertation 2008, 1960s, but lyrical films were still being made well in the 1970s and word, afterward. Bag Book Report! Histories of genres often mark off periods by innovative films, but this is not to deny that more ordinary movies display a great deal of continuity across periods. Rosemary’s Baby (1968) brought Satanic horror into the A-picture realm, but in the years that followed, most horror films continued to be low-budget product. Similarly, we ought not to expect that the history of technology or styles or genres will march in step with political or social history. 4th Grade Worksheets! The period after World War II was indeed distinctive, because this global conflict had major effects on film industries and filmmakers in most countries; but not all political events demarcate distinct periods in is there homework, relation to changes in film form or the film market. The assassination of President Kennedy was a wrenching event, but it had little effect on activities in the film world. Here, as ever, the historian’s research program and central question will shape her sense of the word worksheets, relevant periods and parallel events. Papers! This is, again, one reason that scholars often speak of film histories rather than a single film history. Significance In mounting explanations, historians of word, all arts make assumptions about the thesis statement, significance of the artworks they discuss. We might treat a work as a “monument,” studying it because it is 4th grade math word problems, a highly valued accomplishment.
Alternatively, we might study a work as a “document” because it records some noteworthy historical activity, such as the state of a society at a given moment or a trend within the art form itself. Most historians assume that the films they discuss have significance on any or all of the following three criteria: Intrinsic excellence: Some films are, simply, outstanding by artistic criteria. In College! They are rich, moving, complex, thought-provoking, intricate, meaningful, or the like. At least partly because of their quality, such films have played a key role in the history of math, cinema. Influence: A film may be historically significant by is there homework virtue of its influence on other films.
It may create or change a genre, inspire filmmakers to try something new, or gain such a wide popularity that it spawns imitations and math worksheets, tributes. Since influence is an important part of historical explanations, this sort of is there homework, film plays a prominent role in most histories. Typicality: Some films are significant because they vividly represent instances or trends. They stand in for math word problems many other films of the same type. The three criteria don’t have to combine. An influential film doesn’t have to be excellent or typical, and an excellent film may never exert much influence. The films of Robert Bresson are usually considered exceptionally good, but for a long time they influenced no other filmmaking.
But of course in formal lab report template, some cases the criteria can combine. Math Problems Worksheets! A highly accomplished genre film, such as Singin’ in thesis outline, the Rain or Rio Bravo , is often considered both excellent and highly typical. Many acclaimed masterworks, such as The Birth of a Nation or Citizen Kane, were also very influential, and some also typify broader tendencies. The preface to Film History: An Introduction , third edition, outlines the questions we focus on, but it’s probably worth mentioning them here as well. Although the book surveys the history of world cinema, we could hardly start with the question What is the history of world cinema?
That would give us no help in setting about our research and organizing the material we find. Word Problems Worksheets! Instead, we have highlighted three major questions. 1. How have uses of the film medium changed or become normalized over time? Within “uses of the medium” we include matters of film form: the part/whole organization of the lab report, film. Often this involves telling a story, but a film’s overall form might also be based on an argument or an abstract pattern. The term “uses of the medium” also includes matters of film style, the patterned uses of film techniques ( mise-en-scène, or staging, lighting, setting, and costume; camerawork; editing; and sound). In addition, any balanced conception of how the medium has been used must also consider film modes (documentary, avant-garde, fiction, animation) and 4th grade word, genres (for example, the Western, the thriller, or the musical). So we also examine these phenomena. All such matters are central to most college and university survey courses in film history. A central purpose of our book is to dissertation economique, survey the uses of the medium in 4th grade problems worksheets, different times and places. Sometimes we dwell on the creation of stable norms of form and style, as when we examine how Hollywood standardized certain editing options in formal lab report template, the first two decades of filmmaking.
At other times, we examine how filmmakers have proposed innovative ways of math problems worksheets, structuring form or using film technique. 2. How have the conditions of the film industryproduction, distribution, and bag book report, exhibitionaffected the uses of the medium? Films are made within modes of production, habitual ways of organizing the labor and materials involved in creating a movie. Some modes of 4th grade word problems worksheets, production are industrial; that’s when companies make films as a business. The classic instance of industrial production is the studio system, in which firms are organized in order to make films for large audiences through a fairly detailed division of labor. Hollywood’s studio system is the formal template, most famous, but there have been studio systems of production in many countries. Another sort of 4th grade word problems, industrial production might be called the artisanal, or one-off, approach, in which a production company makes one film at a time (perhaps only one film, period).
Still other modes of is there homework in college, production are less highly organized, involving small groups or individuals who make films for specific purposes. In all these instances, the ways in math, which films are made have had particular effects on the look and sound of the finished products. An avant-garde films, made on bag book report a low budget by an individual filmmaker, is more likely to be a personal expression than a big-budget Hollywood blockbuster. The ways in which films are exhibited have also affected film history. 4th Grade Math Word Problems! For example, the major technological innovations associated with the early 1950s wide-screen picture, stereophonic sound, increased use of color were actually available decades earlier. Dissertation! Each could have been developed before the 1950s, but the U.S. film industry had no pressing need to do so since film attendance was so high that spending money on new attractions would not have significantly increased profits. Only when attendance dropped precipitously in the late 1940s were producers and 4th grade word worksheets, exhibitors pushed to introduce new technologies to lure audiences back into theaters.
3. How have international trends emerged in the uses of the film medium and in the film market? In Film History we try to balance the consideration of important national contributions with a sense of how international and cross-cultural influences were operating. Many nations’ audiences and dissertation economique 2008, film industries have been influenced by directors and 4th grade math problems, films that have migrated across their borders. Genres are vagabond as well. The Hollywood Western influenced the Japanese samurai film and the Italian Western, genres that in turn influenced the Hong Kong kung-fu films of the 1970s. Interestingly, Hollywood films then began incorporating elements of the bag book report, martial arts movie. Just as important, the film industry itself is math word problems worksheets, significantly transnational.
At certain periods, circumstances closed off countries from the flow of films, but most often there has been a global film market, and bag book report, we understand it best by tracing trends across cultures and regions. We have paid particular attention to conditions that allowed people to see films made outside their own country. Each of math word problems, these how questions accompanies a great many why questions. For any part of the processes we focus on, we can ask what conditions caused them to operate as they did. Why, for instance, did Soviet filmmakers undertake their experiments in disturbing, aggressive narrative? Why did Hollywood’s studio system begin to fragment in economique, the late 1940s?
Why did “new waves” and “young cinemas” arise in Europe, the Soviet Union, and Japan around 1960? Why are more films produced now with international investment than in the 1930s or 1940s? Historians are keen to know what factors made a change occur, and our general questions include a host of subquestions about causes and 4th grade problems, effects. Recall our five general explanatory approaches: biographical, industrial, aesthetic, technological, and social. If we had to squeeze our book into one or more of these pigeonholes, we could say that its approach is predominantly aesthetic and industrial. It examines how types of films, film styles, and film forms have changed in relation to crise 2008, the conditions of film production, distribution, and exhibition within certain countries and within the math word, international flow of films. But this summary of our approach is too confining, as even a cursory look at biology essays what follows will indicate. Sometimes we invoke an individual a powerful producer, an 4th grade problems worksheets, innovative filmmaker, an imaginative critic. Is There Homework In College! Sometimes we consider technology. And we often frame our account with discussions of the political, social, and cultural context of a period.
Take, for math worksheets example, our central question: How have uses of the film medium changed or become normalized over time? This is a question about aesthetic matters, but it also impinges on research papers factors of technology. For instance, conceptions of “realistic” filmmaking changed with the introduction of portable cameras and sound equipment in the late 1950s. 4th Grade Word Problems! Similarly, our second question How have the conditions of the english thesis outline, film industry affected the math word problems worksheets, uses of the bag book report, medium? is at once economic, technological, and aesthetic. 4th Grade Word! Finally, asking how international trends have emerged in the uses of the film medium and in the film market concerns both economic and crise economique, social/cultural/political factors. In the math word problems worksheets, early era of cinema, films circulated freely among countries, and viewers often did not know the thesis statement outline, nationality of 4th grade math word problems worksheets, a film they were seeing. Aqa A Biology! In the 1910s, however, war and 4th grade word, nationalism blocked certain films from circulating.
At the same time, the growth of particular film industries, notably Hollywood, depended on access to other markets, so the degree to which films could circulate boosted some nations’ output and retailing papers, hindered that of others. In addition, the circulation of U.S. 4th Grade Math Word Worksheets! films abroad served to spread American cultural values, which in turn created both admiration and hostility. In sum, we have been guided, as we think most historians are, by research questions rather than rigid conceptions of the type of retailing research papers, history we are writing. And what we take to word worksheets, be the most plausible answer to a given question will depend on the strength of the evidence and the argument we can make for it not on a prior commitment to writing only a certain kind of history. Our answers to historical questions are, however, not simply given in crise economique 2008, a list or summary.
Like most historical arguments, ours takes a narrative form. Historians use language to 4th grade math word, communicate their arguments and evidence to others. Descriptive research programs can do this through a summary of findings: this film is Diana l’affascinatrice, made in Italy by Caesar-Film in 1915, directed by Gustavo Serena, and so on. But historical explanations require a more complicated crafting. Sometimes historians frame their explanations as persuasive arguments. To take an bag book report, example already cited, a historian investigating the development of sound by Warner Bros. 4th Grade Math Word Problems! might start by considering the various explanations already offered and taken for papers granted. Then he might set forth the reasons for problems worksheets believing his alternative interpretation. This is a familiar form of papers, rhetorical argument, eliminating unsatisfactory beliefs before settling on a more plausible one. More often, historians’ explanations take the form of stories.
Narrative history, as it is 4th grade word problems worksheets, called, seeks to answer how and why questions by tracing the relevant circumstances and template, conditions over time. It produces a chain of causes and effects, or it shows how a process works, by telling a story. For instance, if we are trying to answer the question How did the Hays Office negotiate with firms to math worksheets, arrive at an agreement about an acceptable film? we can frame a step-by-step narrative of the censorship process. Dissertation Economique! Or, if we are seeking to explain what led the Hays Office to be created, we might lay out the causal factors as a story. As these examples indicate, the story’s “characters” might be individuals or groups, institutions or even films; the word, “plot” consists of the situations in which the english outline, players operate and the changes they initiate and undergo. Narrative is one of the basic ways in which humans make sense of the world, and so it’s not surprising that historians use stories to make the past intelligible. Film History: An Introduction follows tradition in creating a large-scale narrative, one that includes several stories within it. We divide film history into six large periods early cinema (to about 1919), the late silent era (19191929), the development of sound cinema (19261945), the period after World War II (19461960s), the period running from the 1960s to the 1980s, and the contemporary era (1980s-the present). These divisions reflect developments in (1) film form and problems worksheets, style; (2) major changes in film production, distribution, and exhibition; and (3) significant international trends. The periodization can’t be exactly synchronized for all three areas, but it does indicate approximate boundaries for the changes we try to trace.
An alternative organizational pattern is that of the topical history . Topical history treats an idea or theme rather than a story. If you were writing a book-length history of Manhattan, for instance, you might devote one chapter to retailing papers, geography, another to political dynamics, another to social changes, another to the events of 9/11, and so on. The chapters themselves might be organized as narratives (though maybe not), but the overall structure would give a portrait of a city’s history from several angles. The historian must decide, at various levels, between narrative organization and topical organization. Suppose your question was How did America ’s postwar occupation of math word worksheets, Germany affect the local film industry and culture? Once you’ve done your research and come to some conclusions, you could organize your presentation narratively or topically. That is, your chapters could proceed in chronological order to trace the economique 2008, changes in the industry between 1945 and the early 1950s. Or each chapter could deal with events occurring across the entire period, but in different spheres production, censorship, journalism, exhibition, and the like. In another topical layout, you could organize the 4th grade math problems, book around key films or film policies that had an impact on research different spheres of German life. 5. To suggest the flavor of doing historical research, we offer one of our own experiences.
Here Kristin explains the process of researching a book-length study of Ernst Lubitsch’s films. Of the directors widely considered to 4th grade word problems, be among the greatest, Ernst Lubitsch has had relatively little of substance written about is there homework in college him. The other directors of Germany’s “golden age” of the silent cinema, F. W. Murnau and especially Fritz Lang, have received more attention. Perhaps this has been the case because Lubitsch has no one thematic concern underlying his work. Murnau and Lang also are linked to problems worksheets, the German Expressionist movement, while Lubitsch worked outside it. His habit of moving between vast historical epics and broad comedies for his German films makes him hard to pin down.
But why is he important? Filmmakers and cinema buffs love Lubitsch, partly for the sheer quality of his work, from the hilarious silent comedies of the late 1910s, like I Don’t Want to lab report template, Be a Man and The Doll to the masterpieces of the sound period, most notably Trouble in 4th grade math problems, Paradise (1932) and The Shop around the Corner (1940). Apart from his being a great director, though, why is Lubitsch significant? There are many things a historian could say about Lubitsch. Formal Template! I had been struck by word worksheets how, after World War I, Germans acknowledged Lubitsch as their greatest director. After he moved to Hollywood, he quickly came to be considered the greatest director there as well. Yet Lubitsch’s style in his German films differed considerably from formal template that we find in math worksheets, his American output. Thesis Outline! What are these differences, and math worksheets, how could he achieve such stature in both countries? A study of Lubitsch could also highlight how American and bag book report, German national films styles differed during these crucial years in the development of the problems, cinema as an art.
According to traditional historical accounts, during the 1920s, imaginative German techniques like Expressionist set design and the freely moving camera quickly influenced Hollywood films. Historians had not considered the influence might move in the opposite direction, from Hollywood to Germany. A study of how Lubitsch adapted so quickly to the American way of filmmaking could test that standard account. How long a period should the book cover? Lubitsch had begun as a silent-film comedian, directing some of his own shorts and is there, short features during the war. He moved into features in 1918. 4th Grade Math Word! I decided to limit my focus to the ten-year period from 1918 to 1927, the year of retailing, Lubitsch’s last surviving silent film. During this period Lubitsch made a remarkable 28 features and 4th grade word worksheets, one short. English Thesis Statement! Of these titles, seven are not known to survive. In addition, three of the surviving films are lacking significant amounts of math, footage. The 21 available films became the core body of evidence for my study.
Before World War I, the international cinema was dominated by French and Italian cinema. Bag Book Report! American cinema was expanding domestically, but it had yet to make major inroads in most overseas markets. During the war, however, production declined in France and Italy, and the American firms quickly stepped in to supply theaters in many territories. Once hostilities ended, Hollywood films were firmly entrenched, and other producing countries found themselves struggling to keep a substantial share of their domestic markets, let alone to compete with America internationally. The war had, ironically, strengthened the German industry. In 1916, the government banned the import of all but Danish films. This ban was kept in place until December 31, 1920. 4th Grade Word! Thus for english thesis outline nearly five years, German film production was free to expand, and math worksheets, the industry emerged from the war second in size and strength only to Hollywood.
It was during that period of isolation that Lubitsch came into his own as a director. Institutional circumstances played a role in making him the is there homework in college, finest proponent of the German approach to 4th grade math word problems, filmmaking (a style which was largely the same as that used in most European producing countries). During the mid-1910s, however, Hollywood film style was changing enormously. What has been termed the is there homework in college, “classical” style emerged, the underlying principle of math worksheets, which was to tailor film technique to tell a story as comprehensibly and unobtrusively as possible. Scenes were broken up into closer shots through analytical editing, shifting the spectator’s eye to the most salient part of the action at bag book report each moment. 4th Grade Math Problems! Filming in diffused light in the open air or in glass-sided studios was abandoned in favor of “dark” studios illuminated entirely by artificial lighting.
This multi-directional lighting was designed to pick characters out against muted backgrounds and to retailing research papers, model their bodies more three-dimensionally. The technique became codified as three-point lighting. 6 Acting styles became less broad, depending more on glances and small gestures than on pantomime. Set design evolved to 4th grade word worksheets, make the space containing the action simpler and hence less distracting. In sum, a new trend had begun, led by American filmmaking. Once Hollywood films began screening in Germany in 1921, a new set of causes came into play. German filmmakers started absorbing the American style, and Lubitsch was in the forefront of thesis outline, this change. His German films of 1921 and 1922 reflect his new knowledge of classical technique, and he was clearly ready to make the word worksheets, leap into is there homework Hollywood filmmaking even before he went there. Once in math word worksheets, America, he rapidly honed his application of classical principles, and soon he was in turn influencing the filmmakers there with a string of is there in college, masterpieces, including The Marriage Circle (1924) and Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925). For example, we can see the change in Lubitsch’s approach to lighting in three frames.
The first, from Carmen (1918), shows lighting coming entirely from the front; there’s no backlighting to pick out the gray uniform against the gray background. By 1921, after Lubitsch had seen Hollywood films, he used light from the worksheets, front, side, and rear in Das Weib des Pharao . In Hollywood, Lubitsch routinely used back lighting to make his actors stand out against the sets, as in this frame from Three Women (1923). In setting out on my project, I asked a small number of questions. How did Lubitsch’s German features reflect a more general national filmmaking style at the end of the dissertation 2008, war? How did Lubitsch’s style change over this decade and to what extent was the change a reaction to Hollywood films? What impact did the math word problems worksheets, new classical Hollywood style have more generally on German filmmaking in the 1920s? I was already familiar with American films of this period, having collaborated on The Classical Hollywood Cinema (1985, Columbia University Press) with David and with Janet Staiger. I had examined many films and gathered illustrations that I could use for the new book. To learn about the very different German style of the same era, I went to is there, film archives in the U.S. and abroad to study Lubitsch’s films in word problems worksheets, detail, watching them on an editing table and making frame reproductions for use as illustrations. Biology Essays! I examined Lubitsch’s context by watching about 75 films by other directors, also collecting images for illustrations. (I did not include Expressionist and Neue Sachlichkeit films, as these were avant-garde alternatives to classical Hollywood style.) I wasn’t looking at acknowledged masterpieces, for 4th grade word I wanted to track typical trends in German film style. In libraries I went through film-industry publications, primarily the dissertation crise 2008, Lichtbildbühne and Film-Kurier , and the two main technical journals of the 1920s, Die Kinotechnik and Die Filmtechnik . Cinematography manuals and the memoirs of people who had worked with Lubitsch filled in details of the 4th grade math word problems worksheets, director’s working methods.
Legal papers in the United Artists collection of the Wisconsin Center for bag book report Film and Theater Research shed light on Mary Pickford’s dealings with Lubitsch during and after their work on 4th grade math Rosita (1923) dealings about which some widely believed myths had persisted. Reviews of Lubitsch’s films in bag book report, the German and 4th grade word, American press revealed how Lubitsch’s films were viewed and what expert viewers noticed about their look. All this evidence allowed me to answer my initial questions. I could identify the outline, point in Lubitsch’s career when his films began to reflect the influence of Hollywood style. I was able to do the same with more ordinary German films of the math word worksheets, post-war era. I showed that, contrary to the standard view of this era, Hollywood films had considerably more impact on bag book report German films than the other way round. In writing the book, I didn’t organize the chapters to 4th grade math word, give a chronological account of in college, Lubitsch’s career during this ten-year period. Instead, because this was to be a stylistic analysis, I broke it down topically. An introductory chapter laid out Lubitsch’s German career briefly and discussed the industrial and social conditions in Germany that discouraged or fostered the 4th grade math word worksheets, movement of bag book report, influences. The next four chapters centered on four areas of film technique: lighting, set design, editing, and acting.
These sharply revealed the differences between Hollywood and worksheets, German style in the crucial years. Dissertation Economique 2008! For each technique, I discussed Hollywood norms and contrasted these with German norms. I laid out numerous examples from ordinary German films and from Lubitsch’s. Each chapter ended with a section on Lubitsch’s Hollywood films and how closely each adhered to classical filmmaking norms. The final chapter dealt with the influences of Hollywood film on mainstream commercial German cinema of the era after Lubitsch had left his native country. These influences, I tried to show, were far more widespread and significant than any German techniques that might be detected in Hollywood films of the 4th grade problems worksheets, same years. Within chapters the discussion was organized narratively, tracing Lubitsch’s work chronologically for each area of film technique. Lab Report Template! The overall argument moved from specific to general. While the opening chapter dealt largely with Lubitsch’s career and work, the last one left Lubitsch and concentrated almost entirely on 4th grade math word problems German cinema of the dissertation, 1920s. When Herr Lubitsch Goes to Hollywood was published, few of Lubitsch’s silent features were widely known. Since then, DVD releases have made it possible for a broad audience to see some of the classic films he made in each country.
The Eyes of the Mummy (1918) is available. The “Lubitsch in Berlin” set contains several German features: The Doll, The Oyster Princess, I Don’t Want to Be a Man, Sumurun, Anna Boleyn, and The Wildcat plus a documentary on math Lubitsch’s early career. (Each is available separately as well.) Lubitsch’s two most important Hollywood films are also on DVD: His romantic comedy The Marriage Circle (1924) is available, and a restored print of what is arguably his masterpiece of the silent period, Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925), is retailing, part of the 4th grade word problems worksheets, “More Treasures from American Film Archives” set. Perhaps now readers can evaluate my answers to the questions my book seeks to answer, and I hope that other historians will ask new ones of their own. We hope we’ve shown that film historians, professional or amateur, work with both ideas and information. They mount projects within research programs.
They don’t simply state facts; they try to ask questions. They don’t just pile up data; they make arguments. Research! The facts and problems, questions, data and arguments combine to make doing film history a fascinating pursuit. Historical writing about dissertation crise economique films will probably never be as common as film criticism; most people prefer to comment about films by analyzing, interpreting, and 4th grade word problems worksheets, evaluating them. Writing an essay on film history takes a lot more time and is there homework in college, effort than writing a review of math word problems, a current film. Nonetheless, historical study offers unique pleasures. If you want to dissertation economique 2008, understand the context of a film that you admire, you would enjoy reading film history. Just as important, a deeper understanding of word problems, film history introduces you to dissertation, a range of new films to enjoy. Finally, if we have any curiosity about the films that captivate us now, we can start to satisfy it by thinking historically. What happens today springs from what happened yesterday.
By trying to understand film history, we better understand the problems worksheets, movies of our moment. 7. 4 : Douglas Gomery, “The Coming of 2008, Sound: Technological Change in the American Film Industry,” in Tino Balio, ed., The American Film Industry, rev. ed. (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985), pp. 22951. 6 : See David Bordwell and Kristin Thompson, Film Art: An Introduction , eighth ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008), 128-130. 7 : In our weblog, we often try to put recent films into 4th grade word problems various historical contexts. See www.davidbordwell.net/blog.
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colorado state essay Conservationist and 4th grade problems worksheets, NG Emerging Explorer. The Colorado River winds through the Grand Canyon. Photograph by Pete McBride. Colorado River water was diverted into formal template, these potash-mine settling ponds near Moab, Utah. Photograph by Pete McBride. This aerial view shows the wetlands of the Cienega de Santa Clara, 40,000 acres of 4th grade math word, vegetation and wildlife habitat in Mexico's Sonoran Desert that have been revived with waste water from the Yuma Desalination Plant. Photograph by Pete McBride. The Colorado River winds through several national parks and numerous canyons, including the 2008, Nankoweap Canyon in 4th grade math Arizona.
Photograph by crise economique, Pete McBride. Water is dyed blue to expedite evaporation at a potash facility. Photograph by Pete McBride. Eerie patterns can be seen in the Colorado River's parched delta. Math? Photograph by Pete McBride. the Colorado River and its dozens of spectacular tributaries carved out the Grand Canyon and scoured the Rockies, flushing mineral-rich sediment to the sea. These rivers weren't always in flood, but they never ran dry. Today, however, the second largest tributary, the homework in college, Gila, is 4th grade word problems, mostly bone dry in its lower reaches through Arizona; the Salt River—supplying Phoenix—no longer makes it to a confluence with the Gila; the aqa a essays, Santa Cruz is seen beneath Tucson bridges only during rare floods; and the Colorado River itself, almost unbelievably, stopped running to the sea in most years after the completion of Glen Canyon Dam in math word problems worksheets 1966.
The river hasn't flowed to the Sea of aqa a biology essays, Cortez in Mexico since 1998. What happened? In a word: agriculture. A steady march of word, population growth and climate change has exacerbated conditions, but it all began with farming, much of it supported by formal template, taxpayers in a feverish desire to 4th grade word worksheets settle the West. After irrigation ditches and canals were hewed into the arid ground, farmers planted wheat, then hay. Those crops, along with cotton, citrus fruits, 90 percent of the nation's winter vegetables, and almost any other plant imaginable, now consume about 70 percent of the biology, Colorado River Basin's water. Our green lawns, golf courses, swimming pools, and 4th grade math word worksheets, generally thirsty cities also take a share of the dwindling water, as do reservoirs, where 15 percent of the basin's water evaporates into bag book report, thin air each year. Although people tend to think of the Colorado as a single channel that slices through the math word, Grand Canyon, the statement outline, river system is really made up of scores of major tributaries that are collectively known as the Colorado River Basin. Running as red and warm as fish blood, or as emerald and word, cold as a glacial lake, its 242,000-square-mile (626,777-square-kilometer) drainage area alternates between the primeval and the altered. Is There Homework? The basin's drainage covers a percentage of the U.S. that's almost identical to the percentage of Africa drained by the Nile. The Colorado River is both servant and scenic wonder to the 36 million Americans it supplies with water.
It is also one of the siltiest, most litigated over, and frequently paddled rivers in the world. It is now widely accepted that population growth and climate change will cause ever more intense water shortages in the West, much like the travails of Egypt over the long-disputed Nile. Despite all this change, the massive Colorado River Delta, bearded with salt grass, is 4th grade math, still one of the english statement outline, most wild and beautiful places betwixt source and sea: lush with unexpected groundwater in its center and surprisingly alive with rattling kingfishers, circling mallards, probing cattle egrets, mischievous ravens, prowling ospreys, and 4th grade word problems, snakelike cormorants diving for fish. If you're listening carefully, the mournful cry of loons can be heard mimicking the howl of coyotes, as if to say, Please give us back our river. From Source to Sea. Calamity, arguing with its split personality, Beauty. Retailing Research Papers? I know this because I've slept on the delta's muddy yet cracked, salt-stained sand, which washed down from the Grand Canyon.
It took me five months to paddle there, 1,450 miles (2,330 kilometers) from the Continental Divide, plunging as much as 90 feet (27 meters) per vertical mile through bone-breaking rapids, then spilling out into reservoired calms that stretch for more than 300 miles (480 kilometers) of its path toward Mexico's Sea of 4th grade math word, Cortez. In the four years since that journey, I've continued my exploration of the Colorado River Basin's tributaries. Retailing Research? My mission is to showcase the 4th grade math problems worksheets, breadth and beauty of this river system, as well as investigate the changes of the last century. My primary tool is a camera, along with old landscape photographs that show these waterways in an earlier, PreDambrian state—the term ecologically astute boatmen use to dissertation economique 2008 longingly refer to an era before nearly 100 dams were built, dams that now stop sediment flow and math problems, unnaturally refrigerate river temperatures. The Grand Canyon's crux rapid, Lava, drops 37 feet (11 meters) in less than 100 yards and bag book report, routinely flips the math, two-ton rafts of the best boatmen. Yet 195 miles (314 kilometers) upstream, unbeknownst to statement outline most of the two million annual visitors staring down at what they think of as the national park's violent central artery, the Colorado River is unnaturally controlled by the Glen Canyon Dam, standing 710 feet (216 meters) high. The Green River, the largest of the Colorado's tributaries, once flushed half of an worksheets ocean liner's worth of is there homework, sediment 730 miles (1,175 kilometers) every day through Wyoming and Utah, briefly draining western Colorado before reaching its Utah confluence with the math word, Colorado River. The particulate-carrying force of the Colorado River and its sandy tributaries then doubled—to an estimated six trillion pounds of silt per day—as it raced another 1,000 miles (1,600 kilometers) to bag book report the sea, building backwaters and sustaining flora and fauna with life-giving minerals. But now, dams like Glen Canyon have trapped the silty life force of these rivers beneath many reservoirs.
To demonstrate these effects I scour archives, from the National Archives in Maryland to the Bancroft Library in California, and when I find a compelling black-and-white image of a pristine river within the region, I seek out the original photographer's bankside camera stations and take a new photo. This work of repeat photography is 4th grade worksheets, akin to a treasure hunt: whole days of paddling, walking, or driving while trying to line up riverbanks with distant mountains just as they were aligned in aqa a the old photos—which were often captioned before modern towns and river place-names existed. Although I usually find my photographic quarry, in worksheets many instances the scenes are so overgrown with towering invasive plants that I can't see, let alone photograph, the river. Still, more often than not, I strike gold. As if disembarking from a time machine, heart pounding, I stand in essays the footsteps of the problems worksheets, great, glass-and-gel-plate, pioneer lens men like Timothy O'Sullivan, who learned his craft while photographing carnage on retailing research Civil War battlefields and then arduously hauled his boat up the lower Colorado; William Henry Jackson, who opened a photography studio in 4th grade problems worksheets Denver after accompanying government survey teams around Western rivers; and a latter-day disciple, Louis C. McClure, who photographed dams, railroads, and river-irrigated agricultural areas in the Colorado River Basin into the mid-19th century.
Discovering their historic camera stations and unveiling radically changed riverscapes always makes me feel like I have unearthed buried anti-treasure, revealing the secret, hidden costs of Western reclamation. In this post-DamNation, one of many restoration projects targets ancient fish that still swim in the basin's waters. English Outline? Four of these warm-water, silt-adapted species—the pike minnow, the humpback chub, the bonytail chub, and the razorback sucker—are now endangered because the 4th grade worksheets, silt- and thesis, migration-blocking dams also refrigerate the 4th grade problems worksheets, water temperature by dropping cold, mid-level (instead of warm, surface) reservoir water into the rivers below. The beauty of these fish is in their uncanny adaptation to a bygone era—a trait not seen in their newly introduced trout and bass predators. In the PreDambrian, pike minnows ranged over 1,000 miles (1,600 kilometers) of biology, river and grew to 5 feet (1.5 meters), but they are now as stunted in range as they are in growth.
The humpback chub has neuromast chemoreceptors on its head, allowing the species to smell (rather than see) faraway food in silty water. Word Worksheets? The torpedo-shaped and camouflage-backed bonytail chub, rarest of all the native fish, disappeared from the Lower Basin after the construction of Hoover Dam. And the tuba-lipped razorback sucker dwells in deep water, avoiding ultraviolet light; while mating, the male flashes its uniquely adapted eyes to formal lab report reflect ambient UV light and scare off any male competitors. These four species have no commercial value. If caught by fishermen they have to be immediately released, and they're passed by in favor of the 4th grade math word problems worksheets, more palatable, non-native sport fish. Bag Book Report? Yet these four species are essential, endemic symbols of the river system's uniqueness and math problems, are found nowhere else in the world. Dams have flipped off their evolutionary light switch. Highways crisscross the bag book report, desert in Phoenix, Arizona, where population growth has put a major strain on resources.
Photograph by Pete McBride. A dense subdivision borders undeveloped desert in Las Vegas, Nevada. Many homeowners there practice xeriscaping with natural plants that require little water, to help reduce the toll on the dwindling Colorado River. Photograph by Pete McBride. Downtown Las Vegas struggles with the 4th grade math worksheets, need to english balance water consumption with tourism and a growing population. Photograph by math word, Pete McBride. Phoenix uses twice as much Colorado River water as any other city, in part for the area's famous golf courses. Photograph by Pete McBride. Like these fish hidden beneath the water, human-caused alterations on the surface are complex, and my image pairs don't always show the ill effects or root causes of the river basin's transformations.
Population growth is one factor affecting the aqa a, rivers. Over the last century, more people has meant more demand for water. Since first apportioning river water to seven states through the word problems, Colorado River Compact in 1922 and subsequent agreements, the basin states' population has increased ninefold. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, many of the aqa a, cities dependent on basin water have grown even more: The greater Las Vegas area in 1920 had just over 2,000 people; now it has almost 2 million. In 1900 Phoenix had 5,554 citizens; today it has 1.48 million. Although forecasting how changing climate will affect water within the basin is an imprecise science, scientists expect the region to get hotter and drier. A study by the Department of the Interior's Bureau of Reclamation (the federal agency that manages the Colorado River) in August 2013 projected that the water in Lake Mead will decline to 1,060 feet (323 meters) by July 2015, which would likely result in water shortages being declared for problems worksheets, 2016. The Bureau of Reclamation also recently released a study predicting that by 2060, the Colorado River's flows will decline by 8.7 percent.
That's equal to dissertation economique 2008 the amount of water canaled to Los Angeles, which gets half of its water from 4th grade problems this river. Other models show even greater declines. As for 2008, the lingering drought that began in October 1999: Historically, droughts are a part of normal climatic variations, yet tree-ring records show only three longer droughts in the basin within the past 1,300 years. Studying my then-and-now image pairs for signs of a changing climate, I find evidence of recent forest fires, loss of river flow, and natural and math word worksheets, unnatural geomorphologic changes such as destruction of meanders and disappearance of sandbanks. Papers? I also see the growth of word worksheets, invasive and water-consumptive plant species like tamarisk and Russian olive, along with an incredible greening of river valleys that were barren in papers the 19th century. And there are many signs of the conceit of human engineering, from ditches to 4th grade problems dams, transforming once pristine rivers throughout the southwest into sportsmen's paradises—in other words, reservoirs—frequented by loud motorboats, harboring the gasping Asian carp and economique, invasive quagga mussels, and 4th grade math, heavily stocked with sport fishes; and irrigation canals, contaminated with pesticides and homework in college, agricultural runoff, that largely serve dairy cows (60 percent of the water used for irrigation, or about a third of the river, goes to grow hay and forage crops, according to the Pacific Institute). Why Should We Care? and hundreds of 4th grade math word problems worksheets, other species that rely on the river, we should care because the Colorado flows through all of us. Many of us use it in our showers and pools, and in english statement the fountains and 4th grade math word worksheets, green parks that our children play in.
It is real estate (equity plummets with water levels). It is formal lab report, our wallets: a collective $26 billion per year from the recreation economy, and 250,000 sustainable jobs. It is 4th grade problems worksheets, our livelihoods: I have friends who depend on the river for their work as boatmen, fishing guides, defenders of formal, water rights, teachers, photographers, hay growers, farmers, and 4th grade math word problems, realtors. We eat the river in cheese and beef and vegetables, products that are made with water from the Colorado and then shipped all over the world. Formal? We wear it (as cotton and flax) and condition the air with it, while creating energy with it and growing gardens with it and drinking it in worksheets cities far from its banks—such as Los Angeles, San Diego, Denver, and Phoenix.
The river winds through the Rocky Mountain, Black Canyon of the Gunnison, Zion, Arches, Canyonlands, and Grand Canyon national parks. 2008? We hike along it, swim in it, and skip stones in it. Let's face it, the river is the beating heart of life itself, and when it—the Colorado, the Green, the San Juan, the Gunnison—no longer runs, the Southwest will become as dried out as old toast. Jonathan Waterman treks across the dry Colorado River Delta, which was once thriving with life and an indigenous culture. Photograph by Pete McBride. The Colorado River Delta once teemed with fish, but now their skeletons can often be found in math problems the dry, cracked mud.
Photograph by Pete McBride. Many animals, like this Rocky Mountain toad swimming in the Little Colorado tributary in Arizona, are threatened by receding water levels. Photograph by Pete McBride. There are many solutions for the Colorado. Conservation—large-scale xeriscaping (switching to crise economique landscaping plants that don't need much water), irrigation reform, a more watchful eye on the consumptive water-energy nexus, and discretionary crop planting—can send a lot of water back to the rivers where it belongs. According to 4th grade word worksheets a recent report from the english thesis, Pacific Institute, replacing about math problems 10 percent of the basin's irrigated alfalfa acreage with cotton and wheat could save about 250,000 acre-feet of consumptive water use each year. And water use by the Colorado River's outlying farmlands, such as those in the Imperial Valley near the is there, Mexican border, could be halved if farmers irrigated their crops with pipes underneath the soil—as in Egypt, which is word problems worksheets, experimenting with saving Nile water through the use of drip irrigation near the research, Sudanese border. For all the good ideas yet to be initiated, there are as many energy-intensive proposals—such as canaling Green River water over 500 miles (800 kilometers) from Wyoming to Colorado, building desalination plants, or laying pipelines from the Missouri River—that would only accelerate the math word problems worksheets, effects of the original reclamation engineering and increase the greenhouse gases that helped create today's dilemmas. To reverse the lab report template, ominous trend of southwestern water wastefulness and river destruction, we need more good news like this: In November 2012, the so-called Minute 319 was added to 4th grade math problems worksheets the 1944 International Treaty on the river. Bag Book Report? The agreement says that over a five-year trial period, a total of one percent of the historic flows will be sent south to the Colorado River Delta to rejuvenate native flora and fauna and, hopefully, to reach the sea.
Although one percent is not a lot of water, it will simulate the seasonal floods of old and 4th grade math problems worksheets, keep the riverbed wet. Minute 319 is a unique collaboration between the retailing research papers, Mexican and word problems worksheets, U.S. governments and a coalition of conservation organizations, each of which is responsible for dissertation economique, delivering a third of the worksheets, water committed to the delta under the aqa a level biology, agreement. In addition to 4th grade math worksheets helping set restoration goals, conservation groups are raising funds to buy water rights from current users. In time, if we follow this example of budding restoration, we'll have the opportunity to revive dozens of other western rivers. Or we can begin bidding them goodbye. While I was paddling from source to sea, a week's journey below the Continental Divide, in a terrific wind near Kremmling, Colorado, I had an in college encounter that encapsulated the work we need to do for the river. A rancher on 4th grade math word problems worksheets the shore angrily shouted that I was trespassing.
But I hadn't touched his land, so I pulled over to talk. users live outside the english thesis, basin. The river is going to hell in a handbasket, he said, referring to problems changes on the river, including a recent catastrophe caused by a neighboring rancher who had opened up a ditch headgate in low water and drained the Colorado headwaters for a day. It was an uncommon event, but with distant water users seeking more diversions, ranchers—along with fishermen, boaters, and dissertation economique, myriad other downstream users—watch the 4th grade, river go bony each fall. Eventually, the rancher agreed with me that river landowners and recreationalists are all in the same boat. More than 36 million of us depend on this ancient river, although it's used and undoubtedly adored by millions more. We can read more than a billion years of time on the walls it has carved. The river itself—a Pliocene relic—is older than our most precious monuments, older than the Parthenon, Stonehenge, or the Pyramids. It predates us all.
The least we can do is save it for our children. Jonathan Waterman is a writer and photographer based in Colorado. Economique? In 2010 National Geographic published his book Running Dry: A Journey From Source to Sea Down the Colorado River. He is also the coauthor, with Pete McBride, of The Colorado River: Flowing Through Conflict.