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apollo 13 essay “HOUSTON, WE’VE HAD A PROBLEM HERE.” 1218 April 1970. The Mission Insignia for Apollo 13 showed the god Apollo, representing the essays Sun, riding his chariot across the surface of the Moon to symbolise the Apollo Project bringing back new knowledge from the Moon. Of An Nco Essay! The two names chosen for the Apollo 13 spacecraft turned out to be very prophetic. The Command Module was called Odyssey from Homer and Arthur C. Clarke’s fictitious works. Lovell liked the sound and integrity essays, felt it was going to follow the dictionary’s description of a long and social disorder, eventful voyage. The Lunar Module was called after the sign of the Zodiac and star constellation Aquarius , the water carrier, at times identified with Zeus pouring the waters of life down from the heavens. Before the mission, the crew had hoped that Aquarius would bring life back from the Moon. After the mission they were glad it did! Settling into the Command Module, the astronauts of Apollo 13 were an assorted trio. Lovell was a navy test pilot with 572 hours in space, including the first trip to the Moon in Apollo 8. He had more time in space than any other human at the time. The other two were civilians looking forward to their first trip into space.
Haise, a serious family man, had been a journalist turned naval aviator. He was recognised as a specialist on integrity the Lunar Module, having spent fourteen months at Grumman, the factory building the spacecraft. He knew every switch, wire and connector in the spacecraft. Swigert was a swinging bachelor with the amy tan reputation of an integrity, air hostess in every airport. The crew of Apollo 13: from left James A. Essay! Lovell, Jr, John L. Swigert, Jr., and Fred W. Haise, Jr. Photo courtesy of the Apollo Image Gallery maintained by Kipp Teague. Two days before the mission, Swigert had replaced Ken Mattingly, who had worked with backup crew member Charles Duke. Infected by Paul House, a three year old friend, Duke developed German Measles the weekend before the launch.
As Mattingly was found to have no immunity to the disease, the doctors were afraid he might break out in a severe rash at essays the moment Lovell and Haise were on the Moon’s surface, when swollen fingers and 5 paragraph essay leadership, sore muscles could have slowed him up, particularly in an emergency. Because of the teamwork required by the crew, normally the whole crew would be changed, but as Duke was already out, they left Lovell and Haise. The training had to be intensified to develop the teamwork required with Swigert in integrity essays, only two days. The new crew spent many extra hours in social disorder outline, the simulator drilling through the procedures. In one of the many strange twists of fate in this mission, Swigert had been trained as a specialist in malfunctions of the Command and Lunar Modules. As NASA Administrator Dr Tom Paine pointed out: “Swigert practically wrote the integrity book on spacecraft malfunctions.” Ironically, Mattingly never did break out with Rubella. The original crew of Apollo 13: from left James A. Lovell, Jr, Thomas K. Mattingly II, and Fred W. Haise, Jr. Photo courtesy of Ed Hengeveld via the Apollo Image Gallery. Apollo 13 was going to be the role nco essay first moon landing with a greater degree of difficulty than either Apollos 11 or 12. The target was the Frau Mauro region, a range of rugged hills 177 kilometres to the east of the Apollo 12 landing site.
Frau Mauro was going to be more interesting to the geologists Apollo was now going to be more scientific, rather than a flight testing exercise. Essays! Sunday 12 April 1970 LAUNCH. Launch day found light and variable winds, with a maximum strength of 12 knots from the essay 2005 east south east. Altocumulus clouds with a base height of 19,000 feet covered about 40% of the sky, with cirrostratus spread over the whole sky above. The temperature was 24C and relative humidity 57%. Integrity! A perfect launch day. as received in Australia by ib tok essay 2005 shortwave from The Voice of America. Recorded by Colin Mackellar. 2.2MB mp3 runs for 4:44. Photo courtesy of the Apollo Image Gallery maintained by essays Kipp Teague. Originally scheduled for 12 March 1970, Apollo 13 left Pad 39A at 1413 USEST 11 April 1970 (0513 AEST on Sunday 12 April).
There was trouble right away. Role Nco Essay! Lovell: “At five and a half minutes after liftoff, Swigert, Haise, and I felt a little vibration. Then the integrity essays centre engine of the S-II stage shut down two minutes early. This caused the remaining four engines to burn 34 seconds longer than planned, and the S-IVB third stage had to anxiety disorder essay burn 9 seconds longer to put us into orbit. No problem; the S-IVB had plenty of fuel.” Apollo 13 entered Earth orbit at 0525:39 AEST and went into a 185.7 by 183.9 kilometre orbit with period of 88.2 minutes and a speed of 28,053.2 kilometres per hour. Integrity! Translunar injection was at essay 0754:47 AEST with a 5 minute 50.8 second burn and Apollo 13 was heading for the Moon at 26,600.4 kilometres per hour. The CSM separated from the SIVB at 0819:38 AEST and integrity essays, docked with the LM at 0832:08 with television watching the of an nco essay action. The two docked spacecraft were ejected from the SIVB at 0914:00 AEST before being separated from each other. In the integrity essays previous missions the SIVB was sent off into solar orbit but for Apollo 13 the SIVB was targeted to impact the Moon so the 5 paragraph essay about vibrations could be detected by integrity essays the Apollo 12 seismometer. Despite this problematic start, the three astronauts settled down to the relatively relaxed trans-lunar coast life.
The peace of Sunday was broken by leadership an agitated Swigert calling Houston. In the rush to replace Mattingly, he remembered he had not filed his Income Tax Return: “How do I apply for an extension?” he asked, “Things kinda happened real fast down there and I need an extension. I’m really serious. ” “You’re breaking up the room down here,” replied a laughing Joe Kerwin, but later Flight Director Glynn Lunney passed up the advice, “American citizens out of the country get a 60 day extension on filing, I assume this applies to you.” Monday 13 April 1970. On Monday morning Capcom Joe Kerwin called, “The spacecraft is in real good shape as far as we are concerned. Integrity Essays! We are bored to tears down here.” This “boredom” was reflected in the world outside a third lunar landing hardly drew any media attention, in fact all the American television networks ignored the special television show put on by the astronauts. At the Goldstone Tracking Complex in California it was a clear spring afternoon as the evening shift for Monday April 13 came in for a quiet spell of uneventful tracking. Bill Wood , C Shift leader at the DSS-12 Pioneer Wing Station: “Pioneer, the of an nco essay half Coyote, half German Shepherd station mascot greeted us at the gate as usual, before we took over tracking the signal from the Saturn IVB. Essays! Ed Smith, the intersite microwave engineer, had the air to ground voice loops up so we could keep up with what was going on multivariate process control thesis at the Prime site and hear the spacecraft and Houston talking. Things were very quiet, even boring.” It wasn’t long before this mood was to change, to integrity change dramatically. Tuesday 14 April 1970. At 1133 AEST on 14 April Lovell and leadership, Haise had entered Aquarius earlier than the flight plan had scheduled, anxious to check the pressure in the helium tank, which checked out okay.
White Team Flight Director Gene Kranz on shift shortly before the television broadcast. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Integrity Essays! At 1227 AEST, the astronauts put on a television show, exhibiting some of their gear such as their space helmets, sleeping hammocks and special bags for drinking water inside their spacesuits. Essay! Lovell in the CM played music from 2001:A space Odyssey and Aquarius from a small tape recorder. Sadly, the astronauts did not know that their program was ending at essays the NASA centres, as the commercial networks had lost interest in broadcasting boring trips to the Moon. Marilyn Lovell and Mary Haise had to go to the Mission Control Center to see their husbands on television. Fred Haise takes the few viewers of the broadcast on a tour of the Lunar Module, Aquarius . White Team Flight Director Gene Kranz (closest to the camera) watches in Mission Control, just 17 minutes and role of an, 42 seconds before the explosion. GET: on integrity essays screen at top left, 55:37:11; GET of explosion: 55:54:53.
NASA image. Astronauts Vance Brand and Jack Lousma (Capcom) enjoy the TV show. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. At 1259 the astronauts finished their on-board production with: “This is the crew of Apollo 13 wishing everybody a nice evening, and we’re just about ready to close our inspection of Aquarius and get back for a pleasant evening in Odyssey . Goodnight.” Lovell: “On the of an nco essay tapes I sound mellow and integrity essays, benign, or some might say fat, dumb, and happy. A pleasant evening indeed! Nine minutes later the roof fell in. ” As the ib tok essay 2005 astronauts were copying down a message from Houston, on a control panel just above them a yellow caution light glowed to indicate a low pressure in hydrogen tank #1 in integrity, the Service Module. Back at Houston the same warning glared at EECOM Sy Liebergot from the 5 paragraph leadership sloping panel of his console. As he had been working on the contents of the integrity essays tanks he wasn’t too concerned to see the essay amy tan light, as it could be a normal short-term situation. In the weightlessness of space the essays cryogenically stored gases could stratify into layers of different densities and give a false quantity reading, but to make sure, Liebergot told Capcom Jack Lousma to ask the astronauts to stir both the hydrogen tanks, using paddles operated by essay amy tan electric motors.
Normally this stirring was performed each day after the sleep period, but Liebergot wanted an extra stir before they went to sleep as he had been having trouble reading the quantity in the oxygen tank #2, so he suggested they stir the integrity essays oxygen tanks too. Role Nco Essay! Lousma: “Thirteen, we’ve got one more item for you when you get the chance. We’d like you to stir up your cryo tanks. ” Swigert answered “Okay, stand by” and at 1306:18 AEST flicked the switches labelled H 2 and O 2 FANS on to stir the contents of the hydrogen and oxygen tanks. Essays! Nobody knew that inside Oxygen Tank #2 wires to the fan had lost their insulation from an incident during a test two weeks before. A committee led by Edgar Cortright, Director of the Langley Research Center in Virginia, was formed to investigate the incident. It found the following events led to this moment of the essay Apollo 13 disaster. None of this can ever be verified, of course, because the Service Module burned up in the atmosphere on integrity essays reentry. The flawed #2 oxygen tank had originally been made for Apollo 10, but had been returned to multivariate statistical thesis the manufacturers to improve the electromagnetic interference properties of the vac-ion pumps.
When removing it from the Apollo 10 Service Module the integrity frame holding the tanks was dropped about essay 5 centimetres. Integrity! Although there is a possibility the jar could have loosened the couplings of the development communication dissertations fill tubes, as far as the spacecraft systems engineers are concerned, this incident did not begin the series of events leading to the explosion in integrity essays, space. In the oxygen tank there were a set of tube assemblies in the neck of the tank to fill and empty the tank on the ground, and a different set for use in space to pipe the oxygen to either a fuel cell, or to the cabin atmosphere. According to the engineers the real culprit was a set of couplings in these tube assemblies in the top of the oxygen tank which leaked during a Count Down Demonstration Test (CDDT) conducted on March 16, a test run to check out the launch procedures before every mission. The filling system was working normally, but technicians found they were unable to pump the super-critical cold oxygen fluid out of multivariate statistical process thesis, tank #2 after the test. Due to the leaking couplings, gas pumped in to remove the liquid oxygen was bypassing the tank contents and essays, coming back out again, leaving up to 92% of the liquid contents behind. Looking for a solution, the engineering team thought the quickest way to empty the liquid oxygen would be to boil it off using the heaters in development dissertations, the tank. After discussions between the engineers at Kennedy Space Center, the Manned Spacecraft Center, North American Rockwell (the contractor) and Beech (the manufacturer) it was decided to go ahead. They also advised Mattingly and Lovell, assuring them it would be okay as these tubes were not used to supply the integrity oxygen during the flight.
Lovell queried the implications of putting a new tank in. Essay! The flight would probably be delayed by up to a month was the answer, so Lovell told them to go ahead with the old tank: “If you’re all comfortable with this, then I am too.” The original Apollo spacecraft worked on 28 volts of electricity, but after 1965 the integrity essays Apollo spacecraft’s electrical systems had been modified to handle 65 volts from the external ground test equipment. Unfortunately Beech, the ib tok essay manufacturer of the tank, did not advise the manufacturer of the thermostat of the integrity essays change, so the bi-metal thermostat switches installed in these tanks were still the 28 volt models, so when the heaters were switched on essay two kinds amy tan to boil the oxygen off after the CDDT test, the higher voltage caused arcing in the bi-metal thermostat and welded the contacts together. With the essays thermostat contacts permanently on, the heating elements remained on for 8 hours, instead of being turned off when the temperature reached 27C. This allowed the temperature inside the tank to climb to an estimated 538C. Role Of An! As the temperature gauge on the ground test panel only went to 29.5C, no one was aware of this excessive heat, which burned the Teflon insulation off the wires in the motors driving the two fans inside the tank. The fate of Apollo 13 and its crew was now riding on the two bare wires sealed in Oxygen Tank #2. Perhaps the first clue of a problem in the Service module was at 0318 AEST 14 April when oxygen tank #2 quantity indicated off scale high, eight hours before Lovell and Haise entered the integrity essays LM to conduct some system checks, but nobody took notice of it.
But now, on board Odyssey , 322,000 kilometres from Earth, the relaxed complacency of the crew and ground teams around the world was to ib tok be suddenly interrupted when Swigert switched the fans on in the oxygen tanks. When Swigert switched the fans on in O 2 Tank #2 at 55:53:18 GET, (1306:18 AEST on 14 April), some of the liquid oxygen in tank had been used, exposing the bare wiring. As a result a spark arced between the wires a spark in pure oxygen sealed under a pressure of 6,205 kPa in the super tough spherical nickel alloy steel tank. Integrity Essays! It took less than 20 seconds for the resulting pressure to blow the tank apart . Two Kinds! shock the feed valves to two of the essays three fuel cells causing their failure within seconds. wreck the adjacent equipment in Bay 4 of the Service Module . and blow the essay external side panel out. Integrity Essays! which clipped the main antenna as it hurtled out into space. Langley Research Center estimated the explosion was equivalent to 3.2 kilograms of TNT, which would demolish an average sized suburban house. Essay About Leadership! There was nothing to indicate what had happened; no sound in the vacuum of space; no sensors to detect explosions. Integrity! As the Service Module was not directly visible from the Command Module windows, the astronauts could not see what had happened behind their backs. Just a shudder from the spacecraft.
At Goldstone and Honeysuckle Creek Tracking Stations the prime receiver’s usually steady white “Signal in Lock” light suddenly blinked out and the alarms began their two-tone singing. Essay! The servo operator immediately switched to Program Track (antenna under computer control) and the receiver operators began trying to reacquire the essays signal but were only ib tok essay 2005, able to find a weak signal coming from the spacecraft. Alan Foster on the Honeysuckle Creek receivers remembers: “The signal level dropped right down to about minus 140 db, I can remember struggling with it it was pretty grim but we managed to keep in lock. They also went on to emergency voice and became hard to hear.” “Fred was still in the Lunar Module. Jack was back in the Command Module in the left hand seat. And I was half way in between in the lower equipment bay wrestling with TV wires and a camera, watching Fred coming down.” Haise was crawling through the tunnel from the Lunar Module when he saw the wall of the integrity tunnel flex, and felt the statistical process jar from the explosion. He jumped when the master alarm suddenly howled in his headset, mixed with Swigert’s voice from the Command Module yelling about essays a panel alarm. “Now, before that, Fred being in the Lunar Module, had actuated a valve which normally gives us the process control thesis same sound. Integrity Essays! since he didn’t tell us about it, we all rather jumped. But it was his joke and we all thought it was sort of essay, fun until something happened.” “It wasn’t me!” Haise threw back at Lovell’s inquiring expression as he instinctively dived for his couch in the Command Module. Swigert tried to slam the hatch shut behind him, thinking the integrity jolt might have come from the Lunar Module being hit by dissertations something.
The astronauts knew a high speed object not much bigger than a grain of sand could rip open the integrity flimsy skin of the essay two kinds Lunar Module and let their life supporting atmosphere vent out in moments. Though Swigert wrestled with the hatch, it wouldn’t lock shut as it was misaligned. As they still had their atmosphere and were still alive, they pushed the hatch aside. All three astronauts’ pulse rates shot up to over 130. “It is interesting to note that days later, just before we jettisoned the integrity essays Lunar Module, when the hatch had to be closed and locked, Jack did it – easy as pie. Essay! That’s the kind of flight it was.” “It shook the spacecraft and scared the hell out of me. Integrity! I proceeded to statistical thesis look at Jim and about the same time – I guess about two seconds had elapsed – when I had a master alarm and a main bus B undervolt light. I told Houston we had a problem and proceeded to go over to integrity essays the right hand side of the spacecraft to look at social anxiety disorder the voltage…” He saw the B bus voltage supplying half the essays power to drive the social disorder essay spacecraft, drop right out. Haise checked fuel cell #3 supplying its electricity, and integrity, found it dead, so connected the alternative A power Bus to line, but it seemed to two kinds amy tan be on its way out too. Integrity Essays! A quick check of fuel cell #1 showed it was as dead as #3. With only fuel cell #2 left to drive the essay amy tan A Bus, the astronauts realised from the mission rules that landing on the moon was now impossible.
At 1308 AEST Swigert called Houston with the now famous remark, “Okay, Houston, we’ve had a problem here.” Capcom Jack Lousma, “This is Houston – say again, please.” “Houston – we’ve had a problem. We’ve had a Main B Bus undervolt,” Lovell explained. “Roger. Main B undervolt. … Okay, stand by, Thirteen, we’re looking at it.” Capcom Lousma answered for the Mission Control team. In the Apollo 13 spacecraft, launched at 1313 hours (spacecraft time), it was 9:08 pm on April 13 . At Honeysuckle Creek it was 1308 hours (1:08 pm) on essays April 14. At Houston it was just after 2100 local on a pleasant clear evening. With three friends, Andy Saulietis had rigged up a telescope connected to statistical process control a black and white television set on integrity a roof of the Manned Spacecraft Center.
They were studying a slowly fading pinpoint of social anxiety disorder essay, light approaching the Moon – the Saturn IVB rocket following Odyssey , blinking as it tumbled along. While they watched, a bright spot appeared in the middle of the integrity essays screen and over the next ten minutes grew into quite a bright ball. No one connected the flare with Apollo 13 they vaguely thought it was a defect in their television monitor. They left the multivariate statistical control thesis rooftop quite oblivious to integrity what they had witnessed – the oxygen tank on Apollo 13 exploding, and in ten minutes spreading into a gaseous sphere over 48 kilometres wide, glowing in the sunlight. Inside the Mission Control Center none of the disorder outline Flight Controllers sitting at their consoles were aware of integrity, what had happened either, until some of them began seeing abnormal indications coming down their telemetry channels – strange readings from role nco essay, temperatures, pressures, voltages, and the status of various pieces of equipment. They were overwhelmed by reports of loss of the High Gain Antenna, spacecraft computer restarts, random thruster firings, and multiple system failures. It took them over fifteen minutes to figure out that there had been some sort of explosion, but they were still hopeful the mission was going to proceed to integrity a normal lunar landing. EECOM Sy Liebergot, the Flight Controller in charge of the Command and Service Module’s electrical and environmental systems, was now squarely in the hot seat: “Our data suddenly went ratty, some of it went static.
I heard the announcements from the spacecraft and was already scanning my readouts. Nothing made sense. Ib Tok! I called Kranz, ‘We may have an instrumentation problem, Flight. Let me go ahead and check,’ which was my way of putting Kranz off, and he knew that.” “Rog.” Kranz replied. Hear Sy Liebergot’s EECOM loop starting just six seconds before the explosion. He asks about the integrity cryo stir, and then we hear a burst of static as lock is anxiety disorder essay outline lost on essays the High Gain Antenna. We hear the team beginning to ib tok 2005 troubleshoot the problem. This recording is part of longer audio on a disc included with Sy’s book, “Apollo EECOM: Journey of essays, a Lifetime” available from CG Publishing/Apogee Books.
This audio clip is essay also available on Sy’s website. Used with kind permission of, and with thanks to, Sy Liebergot. Integrity! 1.1MB mp3 / 2 minutes 12 seconds. Clip starts at 055:54:49GET. Charlie Dumas (left) speaks with Gerry Griffin at the EECOM console. Sy Liebergot, smoking a pipe, is at right.
From 16mm NASA footage several minutes before the explosion. 5 Paragraph Essay About! Screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Integrity! Liebergot never saw the of an nco essay pressure spike in essays, the oxygen tank that caused the explosion: “You look away, you blink, and essay about, it’s gone. Essays! That’s exactly what happened. We were doing the essay outline cryo stir and I was just looking to the right of the oxygen tanks at integrity the hydrogen tanks where the changes usually showed up first.
Everybody was looking at the hydrogen, which was about communication two inches over. When I looked back the spike had already gone. My backroom guys, Dick Brown, electrical system expert, and George Bliss and integrity, Larry Sheaks, my environmental control systems experts, were trying to figure out what was going on as well. Essay! To begin with we figured we just had a fuel cell problem and concentrated on integrity essays that. Pretty soon we knew the tank was gone, so I asked for an estimate of how long we had on the remaining tank.” Liebergot had little to work on, only displays of nearly fifty parameters all showing out of limit readings on his console. This was so sudden, without any warning, that he felt overwhelmed.
No amount of training or mission experience could prepare him for ib tok 2005, this crisis. Integrity! Initially he knew that the two dead fuel cells drew their oxygen from the same source, and as the third cell was still working, at first he didn’t suspect the oxygen tanks. He was working on a Fuel Cell #3 leak, and trying to isolate it. Social Anxiety Disorder! Also, he was still trying to figure out integrity why two fuel cells would fail. Then he saw that oxygen tank #2 was showing empty. Its contents had all gone! Half the oxygen for the cabin atmosphere and the spacecraft power for the mission had gone in two minutes – just vanished. They hadn’t even reached the moon. All their training and simulations had always relied on backup systems to keep the role of an nco essay mission going, nobody had been game enough to introduce a complete failure of integrity, all the power systems into essay 2005, the simulations.
As one of the Flight Controllers said later, “This was so far down the line, if anyone had asked us to simulate it ahead of time we would all have said he was being unrealistic.” “I had all the essays feelings that went with not having the answers to the problem and not seeing any way out of it. It happened too quickly – it was a cascading failure which means the original failure got masked by the subsequent failures it created. We were never trained for a cascading series of problems leading to a catastrophe. That’s not training. It was like saying the structure of the 5 paragraph leadership spacecraft was going to fail.” A minute or so after the explosion Alan Glines, the communications engineer (INCO), reported to Kranz that the signal from the spacecraft had switched to the smaller omni antennas, which was probably due to integrity the side panel hitting the big antenna on its way past. The weaker signal combined with the erratic behaviour of the amy tan spacecraft caused the receiver operators at Goldstone and Honeysuckle Creek and the other stations difficulty in holding onto the weak, fluctuating signal for the rest of the mission.
Then Lovell announced the voltage on the A Bus was beginning to drop. An uneasy silence fell on the voice loops… “Okay, Houston, are you still reading Apollo 13?” Lovell couldn’t contain his anxiety any longer. Integrity! “That’s affirmative,” replied Lousma, “We are reading you. We’re trying to come up with some good ideas here for process thesis, you.” He looked appealingly at Kranz: “What can I tell them?” Kranz did not have an answer. Nobody had an answer. Capcom Jack Lousma apeaks with the crew onboard Apollo 13 after the essays explosion. Astronaut John Young is seated next to him.
From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Essay Two Kinds Amy Tan! Lovell couldn’t understand why his ship was reeling drunkenly about the heavens. The thrusters were firing away trying to bring the spacecraft under control, but unknown to either the astronauts or the flight controllers at the time the explosion had knocked some of the thrusters out. Lovell took over manual control, but found no matter how he tried, he could do no better than the automatic pilot – the spacecraft seemed to have a mind of its own, always trying to veer away from the course. Integrity! He decided to look out of the window in case he could see something outside. As he swung himself onto the left seat and multivariate statistical process control thesis, peered out, the sight that met his inquiring eyes formed a knot in his stomach – the sun was shining on integrity a powerful stream of gas spurting out of the role side of the Service Module. Sixteen minutes after the explosion, at 1322 AEST, Lovell remembers, “I happened to look out of the left hand window, and integrity essays, saw the final evidence pointing toward potential catastrophe. ‘We are venting something out into the . into space,’ I reported to Houston.” “Roger, we copy you are venting,” acknowledged Lousma. In Mission Control a report of gas venting into space spread among the process consoles like wildfire, and put a whole new dimension on the situation. Liebergot: “I ignored that, I couldn’t deal with that.
I needed to go and find what I could do about integrity essays it. ” Fuel cell #2 was still producing electricity but when Lovell looked back at the oxygen pressures again Tank #2 was still reading zilch, but now Tank #1 was only half full, and social anxiety disorder essay, dropping! They were going to lose all their oxygen – they weren’t going to have enough to bring the integrity essays ship back home to communication Earth! This was it! Lovell knew they were in trouble. But how serious was it?
Was it only integrity essays, oxygen gas squirting out into space? How long did they have? He immediately sensed that their next moves would be crucial to their survival, and their lives would depend on maintaining communication with Houston, and for that they needed power. There were only 15 minutes of battery power left in the Command Module, and that was needed for reentry into the Earth’s atmosphere. Essay Leadership! The Earth was over 90 hours away . Integrity! Lovell: “The knot in my stomach tightened, and all regrets about not landing on the moon vanished. Of An Nco Essay! Now it was strictly a case for survival. I had seen the film Marooned and I must admit that the parallel crossed my mind.” He looked across to Haise, the LM expert and pilot, “We’re going to have to use Aquarius to get home.” Back in mission control, Liebergot also saw oxygen tank #1 contents disappearing before his eyes – the pressure dropping from 6,068 kPa down to 2,760 kPa in less than three minutes.
Two thirds of the electrical power generation system was dead, and there was only three hours of life left. Looking into the immediate future, he felt momentarily sick in the stomach. Integrity! He grabbed the security handles on his console to essay steady himself down. Was he going to be the first flight controller to lose a spacecraft and its crew out in space? “In all my life I have never felt so alone, as I did then. I didn’t have the answers. It seemed we were on the point of losing everybody and everything.” What had to be done before the Command Module completely died?
Would this crippled combination of a dead Command Service Module and a Lunar Module only designed to go down to the lunar surface and back with two people cope with demands and manoeuvres they were never designed for? There was little time left to make any plans. Everybody was facing problems that seemed to be leading to more problems. except the Lunar Module systems people they were standing by with a fully operational spacecraft, powered down waiting to integrity essays arrive at the moon. It wasn’t long before they realised the Lunar Module was going to be involved. During the Trans Lunar Coast phase of the two kinds amy tan mission, the Lunar Module was powered down to essays conserve power, except for some critical systems kept warm by thermostatically controlled heaters powered by essay the Service Module batteries fed through the Command Module. Now they had lost the power to the relays that controlled the transfer of the power source to the Lunar Module batteries – so they could not turn the integrity power on in the Lunar Module from social outline, its batteries in the descent stage.
That was the integrity first big problem to be overcome. Role Of An Nco Essay! Strangely enough a year earlier, on 25 April 1969, during an Apollo 10 simulation the simulation team had failed the essays fuel cells in almost the same spot, and the simulation ended with a dead crew. It was decided that this failure was a bit unrealistic and the incident was forgotten as the Apollo program forged ahead. Development! Fortunately some of the more conscientious Lunar Module flight controllers had worried about essays their simulation failure, and decided to look into the problem. Jim Hannigan, branch chief of the Lunar Module flight controllers, assigned Donald Puddy to pick a team to work on the problem. Bill Legler, one of the key members of the team (who had been present during the Apollo 10 simulation) worked out some procedures that could reverse the power flow to go from the Lunar Module back into the Command Module and energise the role of an power transfer relays. These emergency procedures had never been completed and essays, incorporated into role nco essay, the official procedures, but with the Apollo 13 situation these preliminary procedures were recovered and dusted off.
They gave the Lunar Module controllers a head start. The engineer in charge of the electrical and environmental systems of the Lunar Module was Bill Peters, “I had just unplugged from the console and only taken two steps away when Bob Heselmeyer called out essays ‘You’d better come back here, I think something’s going on.’ I figured out pretty quickly it looked like a major disaster, and one of the plans in cases like this was to close all the telephone lines in and out of the Control Center so just in case I called my wife real quick and told her not to social disorder expect me home that night – turn on the TV to integrity essays find out outline why – and hung up.” At the Goldstone tracking station a team was quickly formed to analyse the telemetry information they had just recorded, particularly the last few moments before the explosion. Bill Wood , lead USB Engineer: “We were able to read all bits up to signal loss by recording the data at a high speed of integrity, 60 inches per second and 2005, playing it back at 3½ inches per second. Integrity! Then we rolled the chart paper onto development dissertations the control room floor and counted the frames of data by integrity essays eye to 5 paragraph essay leadership find out what each parameter was reading up to integrity essays the signal loss, and what things looked like right after the signal was reacquired. Anxiety Disorder Essay! My recollection was that the integrity essays engineers found a pressure spike in the oxygen tank that exploded.”
The telemetry showed the pressure shot up to 6,950 kPa for two seconds before dropping to zero in the next two seconds. Process! Then Larry Sheaks called Liebergot to integrity tell him that the oxygen surge tank in the Command Module was losing pressure. The surge tank was usually used for reentry only, but was used as a buffer to role nco essay keep the oxygen levels steady. The EECOM from integrity, Milt Windler’s Maroon shift, John Aaron, was quietly shaving at home when the phone shrilled. It was Arnold Aldrich, his office manager, at Mission Control. “Arnie said ‘Hey, John, these guys are working some kind of problem and I know your specialty is instrumentation patterns and they think this is a telemetry problem, but I don’t know.’ So I said to Arnie, ‘Go and read me some parameters off displays such and such, then go to displays such and essay outline, such and read those out to me. He did all that and I said ‘Arnie, that is not a telemetry failure there is no pattern there that fits. Tell those guys they’ve got a real problem and integrity essays, I’ll be right there.
By the time I came in, I got in on the tail end of 5 paragraph, analysing what had happened there, and started convincing the guys that they ought to power down the Command Module and save the batteries, because we were using battery power to troubleshoot the problem, and I knew these were the same batteries that were going to integrity essays bring us home. That was pretty traumatic because the Command and Service Module was never designed to be powered down in space and two kinds, we didn’t have any procedures to power it up from integrity, scratch. 5 Paragraph Leadership! Normally it was powered up over essays a period of days on the pad before you launched, using a lot of power.” Forty six minutes after the explosion George Bliss informed Liebergot that there was only 1 hour 54 minutes left in O 2 Tank #1, when the last fuel cell would die. Multivariate Statistical Process Control! Then there would only be the Command Module’s reentry batteries left – and they were needed for integrity, reentry. The unthinkable had happened and there was no back up or redundant system to pull them out of this one. They were facing a major disaster in space. Liebergot announced on the intercom loop: “Flight, the pressure in O 2 tank 1 has dropped all the way down to 297 (psi) (2048 kPa) and ib tok essay 2005, we’d better think about getting into integrity essays, the LM.” Flight dynamics chief Jerry Bostick was sitting in the Trench listening to the drama deepening on the console behind him, and 5 paragraph about leadership, began to think of getting the spacecraft back as soon as possible. He and his team soon discarded the integrity immediate turn-around (direct abort which would bring them home in 34 hours) using the process thesis main SPS engine because the LM ‘lifeboat’ would have to be cast off, and doubt about the integrity of the Service Module – that is, how much damage had been done to the internal systems of the integrity essays Service Module? Was the engine damaged?
Even if it wasn’t, there was no electricity to operate the engine controls such opening or closing valves. Role Of An! The alternative was to carry on and sling around the essays Moon. This was going to disorder essay take up to four days – could they keep the astronauts alive for such a long period? That was up to the LM systems controllers. The Trench waited for the Flight Directors to integrity essays make up their minds. Development Communication Dissertations! Ken Mattingly slid alongside Lousma and plugged his headset in. He wanted to help his mates if he could.
Kranz said this was his toughest call on essays Apollo 13. “My team was pretty much split down the middle. Many of my systems controllers wanted to get home in the fastest fashion possible.” By now there were two teams gathered around the consoles discussing the emergency and the chatter was getting out of hand so Kranz stood up and yelled around the two kinds room, “Okay all flight controllers cut the chatter. I want every member of the White team to settle down and get back on the voice loops – the rest of integrity essays, you shut up.” Still damp from being called from a shower at home, Chris Kraft had arrived by development dissertations now and joined the intercom conversation at his Director’s console, just before thirty three year old Glynn Lunney was due to take over integrity the next shift. Anxiety Essay Outline! Leader of the Maroon team, Milt Windler, also joined the group. Lunney had been discussing the return options with Bostick and an intense discussion developed between the Flight Directors on the best course of essays, action, ending with Kranz addressing Kraft, “Our only real option is to go around the ib tok essay Moon.” Chris Kraft, Astronaut Jim McDivitt, and Robert Gilruth in the back row of the MOCR. Behind them is the integrity essays glass window of the VIP viwewing room.
From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Kraft agreed, “When do you want to do the burn?” The decision was made, and the Flight Dynamics controllers in the Trench breathed a sigh of relief and began to two kinds amy tan work out a burn procedure for a trajectory to sling around the Moon and return home. So 53 minutes after the explosion, an essays, emergency plan began to social anxiety disorder essay evolve. Integrity Essays! Astronauts Gene Cernan (left), Deke Slayton (coat) and Ed Mitchell look on as Jack Lousma sits as his Capcom console. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by role of an Colin Mackellar. “I was already in a back room of the Control Center when we got the report that there was a problem. Integrity Essays! We were due on shift at about 10:00 pm (USCST) that night. The spacecraft crew were supposed to go to sleep and statistical control, we were supposed to sit there and watch a sleep shift. I went in and plugged in with Gene; I knew the spacecraft crew had reported a bang and some venting, so there was a suspicion there was some kind of essays, problem, but people still weren’t sure how serious the problem was. There were a set of confusing indicators we had lost the leadership oxygen in essays, one tank so we lost the fuel cell that was plugged to it, and that fuel cell was plugged to social the B electrical Buss. The RCS thrusters were split between main Bus A and Main Bus B, so we had lost half the essays thrusters which gave us these attitude control problems. We became involved in closing off the fuel cells, one at a time, to try to isolate a leak within the development communication fuel cells, but once you shut them down, you can’t get them back, and I remember doing that as a last resort.
We had a number of situations to deal with. We were on a non free-return trajectory. Up until Apollo 13 we had used trajectories that would loop around the Moon to return approximately into the entry corridor. Here we were not going to come back to any safe kind of Earth entry at all. Integrity Essays! We were also at a point where it would have been very expensive in essay about, terms of propulsion to turn around and come back without looping around the integrity essays Moon. That was considered for a while, but the ib tok essay 2005 only way we knew how to do that was to dump the descent stage of the Lunar Module and use all of the Service Propulsion fuel, but the essays two problems with that were we couldn’t power the Service Module up any more, we were only down to anxiety essay outline batteries, so we couldn’t sustain a power load to integrity essays run the role of an Service Propulsion engine, and integrity essays, we didn’t want to dump the statistical process control descent stage of the Lunar Module because it was our lifeboat where most of the batteries, water and so on essays were stored. Essay Amy Tan! Parallel with all this going on with the guidance people was what are we going to do to power the Lunar Module up. We knew we had to essays get it powered up enough to take care of the manoeuvre later, but we also began to realise that the way the telescope worked for aligning the platform in the Lunar Module that it probably wouldn’t work by itself while it was attached to the Command Module out in free space. We realised we had to get an multivariate process control, alignment from the Command Module guidance reference system, the integrity inertial platform, and transfer it over to the Lunar Module which was a lot of number plugging by ib tok 2005 the crew members, followed and checked by the people on the ground. This of course happened some time after we got the essays Lunar Module powered up.
We got the Lunar Module powered up but as we went through it we were trying to figure out what we didn’t have to dissertations bring up because we knew we were going to be power limited and water coolant limited to get home. The Lunar Module was designed for two men for two days and we knew we were at least four or five days from home with three people. We knew we couldn’t stay powered up at these levels so we had to figure out a way to cut the power down. We also knew we had limited amounts of consumables on board. We got the Lunar Module configured so it could do a passive thermal control. Instead of a rolling manoeuvre, which we normally used, we rotated the vehicle ninety degrees every hour so we could get equal sun (heating) and cooling on the vehicle. Integrity! As we could watch this on the ground the crew didn’t have to worry about development communication it.
Once we got in that position we said we’re on this non-free return, why don’t we trim that out and get the vehicle on a free return so if anything happens later we are least heading for the reentry corridor. So we did this 40 foot per second manoeuvre that put us on a free return trajectory. Integrity Essays! After that we began to try to take power off everything that we didn’t need and essay amy tan, we began to lay out in detail the options for how big or small a manoeuvre we would do at seventy nine and a half hours into the mission, after we got around the integrity essays Moon. We settled on a manoeuvre that wasn’t quite maximum but would get us back by about 142 hours. We had also figured out how to husband the consumables. Communication! By the end of my shift about ten hours later we had put the vehicle back on an Earth return trajectory, the inertial guidance platform had been transferred to the Lunar Module, and integrity essays, we kept the Lunar Module reasonably powered up for the burn planned for two hours after we had turned the corner at the Moon. We had a plan for what that manoeuvre would be, and we had a consumable profile that really left us with reasonable margins at the end.” Glynn Lunney (left) and communication, Milt Windler, take stock of the situation. Behind them, in the background, is Robert Gilruth. Deke Slayton is in the foreground. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Here’s a view of the MOCR during Glynn Lunney’s shift, after the accident.
Panorama assembled from integrity, 16mm NASA footage by CM. Gene Kranz and his White Team continued their shift for an extra hour before handing over to Glynn Lunney and the Black Team, and went to the back of the building to study data from the role of an nco essay spacecraft. Kranz decided to step out of the Houston shift sequence and head a Tiger Team to concentrate on essays the engineering and procedures to get the crippled spacecraft and its crew back home. “The key thing here was I didn’t form the Tiger Team the Tiger Team to a great extent always existed. During the about Apollo Program we flew with four mission control teams, and essays, one team was always designated as the Lead Team and in case of any mission difficulties it was that team’s responsibility to establish the game plan, the essay two kinds recovery plan, do the trouble shooting and essays, that just happened to fall into anxiety disorder outline, my team. Integrity Essays! We had many problems here we had a variety of survival problems, we had electrical management, water management, and we had to figure out role nco essay how to navigate because the stars were occluded by the debris cloud surrounding the spacecraft. Basically we had to turn a two day spacecraft into essays, a four and a half day spacecraft with an extra crewmember to get the crew back home. We were literally working outside the design and test boundaries of the essay two kinds amy tan spacecraft so we had to invent everything as we went along. Integrity Essays! There were many lead people, but the three people I would name were Arnie Aldrich who handled the checklist, John Aaron with the power management, and Bill Peters who looked at social anxiety essay the Lunar Module and tried to figure out how it could be most effective as a lifeboat.” There were no official procedures to refer to even the emergency procedures didn’t cover losing all three Command Module fuel cell power sources and using the Lunar Module in lieu of the integrity Command Module. At 1456 AEST on 14 April Lovell and Haise had already decided to climb into the Lunar Module, “Without much discussion from the ground, both Jim and I decided to head for the LM. At this point we only had one choice and took it,” Haise explained. Swigert was left to wind down the control Command Module.
The last oxygen tank was nearly empty. Essays! Capcom Jack Lousma told the astronauts, “Thirteen, Houston. We’d like you to start making your way over to the LM now” Swigert replied: “Fred and Jim are in development communication dissertations, the LM.” Lovell had joined Haise in the LM, who was already throwing switches to essays bring the power up when Swigert yelled down the tunnel, “Houston wants the 5 paragraph about LM powered up.” Haise advised Houston, “. and Jack, I got LM power on.” GUIDO Will Fenner (green shirt) at the Guidance console as the navigation platform is transferred from Odyssey to Aquarius . From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Swigert said he had never seen the essays LM activated so fast, but it still wasn’t fast enough. He had to turn the reentry battery in the Command Module on to keep the navigation guidance system going until the crucial settings were transferred to the Lunar Module system. Just as Lovell set up a good alignment at 1513 AEST, the last Fuel Cell #2, died. Lovell: “Getting that transfer was the first big turning point.”
The concern is evident on development communication the face of essays, astronaut John Young as he stands beside Capcom Jack Lousma. Essay Outline! Behind him is astronaut Tom Stafford. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by integrity Colin Mackellar. Houston told Swigert to close the Command Module down. The power had to be turned off in a carefully planned sequence so it could be brought back up ready for reentry.
At 1553 he turned off the social anxiety disorder essay outline last switch, looked around the lifeless cabin no cosy lights, no friendly voices from the radio, no gurgling from integrity essays, pipes or whirring of fans their cheerful home of a moment ago was just dark and dead 333,125 empty kilometres from Earth, and racing away from essay, it at 3,380 kilometres per hour! He floated into the Lunar Module, and said to Lovell and Haise, “It’s up to you now.” He suddenly felt lost. He was trained for the Command and Service Module, a position normally busy right through the mission. Integrity! Now he could only watch the other two expertly bringing the Lunar Module to development dissertations life. The last few hours had been fast and furious, crammed with momentous life threatening events; now it was just waiting. for what? Haise said that he lost all track of time during those hectic five hours, full of rapid-fire events. It was more like a dream than reality because of the integrity jolt from the security of comfort and order to the onslaught of unexpected events and of an, fleeting images and feeling very vulnerable to the hostile environment of essays, empty space. Dead tired, he was the first to drag himself into process control thesis, the Command Module to sleep soundly for essays, the next five hours. RIGHT ACROSS THE CONTINENT, FROM PERTH TO SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA PITCHES IN TO HELP APOLLO 13. “At the time of the explosion I was operating the ranging system, which measured the distance and speed of the spacecraft, when I heard Swigert send his problem call, and essay 2005, then listened as the integrity essays flight controllers sent a barrage of instructions up to the spacecraft, punctuated by terse responses from the astronauts. Once we had acquired on the smaller omni antenna, my equipment was managing to keep locked on 5 paragraph essay the spacecraft signal, but my finger was hovering beside the ‘acquire’ button in case of drop-outs. At that stage we did not know it was a life-threatening situation, we thought it was a communications problem with the spacecraft.
The first indication of the seriousness of the crisis to us at essays Honeysuckle Creek was when Mission Control in Houston called the Operations Supervisor at essay amy tan Honeysuckle Creek and asked, ‘How long would it take to get Parkes up?’ Parkes was the CSIRO’s radio telescope used during the Apollo 11 mission. Integrity Essays! It was not called up for the Apollo 13 mission because the astronauts now used a big portable umbrella antenna for communications from the lunar surface. I knew the essay outline situation was really serious as you don’t just casually ask to use the 64 metre radio astronomy antenna at Parkes without making high level arrangements with plenty of warning.” In Mission Control the low signal levels from the spacecraft were causing concern. Integrity Essays! Chris Kraft, Director of Flight Operations, “We wanted to of an make sure that we got a good telemetry signal, and Parkes was one of the places where we knew we could get it.” “Parkes isn’t committed to this mission,” Mike Dinn informed them. “Oh, then Mr Kraft will be calling your Director on the phone shortly, “ Houston replied. Honeysuckle Creek Station Director Don Gray : Don Gray, Station Director, in his office at Honeysuckle Creek.
Photo: Hamish Lindsay. “I was sitting in my office listening to this conversation on the net, and in moments the phone rang. Integrity Essays! Chris Kraft said to me ‘We have a serious problem on the spacecraft; it looks like we are going to have to power down and will need all the antennas we can get. Ib Tok 2005! Do what you can to get Parkes up as soon as possible.’ First of integrity essays, all I called Tom Reid, the Director at Tidbinbilla, to organise a crew to go to Parkes, then I rang John Bolton at Parkes to social outline find he was already aware of the integrity essays problem and was prepared to change the two kinds antenna over to support the NASA signals.” At the integrity Deep Space Station at Tidbinbilla the request took Station Director Tom Reid by surprise: “What are you talking about? It takes weeks of negotiations between the CSIRO and NASA Headquarters, agreements and money and budgets.’ Then I got a black phone call , ‘Hey look, we’ve got a problem on board the spacecraft this is a serious thing, think again about how soon you can do it – never mind about process budgets and money.’ The contractor’s people responded magnificently, got themselves down to Parkes luckily the equipment was still there, it just wasn’t configured. NASA hastily flew out Bob Taylor, one of the Goddard engineers, to be there, as he knew the system.” Dr John Bolton, Director of Parkes. Integrity Essays! Photo from a 1967 ABC publication, via John Sarkissian. “I was listening to the conversation between Houston and James Lovell, and as had been my habit, had thoroughly digested the flight plan. I realised that the only solution was to occupy the outline LM and use its facilities. Integrity Essays! The very low power (signal from the 2005 spacecraft) and the fact that the journey would be in Parkes coverage time meant we would certainly be called in. I rang Tom Reid, the Director of Tidbinbilla, with whom I had an integrity essays, excellent relationship, to nco essay ask for the NASA crew to be sent in; I rang Taffy (Dr.
E.G. Bowen) to integrity let him know what assistance I would need from Sydney; and then Charlie Chenhall (RP Workshop Supervisor) to development communication dissertations organise supplies and aircraft. Integrity Essays! Fortunately Radhakrishnan (Venkataraman Radhakrishnan, Director of the Raman Research Institute, Bangladore, India) was conducting a special experiment on the telescope and a number of engineers were on of an nco essay hand. They dismantled and carried Rad’s equipment down the integrity essays ladder of one of the feed legs, while Parkes staff used the leadership lift to get the NASA gear to the focus. We accomplished in 10 hours what normally took close to a week.” Bruce Window , Tidbinbilla USB Supervisor: “It was about 6 pm. I was working on shift at Tidbinbilla when we were cranked up straight away to get to Parkes in a hurry in a light aircraft, a Cessna 337. It was a hairy trip. At the same time the CSIRO had been given the message and they had taken their feedcone off and had started to assemble our feedcone. Integrity Essays! We arrived in the dark, drove out to essay two kinds the site, by which time the CSIRO had flashed up all their part of the equipment. On that first day we had got the voice but we hadn’t got all the links through to Honeysuckle.
I can remember holding the integrity essays cable and shouting in frustration, I had the stuff in my hand but I couldn’t do anything with it! Predictions were the problem (the information where to point the antenna), they were a big problem early on. We just had to rely on predictions from of an nco essay, NASA. Integrity! John Bolton and his boys had to work around them as much as they could. We didn’t get any really good data from ib tok 2005, Parkes that first night. Integrity! They were relying heavily on us because of the improved quality of signal they were able to up the development communication dissertations bit rate by one step with our signal from what they were getting from the 26 metre dishes (such as Honeysuckle) that was why they needed us at essays Parkes. We worked 16 hour days.”
“I was relaxing at home when I had a phone call from the shift supervisor at the time to say there was a problem, so I immediately went in to find that Apollo 13 really was in trouble. Next there was a call from the essay two kinds Network Manager in the United States to say they wanted two things immediately they wanted to integrity activate the lines to Parkes, and the second one, which was a bit more difficult, was to statistical process get some kind of broadband communication between the Carnarvon OTC Earth station and the Carnarvon Tracking Station. They wanted everything they could get. Essays! I worked out I still had a few friends left in the PMG (Post Master General’s Department) in Western Australia who could help us out. So, by 4 o’clock in the morning I dragged one of my friends out of ib tok 2005, bed, and he said, ‘Oh, I think I have got an OB (Outside Broadcast) link we could use, I’ll see what I can do give me a call back in an hour.’ When I called him back he said, ‘Yes, I’ve organised it, two OB vans will be leaving the depot in integrity essays, Perth for Carnarvon at 8 o’clock this morning, as soon as the guys get to work.’ There was no mention of money, or anything like that, it was a matter of let’s do it and sort things out afterwards. At the same time I got cracking with the PMG. Because we already had circuits into Parkes, there was a probability most of it was still working. I called people out of bed and they found most of the link was there, and development communication, pretty soon after the Tidbinbilla guys arrived we had the links up.” Trevor Gray , PMG technician: “We worked non-stop through the integrity night to get the essay two kinds amy tan links going. After Apollo 11 we had trouble with the connections exploding when we switched the equipment on because of the high voltage and moisture getting in, so we had left the equipment switched on, but then all the electronic valves had deteriorated, and we were frantically trying to find the sick valves and change them before we could get the integrity links going.” Wilfred Laing , Senior Technical Officer at the Redfern Microwave Terminal in Sydney was interrupted by statistical process thesis the phone ringing: “It was the City South Control to say they needed Parkes up in a hurry.
I rang through to Parkes to find they were already setting their end up. Somebody must have had a premonition because only a few days before we had put up a temporary link from Parkes to Sydney via Orange just in case it may be required. We dropped everything we were doing with the essays state networks and concentrated on thesis the Apollo circuits.” Meanwhile out in space the astronauts found that as soon as they brought the Lunar Module communications system on line it clashed with the Saturn IVB rocket following them, as they were both transmitting on the same frequency. Because the Apollo 12 mission had left a seismometer on the moon, the Saturn IVB was organised to crash on the moon for seismic readings, and extra batteries had been added for communications to last until impact. Integrity Essays! Normally, this should occur well before the Lunar Module was fired up. So with both the Saturn IVB and Lunar Module transmitters on the same frequency it was the same as having two radio stations on the same spot on the dial of your radio. Which one does it try to social disorder essay outline lock onto? Bill Wood at the Goldstone Tracking Station, “The Flight Controllers at Houston wanted us to move the signal from the Lunar Module across to the other side of the Saturn IVB signal to allow for expected doppler changes. Integrity! Tom Jonas, our receiver-exciter engineer, yelled at me, ‘that’s not going to work! We will end up locking both spacecraft to essay one up-link and integrity essays, wipe out the telemetry and voice contact with the crew.’ I jumped on the station intercom and role of an, strongly requested Bill Sheridan, the Station Operations Supervisor, to integrity tell Houston what would happen, but they just told us to social essay follow instructions. So at that time Houston lost telemetry with the Saturn IVB and voice contact with the spacecraft crew.
Luckily our big 64 metre Mars antenna was already switching over to the Apollo emergency and their narrower beam width managed to essays discriminate between the two signals and the telemetry and voice links were restored. So the situation stabilised from our point of view until it was time for communication dissertations, us to hand this ‘mess’ over to Honeysuckle Creek in Australia.” Honeysuckle Creek was tracking with its smaller 26 metre antenna. Deputy Director Mike Dinn : “This was where the receiver operators earned their money. When they fired up the LM, we had both signals in integrity, the same bandwidth and we had ten receivers that could lock to one or the statistical other and did! Before the mission I had foreseen the possibility of our having to cope with the Saturn IVB and the LM together. There was nothing written down in integrity, the procedures and I remember calling Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland, our technical advisors, to discuss what we might do, and we agreed there would be no difficulty in “pulling” the frequencies apart by tuning the station transmitters appropriately. I was used to this procedure in the Deep Space Network in role of an, the early years of lunar and integrity, planetary exploration. Anyway, I remember that we acquired the two spacecraft and successfully pulled the two links apart. Then Houston asked us to role of an nco essay tune the integrity essays frequency of one transmitter and role, I immediately recognised this would bring all the frequencies back together again. I tried to talk Houston out of integrity essays, this, even asking Goddard to tell them, but was unsuccessful, and we had to carry out the request. The problems we knew would happen, occurred.” John Mitchell , Honeysuckle USB Shift Supervisor: “Back when Apollo 1 had the fire, during the long suspension period that followed we used to hire a Cessna 210 and practice handovers and that sort of thing.
When Mike Dinn was looking for emergency procedures I put up the theory that what happens if the role of an nco essay Saturn IVB signal does keep going for some reason? So I proposed the theory of getting the LM to essays switch off and we practiced that time and time again with the aircraft. I told Mike Dinn that this was the way to essay amy tan go.” From his previous discussions with Goddard, Dinn agreed: “I advised Houston that the only way out of this mess was to ask the astronauts in the LM to turn off its signal so we could lock on to the Saturn IVB, then turn the LM back on and pull it away from the Saturn signal.” “They came back in an hour and told us to go ahead, and integrity essays, Houston transmitted the instructions up to the astronauts ‘in the blind’ hoping the astronauts could hear, as we couldn’t hear them at that moment. The downlink from the spacecraft suddenly disappeared, so we knew they got the message. When we could see the Saturn IV downlink go way out to the prescribed frequency, we put the second uplink on, acquired the LM, put the sidebands on, locked up and dissertations, tuned away from the Saturn IVB. Then everything worked fine.” In the left foreground at the servo console is Brian Bell, behind him is integrity Bernard Smith bending over multivariate statistical process thesis the System Monitor chart recorder.
Along the receiver console behind are the receiver operators, Graham Fraser, Ross Barnes, and Jerry Bissicks. Photo: Hamish Lindsay, exact date unknown. In Houston, the integrity essays Director of Flight Operations, Chris Kraft, came out and grimly told the media, “This is ib tok essay as serious a situation as we have ever had in essays, a manned spaceflight.” People around the two kinds amy tan world, already blas about moon missions, suddenly became engrossed in integrity, this gripping drama from space as the world’s media wound themselves up for 5 paragraph, this journalists’ manna from the integrity essays Apollo program. Everybody was wondering would they come back alive? Director of Flight Operations, Chris Kraft, speaks to the media at a midnight press conference in communication, the MSC Auditorium. Courtesy Spacecraft Films. Integrity Essays! With no power, the Command Module lapsed into a dark tomb, steadily getting colder and colder. Beads of moisture formed over of an all the surfaces, crusting the windows. Occasional flashes of sunlight through the integrity windows pierced the darkness lit only by 5 paragraph their torches. Outside, a cloud of vented gases and integrity essays, debris gathered around the spacecraft. Social Anxiety Disorder Essay Outline! Sparkling in the brilliant sunlight, they stopped any chance of the astronauts taking sights on stars for their navigation. “The spacecraft was doing things I had never seen before.
The LM was never designed to integrity essays have a 27,000 kilogram dead Command and Service Module attached to it, so I literally had to learn to leadership fly the vehicle all over again.” Apollo 13 was the second mission that had deviated from the ‘free-return’ trajectory, where the spacecraft would automatically sling around the Moon and return to essays Earth if anything had gone wrong. When the essay two kinds missions began to aim at the western landing sites the spacecraft took a different path and would not automatically return to Earth. Essays! Now they had to get back on to a free return trajectory, or they would miss the 5 paragraph leadership Earth by something like 70,000 kilometres. The only reliable engine available was the LM’s descent motor, but that was never designed to integrity push the multivariate process combined CSM and LM, and there were no procedures to use it in this way or simulations. Although pilots are reluctant to admit it, the computer can control burns much more accurately and reliably than manual control, so the astronauts waited anxiously while Houston figured out the rocket’s burn times.
Fred Haise calls Capcom Jack Lousa, to ask about plans for the return flight. Starting at integrity essays 059:17:53GET. This recording illustrates another problem caused by amy tan locking the IU and LM transponders to the same frequency. Bill Wood: “The GDS Wing was uplinking to the IU and GDS prime was uplinking to the LM. Integrity! That would have caused problems receiving both voice and command from the ground. While there was only one 30 kHz voice subcarrier from the about GDS Prime, the presence of two uplink carriers would have caused the interference that the crew was hearing.” Clip starts at 059:59:05GET. Integrity! The headline on Sydney’s The Sun newspaper, printed just hours after the explosion, tells the essay amy tan story. Meanwhile Lovell and Haise were wrestling with an uncontrollable spacecraft, trying to stabilise it and get away from the integrity glittering debris enveloping them. They needed to communication see the stars to check they were pointing in the right direction for the burn. Every ruse failed.
They could only hope the data transferred from the Command Module was still accurate enough. “Roger, Aquarius, You are go for the burn,” Capcom Lousma finally announced. Essays! Haise commented, “This was yet untried. I knew, of course, that if we failed to blast into the free return trajectory we were doomed to swing around the Moon, miss the Earth, and go into eternal orbit around it.” First of all Lovell had to remember to unfold the Lunar Module’s legs so they wouldn’t get blasted by the descent rocket’s exhaust. Then he carefully followed the burn procedures radioed up from Houston, hunched over the computer display with his hand on the throttle control. At 1842:43 AEST Tuesday 14 April the engine burned for 34.23 seconds, just over the scheduled 30 seconds. “Auto shutdown.” Lovell advised Houston and everyone hung anxiously onto the trajectory displays. Was the Lunar Module’s motor able to do the job?
Was Apollo 13 coming home? Soon the 5 paragraph about tracking data showed that the integrity essays burn was perfect. Apollo 13 was going to round the moon at about 209 kilometres instead of 97 kilometres above the surface and would return to Earth . into the Indian Ocean. “Any old ocean would do as long as it was on essay 2005 the Earth,” announced a relieved Lovell. A long way away from the main recovery forces waiting for them in integrity essays, the Pacific, but at nco essay least it was back on Earth. The nearest American ship was the destroyer Bordelon , cruising off the coast of Mauritius, but the American Department of Defense sent assurances they could get aircraft to the area. Due to the growing confidence in the Apollo program, this was the first time mission secondary recovery forces had not been sent to the South Atlantic, let alone the integrity Indian Ocean. Lovell checked around the instrument panels, and announced the next major item on his mind: “Okay, Houston, burn’s complete. Now we have to of an talk about powering down.” The next big problem were the consumables it wasn’t much good the spacecraft arriving back on Earth with the astronauts dead from asphyxiation. The Lunar Module was only designed for two people for 45 hours, now it was going to have to support three bodies jammed in it for integrity, 90 hours. There just wasn’t enough water or power to last the voyage back to Earth.
Lovell figured that the earliest they could get back would be around midnight on Friday; and 5 paragraph essay, he couldn’t see how it could possibly keep them going that long. In the Lunar Module Haise was looking at the situation. There was plenty of oxygen but the integrity electrical power and statistical process thesis, cooling water worried him. The LM had no fuel cells, only batteries for two days of essays, normal operation, and essay two kinds amy tan, the water used for cooling the electronic systems would run out about 5 hours before reentry by his calculations. Earlier tests had shown that the Lunar Module could survive for essays, about 7 hours without cooling before the guidance system would be the first to succumb to the heat. Haise waited for Mission Control’s assessment. The Tiger Team at Mission Control knuckled down to working out how to cut all consumables down to essay two kinds amy tan a basic existence level. “We gathered up in integrity essays, the back room with Kranz because there was nothing for the Command and Service Module guys to do in real time on the consoles because the essay two kinds amy tan spacecraft was dead. Kranz started talking about the strategy, what we were going to do going around the integrity essays Moon and when we get back close to communication Earth we will power the spacecraft up and do the reentry. and I said, ‘Kranz you can’t do that because you don’t have the power’ and integrity, he said, ‘Okay John Aaron, you’re in charge of power if anybody wants any power you go and social disorder, see John Aaron.’ So I said, ‘Tell you what guys, I’ve got some ideas, but let me put them down a piece of paper and come back in an hour and I’ll show you a way we might be able to do this.’ So they came back in about an hour, and I had sketched out a rough profile and integrity essays, I told them, ‘Okay guys, this is all the power we’ve got so we’ll have to statistical do the guidance system and all this stuff this way. ’ and everybody started saying ‘Oh my God, you can’t do that - we’ve got to have this, we’ve got to have that’ and that started a whole sequence of the brokerage process between me allocating subsystems and switch turn-ons and circuit breakers and keeping track of the power profile. That went on until we got very close to reentry, and it started taking on integrity essays more and more refinement, until it finally got to the point that a crew started trying it in development, the simulators just to make sure these guys could actually do that.
It was an endless iteration of brokerages across those days, and you have to integrity essays remember all the power analysis was done on arithmetic and slide rules we never had any calculators.” Bill Peters, Lunar Module TELMU, or electrical and environmental systems engineer, “We had developed some off-line computer programs that gave a time line power profile output. Process! We were running a load of anything up to 30 amps with the computers up, and there was no way we could get back with that sort of load. Integrity Essays! I figured if we could get down to about 12 amps we would be okay. We only knew this from development communication, our ground computations. Actually we had an error in our ground computation that under calculated so those batteries were consuming more than we had calculated. The first time I felt we could make it home was when we went around the Moon and did the real LM power down and the numbers came up on the screen.
Before that there was a possibility they would not make it. Once we hit the 12 amps I was convinced we had it made. We had very little powered up, only some communication equipment and the cabin fan to circulate the air. John Aaron came to integrity me and wanted me to social essay charge up the essays reentry batteries in the Command Module. We had concocted a scheme where we ran two CSM to LM umbilical cables backwards they were designed for the CSM to send power to anxiety outline the LM to integrity heaters to keep some components warm while travelling to the Moon. This powered the multivariate statistical process control Command Module’s inverters to charge its batteries. I gave them all the fat that I could come up with, as much power as I felt we could afford.” On Earth emergency teams swung into action around the country, from California to New York, where there were 10 phone lines kept open between Mission Control and a room staffed with 70 Lunar Module experts at the manufacturer’s plant in essays, Bethpage, Long Island. On 14 April the US Senate adopted a resolution urging all communications media and businesses to pause at 2100, their local time, to “permit persons to join in 2005, prayer for the safety of the astronauts.” On the same day President Nixon cancelled his appointments and drove out to the Goddard Space Flight Centre in Maryland, accompanied by integrity Apollo 11 astronaut Michael Collins, at essay two kinds the time Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs, to find out the details of how the mission was progressing. Despite the integrity Cold War, the Russians ordered four ships to the splashdown area, and Premier Aleksei Kosygin sent a message, “I want to inform you the Soviet Government has given orders to all citizens and members of the armed forces to use all necessary means to render assistance in the rescue of the American astronauts.” 6 min 47s / 1.4MB mp3.
This is essay 12 hours after the explosion and the comms is now much better. Starting at 066:35GET. Wednesday 15 April 1970. By 1520 on 15 April the crew in the crippled spacecraft had followed the ground instructions. Lovell, “We shut off all those exotic electronic devices that we would not normally be caught without out there the guidance systems, the computer, the auto pilot. Essays! We only multivariate thesis, had the radio for communications and essays, a little fan to 5 paragraph essay about circulate the atmosphere.” “For most of the integrity essays first two days after the multivariate statistical thesis explosion we split shifts . I was awake in the LM alone while Jim and Jack slept in the CSM and vice versa. Integrity! So there was no crowding during that period.
It finally became so cold that we all just stayed in the LM. In zero G, though crowded, it was just a soft nudge if you happened to bump into multivariate control thesis, someone. Most of the time Jack floated in the back area of the LM crew cabin out of the way, so the area was really not that confining. And it was good to have the three of us together in the same vehicle. Integrity Essays! The added ‘heat of the third body’ helped to raise the temperature in the LM.” The moonlight was flooding into the spacecraft’s interior and the astronauts were able to put their torches away.
They had cut their consumption of statistical process, water down to essays 170 grams per day. Development Communication Dissertations! As Houston told them to save the Lunar Module’s water for cooling, Lovell told Swigert to transfer all the drinking water from the Command Module to the Lunar Module, which he did using plastic juice bags, but he sloshed some of the water into his boots, and integrity, suffered the misery of cold wet feet for the rest of the trip. They ate cold hot dogs and wet pack foods, when they ate at all, the Command Module having the only water heating system. All the food and drinks were cold refrigerator cold! They didn’t get very thirsty and became quite dehydrated. This crew set a record by losing 50% more weight than any other crew, Lovell losing 6 kilograms.
As Apollo 13 approached the backside of the Moon the Sun set behind the rim. An eerie darkness enveloped the spacecraft. The glinting, blinding debris surrounding them vanished and the surrounding velvet blackness was studded with an illimitable sea of two kinds amy tan, bright stars stars in every direction. The thick band of stars making up the Milky Way stretched across the integrity void. The crew then became aware some of the stars were blotted out by two sinister black clouds accompanying the spacecraft.
Lovell, “I can’t for the life of me figure out what that dark stuff is.” Haise, “Yes – did you look at it, Jack?” Swigert, “Yes, okay. see it there like two black clouds.” They decided it was the debris from the explosion. They became subdued as they remembered the crisis-laden moments of the explosion until a voice from Earth broke the spell, “Go ahead Houston.” “Okay, Jim, we have a little over two minutes until loss of signal and development, everything’s looking good here.” Vance Brand’s matter-of-fact voice from the security of the Mission Control Center showed he was unaware of the mood in integrity essays, the spacecraft’s cabin. “Roger, I take it you don’t want us to activate any other systems or make any other preparations until we reacquire signal?” Lovell checked. “Okay, we’ll just sit tight, then. See you on the other side.” Apollo 13 rounds the Moon. View from Aquarius, with the Command Module at right. NASA JSC scan via the ALSJ. AS13-62-8909. APOLLO 13 SETS A RECORD, TAKING HUMANS TO THE GREATEST DISTANCE FROM EARTH.
At 1021:35 AEST on Wednesday 15 April (GET 77:08:35) Apollo 13 coasted behind the Moon and lost contact with the tracking stations on development Earth for about 24 minutes 35 seconds. As they looped around the back of the Moon, at a maximum height of 253.7 kilometres above the lunar surface, the Moon was 400,171 kilometres away from the Earth, further than any other Apollo mission. According to the Guinness Book of Records at this point Lovell, Swigert, and Haise set a record as the integrity essays humans to outline travel the farthest away from Earth. Essays! The crew lost the crescent sunlit edge of the Moon behind them and flew over a totally black lunar surface until about five minutes before Earthrise a glow appeared on the lunar horizon. Haise saw it first, then Lovell moved back to let Swigert see the view through the window. While Lovell hovered at the back of the essay cabin the two first timers were glued to the Command Module’s windows, gazing in integrity essays, awe at the grim and desolate landscape of chaotic craters and torturous rilles, taking photographs and exclaiming, “Wow, look at that!” “Hey, you guys come on we’ve got a burn to do. Thesis! If we don’t get this right you won’t get your pictures developed!” Lovell had seen it all before on Apollo 8. “It’s all right for integrity essays, you you’ve been here before – we haven’t.” They still couldn’t take their eyes from the passing spectacle. Mare Moscoviense. View from Aquarius . Ib Tok Essay 2005! AS13-62-8922.
From the Apollo Image Atlas of the Lunar and Planetary Institute. After reacquiring the essays tracking stations on Earth at multivariate statistical 1046:10 AEST the crew began to prepare for the Lunar Module’s descent rocket firing to bring them home faster. AOS. Starting at integrity 077:35:39GET. While they were waiting for the burn, Houston called up, “By the way, Aquarius, we see the results of Apollo 12’s seismometer. Social Outline! Looks like your third stage just hit the moon, and it’s rocking it a little bit.” Lovell answered, “Well, at integrity least something worked on this flight. Essay! Sure glad we didn’t have a LM impact too!” The Saturn IVB smashed into the lunar surface at 1109:40 AEST 15 April, 140 kilometres west north west of the Apollo 12 seismometer with a force equal to 11 tonnes of integrity, TNT. 5 Paragraph About Leadership! Dr. Gary Latham, principal investigator of the experiment, commented: “The Apollo 12 Lunar Module’s signal only lasted for about 55 minutes. This signal (from the Apollo 13 Saturn IVB) arrived about 30 seconds after impact, the peak amplitude was a factor of 20 to essays 30 times larger than the LM, and multivariate statistical, lasted for 4 hours, which was astounding to us.” Choosing the safest option of the three available, one that did not require the Service Module to be dropped off, but took the longest time, Houston told the crew they could shorten the trip by 10 hours with a PC+2 burn, or a burn 2 hours after Pericynthion, the closest point they would come to the Moon.
It would also bring them down in the Pacific Ocean the original target where all the recovery forces were. Unfortunately at essays this point there was a tropical storm “Helen” threatening the area, and they were considering an alternate landing spot. Due to the software in nco essay, the LM not being able to integrity accommodate the attached dead bulk of the CSM, Lovell had to fire the 5 paragraph essay engine manually. At 1240:39 AEST on Wednesday afternoon Swigert sat on the ascent engine cover during the 4 minute 23 second Trans Earth Insertion (TEI), or PC+2 burn, which increased their speed by 966 kilometres per hour: “Now we were really on our way home, I felt much better about our chances,” he said. As heard live via the integrity Voice of America, Rhett Turner reporting.
79:28GET. Now it became a matter of social disorder essay, waiting. Essays! And how the time dragged! “It was very quiet . very quiet. And suddenly when there was nothing to do and you’re in a tight spot that’s bad news, because you start thinking about the tight situation you’re in and you want something to do!” In the computer room at Honeysuckle Creek it was anything but quiet. Geoff Seymour , Computer Supervising Engineer: “We had an intermittent hardware problem in the telemetry computer. Prior to the launch we had experienced this problem and at one stage they were anticipating delaying the launch until we could fix the problem, but the computer managed to stay up long enough for 5 paragraph, the launch to go ahead.
Round about the time of the explosion the essays same computer began to fail again, which put the pressure on essay us because they needed the ability to send commands up to the spacecraft, and to integrity essays receive the telemetry down, they needed both computers up. We began to troubleshoot this computer and managed to social essay outline narrow it down to three printed circuit boards on one chassis. We replaced those, but it didn’t solve the problem. I stayed on site, sleeping in one of the bedrooms below until we fixed it. As the spacecraft rounded the moon and was coming back the NASA engineers decided to ship out integrity essays a chassis from the computer in the training facility in ib tok, Goddard and strapped it into integrity, a first class seat on an airliner. We believed we could fix it before the chassis arrived from the States. About! The only essays, thing left for us to essay 2005 do was to take the chassis out of the computer and we removed several hundred printed circuit boards, we cleaned every socket in integrity, the chassis, we cleaned every pin on amy tan every printed circuit board we could remove – we put it all back in, and from that day onwards the intermittent problem just went away.” Early on Wednesday morning out in space a new development threatened the astronauts.
A light warned them that the carbon dioxide had built up to a dangerous level, and in the confines of the integrity essays Lunar Module they would have eventually gone to sleep and died, poisoned by of an their own breath. On Monday night Chief of the Crew Systems Division at Houston, Ed Smylie, had already figured out there would be a carbon dioxide problem and had worked out a crude, but effective solution in his head. He joined his assistant, Jim Correale, to essays work out essay two kinds amy tan a system to essays join the Command Module’s square lithium canisters, which clean the carbon dioxide from the development air, to the Lunar Module’s round system using only the materials available on board such as tape, plastic, and cardboard. Integrity Essays! Astronaut Tony England verified the procedure by successfully putting one together by oral instructions only. Smylie carried his contraption into Mission Control and left it on the Capcom’s console.
The carbon dioxide reading for a healthy atmosphere was normally about 2 or 3 millimetres of mercury but now it was reading 13, and 15 was the recognised limit before the two kinds amy tan first signs of poisoning became evident. When he was ready Capcom Joe Kerwin called up the spacecraft, and read the instructions as the crew began to assemble the canisters at around 0330 on 15 April. Lovell: “Jack and I put it together it wasn’t very handsome, but it worked.” Jack Swigert (right) and Jim Lovell (left) work on essays the carbon dioxide solution. Photo courtesy of the Apollo Image Gallery. Ib Tok Essay! AS13-62-9004. In the Australian Senate, Apollo 13 caused enough concern to be raised as questions on April 15 and April 16. Integrity! Senator Anderson, “It is interesting to be able to tell the process Senate and integrity, the people of Australia that a small army of dedicated Australians worked throughout the night to install microwave links enabling the 64 metre radio telescope of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation at Parkes to assist the return voyage of the Apollo 13 spacecraft. Parkes, within hours after a request by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, established voice communication with the astronauts at about 8:30 pm last night.
Teams from the Post Master General’s Department and the Australian Broadcasting Commission, assisted by personnel from Amalgamated Wireless (Australasia) Ltd., installed temporary microwave circuits from Parkes to Coonambro and from Red Hill in Canberra via Williamsdale to Honeysuckle Creek. This task, which involved the erection of 6 aerials up to 60 feet high in development communication, the middle of the night, was completed at 6 am this morning. The microwave links will enable Parkes to transmit telemetry data from the spacecraft. Parkes, and the Australian Capital Territory stations of Honeysuckle Creek and Tidbinbilla, which my Department operates for NASA, will start to play a crucial role after the spacecraft’s trans-Earth injection which was scheduled for 12:40 pm today. Integrity! I would like to pay special tribute to the staff at Honeysuckle Creek and Tidbinbilla who, working at the lowest possible signal level, have been providing communications between the control thesis ground control and the astronauts. I am certain that I speak for all Australians in wishing the Apollo crew a safe return to Earth.” Thursday 16 April 1970. At 0626:53 AEST during the integrity essays morning of essay leadership, 16 April, not long after they had entered the influence of the Earth’s gravity field, everyone at Mission Control slid to the edge of their seats and grappled with another heart stopping report from Haise: “I just heard a little thump, sounded like down in the descent stage, and integrity essays, I saw a new shower of snowflakes come up.” Another explosion! This time from under their feet in the life supporting Lunar Module they were all depending on! More debris gathered around the two stricken spacecraft. It was battery #2 in the Lunar Module’s descent stage.
Don Arabian, from the about Mission Evaluation Room, figured out that hydrogen and oxygen gases had built up in integrity essays, the battery’s lid until the pressure blew it off. Anxiety Disorder! Bill Peters, the Lunar Module’s electrical engineer: “After it made its “pop and snowflakes” as people say, we looked at the data and it had a spike in the current data, that’s all we saw in real time, but that battery continued to run for a long time before it failed to essays contribute electricity and I turned it off.” After consulting with the essay amy tan manufacturers, the essays engineers decided that the remaining batteries were going to last comfortably until the social anxiety disorder essay outline end of the mission. Mission Control began working on correcting some errors derived from the essays TEI burn with another burn of statistical process control thesis, 14 seconds of the Lunar Module’s descent motor at integrity 1431:28 AEST on 16 April. Lovell fired the engine, while Haise kept an eye on development the spacecraft attitude and Swigert called the essays times. Houston was anxious not to disturb the spacecraft’s homeward trajectory, so told the crew not to dump any waste material overboard.
This meant they had to find a way to 5 paragraph essay about store their urine on board. They found three bags in the Command Module and six little ones in integrity, the Lunar Module, plus by 2005 using some tanks associated with their EVA suits they managed to keep ahead of the flow. “I’m glad we got home when we did,” said Lovell, “because we were just about out of ideas for stowage.” Friday 17 April 1970. As Apollo 13 raced home the essays Flight Dynamics team (FDO, RETRO, and GUIDO) began to frown as they spotted the tracking data was indicating the spacecraft was gently drifting away from the critical entry corridor. What was causing this insidious drift? Every known source of venting gas was turned off, so it had to be something else. Disorder Outline! After the mission ended, it was concluded that the small thrust causing the drift came from a ‘non-propulsive’ water boiler vent in the Lunar Module’s cooling system, which under normal circumstances would not have been noticed in integrity, the short dash down to the moon’s surface and of an nco essay, back. When the error crept up to 161 kilometres it was time to do something, or the integrity astronauts in their spacecraft would bounce out of the atmosphere and go off into solar orbit: “. to become a permanent monument to the space program,” as Lovell wryly put it, but said he would rather burn up in the atmosphere than skip out into solar orbit.
The flight controllers were reluctant to fire the Lunar Module’s descent engine again. Helium was normally used to force the fuel into the engine combustion chamber, and the Lunar Module engineers were watching the pressure slowly building up in the storage tank. At 12,411 kPa a safety membrane would blow out to relieve the pressure. Anxiety Disorder Essay Outline! Once that happened there was no guarantee the engine would work, so the correction burn had to happen before the helium blew. Late during Wednesday evening when Capcom Vance Brand called Apollo 13: “We don’t want to power up the spacecraft completely, so that means no computer or mission timer. We’ll simply go with a manual burn, with you controlling the engine with the Start and Stop switches. For attitude, what we’re going to want to do is manually orient the spacecraft to integrity place the of an nco essay Earth in the centre of your window. If you hold it there throughout the burn, the attitude will be correct.
Got that?” “Roger, I think so,” Lovell confirmed thoughtfully, remembering back in Apollo 8 they had tried just such an essays, exercise to essay outline see if they could steer the integrity spacecraft into ib tok, the reentry corridor with no help from the navigation systems. Houston planned to burn the Lunar Module’s descent motor when they were just entering the influence of the Earth’s gravity, and still moving relatively slowly. Using Swigert’s wrist watch, from 1431:28 AEST 16 April, they timed the burn manually for 14 seconds at 10% power, during which Lovell and Haise steered the spacecraft to keep the essays crosshair of the two kinds optical sight in their windows parallel with the Earth’s terminator, or sunset line, which meant they should be aiming straight for the reentry corridor again. Three and essays, a half hours later the helium pressure reached 13,245 kPa and blew the dissertations safety membrane out, sending another thump through the spacecraft and a shower of sparkling crystals to join the cloud of debris shepherding Apollo 13 through space. The startled astronauts looked at each other but realised what it was, and Lovell murmured, “That’s the end of essays, our helium problem.” It became so cold in Odyssey that sleep was impossible. Lovell: “When we turned off the electrical systems, we lost our source of process control, heat, and the sun streaming in essays, the windows didn’t help much. We were as cold as frogs in a frozen pool, specially Jack Swigert, who got his feet wet and didn’t have lunar overshoes. It wasn’t simply that the temperature dropped down to 1.6C; the sight of perspiring walls and wet windows made it seem even colder.” The Command Module had been referred to as “the bedroom”, but by the last day they were calling it “the refrigerator”. During the last 12 hours before reentry, Haise had to go into the cold and role nco essay, damp Command Module. When he returned, it took him four hours in the Lunar Module before he stopped shivering.
He ended up trying to sleep in his sleeping bag in the tunnel between the two spacecraft, with his head in the Lunar Module, which was much warmer at 10C. Even after the fiery reentry and warm 27ºC Pacific waters they could still see their frosty breath inside the cabin. Honeysuckle is prime during this recording of Jim Lovell describing the cold the 39 second recording, made at Honeysucke Creek, begins at 132:53GET. This clip (254kb mp3 file) was recorded by Hamish Lindsay. Lovell commented: “We had a dead Service Module, we had a Command Module but it had no power in it, and we had a Lunar Module that was a wonderful vehicle but it didn’t have a heat shield.” No one knew what would happen to a frozen Command Module that had coasted through space without any power for integrity, over two days. “We were worried that the systems would get so cold that the batteries would freeze, the propellants in the lines would freeze that when we brought the Command Module up it would be non-functional,” Kranz admitted later, backed up by social disorder outline Lovell: “The walls, ceiling, floor, wire harnesses, and panels were all covered with droplets of water. Essays! The chances of role of an, short circuits caused us apprehension, to integrity say the least. But thanks to the safeguards built into the Command Module after the disastrous fire in January, 1967, no arcing took place. The water droplets caused one sensation as we entered the atmosphere - it rained inside the Command Module!” At Houston, Gene Kranz and his Tiger Team wrestled with reentry procedures and check lists for the last six hours of the process control thesis mission that had never been tried before. Essays! Normally it would take three months to develop these procedures they had less than three days. “Basically we planned to power up the vehicle in reverse, we had the crew turn the guidance system on in the blind, then right at the end I allowed them to development dissertations turn on the telemetry system so that we could see it and verify it was all on okay.
By doing it backwards that way we had enough power but the integrity crew had to do it right. Later I realised I was kinda lost in my own world trying to build that check list that had to be done perfectly the first time, then when I saw what shape the crew were in being dehydrated, no real sleep, freezing to death, I realised that was another factor that I didn’t take into account. But they executed that check list perfectly, it was just amazing. We finally got the sequence down so Ken Mattingly could try it in the simulator, and he found things that wouldn’t work so would come back and negotiate with me and I said we can’t add more power, we have to do some other way. And of essay, course the crew was getting kinda anxious, they were trying to be subtle, but not too subtle, and kept saying, ‘Hey Houston, we’re looking out the window and the Earth’s getting bigger and bigger where’s that check list?’” It was Thursday evening in Houston when Arnold Aldrich and Gene Kranz escorted Aaron into the Mission Control Center, hugging the checklist to integrity his chest: “I had one hand type-written copy with the latest changes in it, we didn’t have word processors in those days, and I said ‘Okay Flight - here it is, read it to the crew.’” A relieved Capcom Vance Brand took the copy, turned back to his console and called: “Houston, Aquarius.” “Go, Houston,” replied Lovell. “Okay, we are ready to read you the first checklist instalment” “All right, Vance. I’m going to get Jack on ib tok essay 2005 the line, so stand by.” Aaron became aware he was surrounded by people holding out demanding hands: “Where are the copies, EECOM? I need a copy.” So as Brand heard his headset saying, “Okay, Vance, I’m ready to copy,” he had to hand the essays checklist back and sheepishly answer: “Okay, Jack but we have to ask you to development communication dissertations wait one minute again. We want to get a copy of the checklist into the hands of the Flight Directors and EECOM and it’ll take a second or two.” It was nearly half an hour before Brand began two tedious hours reading out the check list to integrity a very tired Swigert as he copied them down holding a flashlight between his teeth.
Then followed another hour of Lunar Module procedures to Haise, followed by two kinds a timeline sequence that glued both checklists together. In the integrity time it took them to write the procedures down, they covered 96,500 kilometres. Swigert finished writing down the last entry just over 12 hours before they were due to start using it there was no time for corrections or a second chance it had to control be right the first time as the spacecraft hurtled towards that narrow door into the Earth’s atmosphere with its speed building up to a maximum of 38,623 kilometres per hour. Six and a half hours before they were due to start using the checklist – they tried to get some rest. Lovell reported: “Haise is lying in the tunnel with his head on integrity essays the ascent engine cover, Swigert is lying on the floor in a sleep restraint.” They had been averaging three hours of disturbed sleep a day. Four hours before reaching the atmosphere Houston sent the message, “You can jettison the Service Module when you are ready. 5 Paragraph Essay! No big rush, but any time.” Lovell and Haise manned the Lunar Module, while Swigert fired the Service Module separation bolts from the Command Module at 2314:48 AEST during the evening of April 17. Lovell had suggested to essays Swigert that he put a label over the switch to jettison the Lunar Module in case he threw the wrong switch, and sent his mates off to be incinerated in the brief meteor the Lunar Module was to become! Lovell then backed the Lunar Module and Command Module away from the carcass of the Service Module. Swigert tried each of the Command Module windows but saw nothing. Social Anxiety Disorder Essay! Lovell swung the spacecraft around and he and Haise peered out of the Lunar Module’s windows and also saw nothing no sign of the integrity essays big cylindrical Service Module.
Lovell was scanning the velvet black void when he stiffened as he became aware of of an nco essay, a huge silver shape silently gliding into view, slowly rolling to reveal a great gash in essays, its side. Lovell gazed wide-eyed at the tendrils of wire, tubing and entrails gently waving about. Expecting only a small hole from the communication explosion, he said “I’m glad we couldn’t see the Service Module earlier. With one whole panel missing, the wreckage and integrity essays, wires hanging out, it was a sorry mess as it drifted away.” Then Haise yelled “I can see it out my window,” so Swigert rushed down the tunnel, stuck his camera to the window and of an nco essay, managed to get some shots, though by then it was beginning to tumble. Photographs of the damage for later analysis were important, as the Service Module would burn up on reentry. The damaged Service Module drifts away. Here’s another view. AS13-58-8464, via the integrity essays Lunar Planetary Institute in Houston. The photo has been cropped and considerably brightened. Jim Lovell exclaims, “There’s one whole side of that spacecraft missing.”
As heard live via the Voice of America, with Rhett Turner providing commentary. 4.7MB mp3 / 9 minutes. When hearing of the extensive damage to the Service Module some of the Flight Controllers began to wonder about the Command Module’s heat shield. Had it been damaged in the explosion? Nothing was said at the time, but Haise had thought about it too, and the astronauts had discussed the development possibility during the flight. During the mission they had filled the essays Command Module with all their rubbish in plastic bags, and now Haise had to transfer them all back to process control the LM as they prepared for the homecoming. He commented: “Boy, you wouldn’t believe this LM right now! There’s nothing but bags from essays, floor to 2005 ceiling!” Saturday 18 April 1970.
At 0400 USCST on Friday April 17 the members of the Tiger Team entered Mission Control and spread around the consoles for the final moments of the saga. John Aaron took over from Sy Liebergot at the EECOM console and around 1000 he felt ready for the Command Module power up procedure and called on the intercom, “Go EECOM,” returned Kranz. Integrity! “Ready for power up any time the crew is.” “Roger EECOM Capcom Flight.” “Go Flight,” answered Joe Kerwin. “EECOM says the Command Module can come on line anytime.” “Roger Flight,” Kerwin keyed his air/ground switch, “Aquarius, Houston.” “Go Houston,” Lovell responded tersely. “You’re go to start powering up Odyssey.” Swigert felt a useful member of the crew again as at 0123 AEST Saturday April 18 he began to power up the Command Module using its normal three reentry batteries, which had been topped up from the Lunar Module’s batteries. Ib Tok! “Every switch and circuit breaker that I turned on made me feel just that much better. I forgot about being tired and integrity essays, didn’t even notice the cold.” John Aaron, surrounded by the other shift EECOMs, watched the idling readouts on his console, waiting for of an, Swigert to switch on the telemetry. He was looking for a maximum current drain of integrity essays, 43 amps. If it was much more the batteries might not last to ib tok essay splashdown. Essays! After nearly half an hour Swigert switched the last items on and the telemetry kicked all Aaron’s readouts into life. Essay Two Kinds Amy Tan! His eyes homed in on the current meter, and to his dismay he was staring at a steady 45 amps. Essays! “What the hell are those two rogue amps doing there?” he angrily questioned anybody on leadership the intercom or within earshot.
Nobody could find any cause until the Guidance controllers spotted the back up gyros were on. The spacecraft crew turned them off and the meter dropped back to 43 amps. Integrity Essays! Aaron, “I almost panicked there because I didn’t know how long those two amps had been on. It turned out the spacecraft was wired different than we thought, there was a sneak circuit in the wiring taking an communication dissertations, extra load off the circuit breaker that we didn’t know about.” Once the Command Module was powered up it was important to check they were on essays the right track for reentry. Capcom Joe Kerwin: “This was the role tense time for me.
Swigert was trying to find the two stars necessary to align the platform to integrity get their precise attitude. He was having a hell of a time doing it because of reflections into the telescope from the Lunar Module. The spacecraft were racing towards the atmosphere, and Swigert was doing it, and re-doing it. What we would have had to do was to anxiety say ‘Okay, Jack its time to integrity essays knock that off we’ll take an role of an nco essay, approximate attitude it’s time to jettison the LM we have to get on with it. I kept looking at Kranz, but he just put his hand out silently to say give him another minute. Then Swigert finally got it and called out ‘Five balls’ which meant that the number after the decimal point on star angle difference was five zeros, meaning he had hit the right two stars and had an accurate platform. From there on everything just went nominally from my point of view.” Three and a half hours after the Service Module was jettisoned, it was the Lunar Module’s turn. Lovell: “Ten seconds.” Swigert, “Five. LM Jettison,” At 0243 AEST 18 April the faithful “lifeboat” Aquarius was released and pushed off with 20.7 kPa air pressure from the tunnel. Sadly they watched it drift away to begin a slow forward somersault. Haise later said he would have liked to have looked after it in his backyard. Integrity Essays! “Okay, copy that.
Farewell Aquarius, and we thank you,” Kerwin called out from Houston. There was less than four and a half hours of electrical power left in Aquarius . “Farewell Aquarius , and we thank you.” The ‘Age of Aquarius’ ends at 0243AEST on April 18th. Assembled from process control, images AS13-59-8559, 61, 62, 63, 65, 66, 68, 71, 73, courtesy of the Lunar and Planetary Institute. Aquarius is essays jettisoned. Voice of Apollo as heard via ABC Radio. “When Apollo 13 came back in, it did this vast swing back over the Indian Ocean. Communication! Because of the Earth turning it appeared to integrity turn around and come back the other way. We put the FPQ6 radar on and watched separation with it when they dumped the LM. Multivariate Process! We could actually see all three parts of the integrity spacecraft on our radar screens.” John Saxon at Honeysuckle Creek: “We were the last site, as we generally were, to track the reentry phase of the ib tok 2005 mission when they entered the Earth’s atmosphere. We were tracking both the Command Module and integrity, the Lunar Module.
There was a great deal of interest in where the LM came down because it had a package to be installed on the Moon which had a radio isotope power supply, and there was a concern that had it entered over statistical land there might have been a radio active contamination problem. We were required to take very careful records of antenna angles when we lost contact. It entered the atmosphere and went into the sea somewhere in the deepest part of the ocean between Australia and New Zealand.” This was right where Flight Dynamics Officer (FDO) Jerry Bostick in Mission Control had carefully planned to put the integrity Lunar Module. Mike Dinn’s Groundtrack map for Apollo 13 has been annotated to show the splashdown location. Honeysuckle was the last ground station to track Apollo 13 before re-entry, when ARIA took over the comms. Essay Two Kinds! Click the integrity essays image to get a 730kb scan of the essay entire map. Paul Mullen , antenna driver at Honeysuckle: “We lost the LM at the end it was going too fast for our 3 per second antenna speed it just dived out of sight ahead of integrity essays, our antenna.” Entering the dark side of the Earth above the Indian Ocean, the three astronauts concentrated on the clock and Moon, sweating that it would set when Houston had calculated, confirming they were on the right track for a safe reentry. At precisely the right second a black notch bit into the bottom of the Moon, and it sank below the Earth’s horizon. The Commander looked at his crew: “Gentlemen, we’re about to reenter. I suggest you get ready for a ride.” Kerwin, “Odyssey, Houston standing by. Over.” Swigert, “You have a good bedside manner, Joe.” Kerwin, “That’s the nicest thing anybody’s said.
How about that?” Swigert: “Sure wish I could go to the FIDO (Flight Dynamics) party tonight.” Kerwin, “Yes it’s going to be a wild one. Somebody said we’ll cover for communication dissertations, you guys and if Jack’s got any phone numbers he wants us to call, why, pass them down . We just had a last time around the integrity room and everybody says it’s looking great . Odyssey then plunged into the atmosphere at 0353:45 AEST, to be engulfed in essay, a streaming firestorm, a fireball streaking across the sky. All communications with the spacecraft were cut off during the blackout period. Essays! A blanket of suspended anxiety descended over all the watchers around the world during the three minutes of silence of the blackout period. Process! The seconds flicked away with no response from the spacecraft. Unable to do any more for the mission now, the Houston Flight Controllers could only watch the recovery forces at work on their large television screens and listen for the spacecraft to integrity respond to their Capcom. It was suspected they had entered the atmosphere at a shallower angle than the optimum, which prolonged the blackout period. The tension built up. a minute after the expected time and still no sight or sound of Odyssey the cameras stared at a vacant sky, the speakers just hissed static. Nco Essay! Joe Kerwin called out from Houston, “Odyssey, Houston standing by.” Suddenly Swigert’s voice filled the integrity airwaves over social essay the Pacific, “Okay, Joe!” and at 0402 AEST three healthy parachutes were seen. Luckily the original landing area was calm now the tropical storm was raging over the alternate landing area.
Joe Kerwin on the Capcom console, earlier in the mission. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by integrity Colin Mackellar. Mission Control erupted into a frenzy of cheering, handshaking and clapping. John Aaron: “Since I had designed the two kinds amy tan reentry sequence, Kranz put me on the console as it came in integrity, and that worked out fine, but that sure was something when they made it through the communication blackout and out came the integrity chutes. We had live video coverage from the ship – that really was a lucky strike extra to multivariate statistical process control thesis get that close for the finish.” So how close was it to three fatalities? According to Sy Liebergot, the essays LM had 104 hours of breathing oxygen left, but only 10 hours of water and 13 hours of electrical power.
After a TransEarth Coast TEC time of 63 hours 8 minutes 43 seconds, at 0407:41 AEST on Saturday 18 April, the parachutes dunked Odyssey into the Pacific Ocean 6.5 kilometres from the USS Iwo Jima , and the crew were greeted by cheering sailors, a brass band, and Rear Admiral Donald Davis with, “We’re glad you made it, boys.” All around the world an about leadership, audience of many millions joined in grateful thanks, each in their own way, for the safe return of Apollo 13 and its crew. The Apollo 13 crew arrive on the Iwo Jima . Integrity Essays! Flight Director Gene Kranz (right) celebrates as Jim Lovell speaks onboard the Iwo Jima . Role Of An Nco Essay! Nine doctors checked them out to be in essays, reasonable shape considering their ordeal, except for a urinary tract infection for Haise, brought on by not drinking enough fluids, which allowed the toxins to build up. If the mission had gone on much longer, the development communication other two would have probably suffered the same problem. Stepping ashore in Pago Pago they were greeted by gaily dressed Samoans, their smiling faces moving Lovell to say, “We do not realise what we have on Earth until we leave it.” Dale Call, Goddard Network Director, made the following statement after the mission: “I would like to essays express my personal thanks along with the appreciation of everyone involved in the Apollo 13 mission for 5 paragraph essay leadership, the outstanding support provided by Honeysuckle, Carnarvon, and Parkes. This support contributed significantly to the safe return of the essays Apollo 13 crew. I would especially like to single out those responsible for bringing up the Parkes antenna and anxiety, associated data systems in essays, record time. This response was so impressive that special mention of it was made to of an President Nixon during his visit to Goddard last Tuesday.” President Nixon addressed a message to essays Australian Prime Minister John Gorton: “Dear Mr. Essay Two Kinds! Prime Minister: On behalf of the people of the United States I wish to express to you and to the people of Australia my deep appreciation for your nation’s assistance in the successful recovery of the Apollo XIII astronauts. Essays! The disabling of the Apollo spacecraft during its lunar mission evoked the concern of all mankind.
I was indeed touched by the many expressions of sympathy and anxiety disorder essay outline, offers of assistance I received. The safe recovery of the astronauts, for which we are all profoundly thankful, in integrity essays, no way lessens the gratitude of the Government and essay two kinds amy tan, people of the United States for integrity, your nation’s immediate response to our need for assistance. Please convey my personal thanks to anxiety disorder essay outline all of your people who worked so hard to maintain our communications with the weakened Apollo XIII spacecraft as it returned to integrity Earth. Their involvement in the Apollo XIII recovery was but another instance of the social disorder outline close cooperation and warm friendship that exists between our countries. For a brief moment Apollo 13 put the hassles of money and budgets and politics aside as people followed the progress of a mission where sheer guts and determination, teamwork and comradeship, ingenuity and skill brought the crew safely home.
No doubt luck was a large factor in the equation. A triskaidekaphobic person would freak out at this list of integrity, thirteens – it was the 13th Apollo mission, launched at 1313 hours spacecraft time, the explosion occurred on multivariate statistical process control thesis April 13, 13:08 hours Honeysuckle Creek time, with 13 nations offering to provide rescue ships or aircraft. Integrity Essays! And stretching credibility a bit the astronauts first names of about leadership, James, Fred, and Jack add up to 13 letters, the launch date of 4/11/70 add up to 13 from pad 39 which is 3 x 13. Even German Measles has 13 letters. Not surprisingly the Horoscope for Aquarius from the Houston Post of April 13 1970 said ‘Do surprises turn you on? Then this is the day for the unexpected.’ Was Apollo 13 good luck or bad luck? Probably good luck because it brings up a lot of integrity essays, “What ifs. ” For instance, what if the explosion had happened while Lovell and Haise were on the lunar surface. Of An Nco Essay! “To get Apollo 13 home required a lot of innovation. Most of the material written about our mission described the ground-based activities, however I would be remiss not to state that it really was the teamwork between the ground and the flight crew that resulted in a successful return. Essays! Some people would call the Apollo 13 mission a $375 million failure. Ib Tok Essay! I look back on it as a triumph; a triumph of teamwork, initiative, and ingenuity.
Nobody believes me, but during this six day odyssey we had no idea what an impression Apollo 13 made on integrity essays the people of Earth. We never dreamed a billion people were following us on nco essay television and radio, and integrity essays, reading about us in banner headlines of nco essay, every newspaper published. We still missed the point on board the integrity essays carrier Iwo Jima which picked us up because the sailors had been as remote from the two kinds media as we were. Only when we reached Honolulu did we comprehend our impact.” For fun, Grumman, the builders of the Lunar Module, sent a bill for $US400,000 to North American Rockwell for towing the Command and integrity essays, Service Module 482,800 kilometres back home! Jack Swigert said after the mission, “I knew that no matter how dark the situation looked, we had a lot of help from the ground. I didn’t come back from anxiety disorder essay, this mission with less confidence in essays, the goals of the space program. I came back with more.” Haise admitted that after the explosion Mission Control directed everything the astronauts did. “I think Apollo 13 was a classic example of two kinds, what the integrity essays ground flight operations was all about.
It proved that the ground was worthwhile. The people on the ground did a fantastic job of saving the lives of the crew.” That ground crew included the tracking stations, connecting Mission Control with the spacecraft. President Nixon summed up this dramatic odyssey with: “The three astronauts did not reach the moon, but they reached the 5 paragraph essay leadership hearts of millions of people in America and in essays, the world.” (5 Days 22 Hours 54 Minutes) Fra Mauro was the 5 paragraph essay leadership planned landing area. Distance travelled : 1,002,123 kilometres. The text has been checked by Chris Kraft and Jim Lovell. Essays! Illustrations sourced by development communication Hamish Lindsay and Colin Mackellar.
Unless otherwise specified, audio was recorded by essays Colin Mackellar from Australian radio coverage or the Voice of America, except the HSK comms loop audio by Hamish Lindsay and the MOCR EECOM loop audio courtesy Sy Liebergot. Audio selected and edited by CM. Frames from Apollo 13 film and video selected and processed by CM with thanks to 5 paragraph essay about leadership Mark Gray at Spacecraft Films.
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Mla Format Personal Narrative Essays and Research Papers. ? MLA Format Papers: Step-by-step Instructions for Writing Research Papers in MLA Style Jerz Writing Academic . Integrity Essays! 0.1) If you’ve been asked to submit a paper in MLA format , your instructor is asking you to format the page and present the content in a specific way. Essay! Just as football referees dress a certain way, and Japanese chefs cook a certain way, writers in certain disciplines follow a certain set of conventions, known as MLA format or MLA style. This document will show you how to format an. Bibliography , Citation , Microsoft Word 1829 Words | 7 Pages. Birdman-Shoutout Wayne- Kush and Alcohol Gucci and Wiz- Nothing on ya Instructions: ASSIGNMENT ONE: PERSONAL NARRATIVE . Essays! Purpose: . The purpose of this essay is to learn how to communication dissertations, tell a story with a purpose. Due Dates: Thursday, January 24: Submit your first drafts on turnitin.com by 11:59 pm Friday, Jan. Integrity! 25-Tuesday, Jan. Anxiety Disorder Outline! 29: Read your classmates’ drafts before class starts Tuesday, Jan. 29: Workshop first drafts of the integrity, Narrative in class Tuesday, Feb.
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MLA Review Part 1: MLA In-text Citations – Rewrite the last line of each quote with a correctly formatted MLA . in-text citation. 1. “One of integrity his eyes resembled that of ib tok 2005 a vulture—a pale blue eye, with a film over it. Whenever it fell upon me, my blood ran cold; and integrity essays, so by nco essay, degrees—very gradually—I made up my mind to take the life of the integrity, old man, and thus rid myself of the eye forever.” This is from the text book, Great Writing, which was edited by communication, Harvey S. Wiener and integrity, Nora Eisenberg. Disorder! It comes. Edgar Allan Poe , Gothic fiction , James Russell Lowell 677 Words | 3 Pages. A NARRATIVE REPORT ON ON-THE-JOB TRAINING UNDERTAKEN AT MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM Municipality of Binangonan, Rizal . A Report Submitted to the Faculty of BINANGONAN CATHOLIC COLLEGE Binangonan, Rizal In Partial Fulfillment of the integrity essays, Requirements for the Degree in nco essay ASSOCIATE IN COMPUTERTECHNOLOGY RONALYN S. MALAPIT MARCH 2013 APPROVAL SHEET This narrative report attached hereto entitled “A NARRATIVE REPORT. Executive summary , Practice , Skill 629 Words | 5 Pages. ? NARRATIVE REPORT ON THE ON-THE-JOB INTERVIEW AND OBSERVATION TO MR. JUAN DELA CRUZ OF ABC COMPANY Submitted to the Faculty of . Department of essays Arts and essay leadership, Sciences Cavite State University – Carmona Carmona, Cavite In partial fulfillment of the course requirements in ENGL 2 – Writing in the Discipline PETER S. PARKER January, 2015 BIOGRAPHICAL DATA ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________. Cavite , Employment , Observation 390 Words | 15 Pages. HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON Writing a Personal Narrative by integrity, Lindi M. of process control thesis Jenks East Middle School in Tulsa, Oklahoma . Conquering Your Fears INTRODUCTION Attentiongrabbing opening Everyone, well almost everyone, I’ve ever known has thought of their years in integrity essays elementary school as their favorites.
I, on the other hand, do not feel so fondly about elementary Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. school, especially third grade. That was a year I will never . All rights reserved , Copyright , Doctor 652 Words | 3 Pages. Literacy Narrative – Fahrenheit 451 A moment when I as a writer felt an multivariate statistical control, influence towards my ability to be literate was in my tenth grade . Essays! English class, reading the novel Fahrenheit 451. Never before had I shown such appreciation and willingness to understand for a school assigned book, in truth my interest with school readings had been deteriorating due to role of an nco essay, the consistency of papers and assignments.. For years any school readings were easy to understand and majority held interesting tales, yet. Dystopia , Fahrenheit 451 , Guy Montag 1077 Words | 3 Pages. ? Personal Narrative : One Nichelle A. Chandler Adams State University Abstract Personal reflection is an essential . part of learning, learning about theories means absolutely nothing until you can apply it to life in essays a real way. According to the textbook (2010), the facilitation of essay outline human growth and integrity, development is a primary purpose of therapeutic practice.
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However, some lean . in integrity the negative direction. These memories are ones you want to really forget, and never bring up again. The memory I remember most happened when I was 11 years old, in fifth grade. I was sitting in the classroom when the principal came on of an nco essay the intercom, announcing that the bells would be delayed, and those not staying after school to integrity essays, go to the cafeteria. So several. Debut albums , English-language films , New York City 868 Words | 3 Pages. Personal Narrative I stared at her tear-streaked face. “You don’t understand!” she screamed at me. She was right, I didn’t . understand, but I wanted to help her through it.
I scanned the essay, room while she kept yelling at me and that’s when I saw it. There, on her little desk by the closet, sat a razor blade. How I didn’t notice it before, I will never understand. I started thinking how this had to be the worst day in my life. It didn’t start as a horrible day. To be honest, I thought it was going.
2000 singles , 2007 albums , 2008 singles 995 Words | 3 Pages. Deven Crowell 1/25/06 1st block Ms. Todd Personal Narrative The wonderful gift of giving is integrity more precious than any material . item that is social anxiety outline just used for integrity simple amusement. There is no greater feeling than the one you get from 5 paragraph essay leadership, knowing you personally affected someone. In the situation that I'm going speak about, I got a chance to see how one's joyous gratitude can emotionally touch another. Experiences like these are the ones that gave me an extra sense of maturity and also helped me grow to be a. Bus , Bus stop , Bus transport 976 Words | 3 Pages. ?Bryce York Professor Sanford English 103 5 February 2015 My Personal Narrative Growing up in Kokomo, Indiana there wasn’t much . to the daily life in my hometown. I’d like to essays, believe this is me telling the story of how through hard work and leadership, perseverance I could achieve my goal in high school. A goal that many told me was unachievable and stupid to essays, pursue. Ib Tok! What is essays this goal you wonder?
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In Iowa alone, there were a total of essay amy tan 90 alcohol impaired driving fatalities and 12 of those drivers were under 21. Also, 75% of all alcohol impaired driving fatalities, the integrity, drivers BAC (blood alcohol content) was .15 or higher. The legal. Alcohol , Alcohol law , Alcoholic beverage 1486 Words | 4 Pages. Personal Narrative The blaring ring of the alarm clock runs through my ears, marking the two kinds, end of essays my pleasant six-hour . sleep. I’m looking at the time and fumbling my hand next to me, managing to two kinds, hit the snooze button and relapse back to my sleep. Repeating this several times, I eventually decided to get up, and turned off the alarm. Essays! I grabbed the towel lying on top of my chair, and turn around only to of an nco essay, sneak a glance at the time.
I stumble through the essays, bathroom, flick the light switch brace. Alarm clock , Clock , Reading 1058 Words | 3 Pages. Personal Narrative I was the amy tan, second and integrity essays, final child born into the family before my parents got divorced when I was five. Essay About! As the . Integrity! baby I wish I could say that I was treated that way, but I was not. Essay Amy Tan! I was the girl that reminded my father of my mother and was frequently ignored, while my brother was the pride and joy and could do no wrong. This being said it played a big part in my neuroticism personality trait as a young child. Essays! I was very quiet and withdrawn from my family and amy tan, considered a loner.
In. Family , Feeling , Mother 1249 Words | 3 Pages. Miranda English 1, Per. 3 Mrs. McCue Personal Narrative “The happiest place on Earth,” the integrity, loud speaker . announced, as we walked into the gates of Disneyland. My best friend, Megan and I, were going to Disneyland for the very first time all by ourselves. Our moms’ were going to be hanging out at the hotel across the street, downtown Disney, etc and wanted us to check in with them by essay 2005, text message every hour. Essays! “Look at all these hot guys,” Megan whispered into my ear. “You’re. American films , Black-and-white films , Blond 934 Words | 3 Pages. Personal Narrative Yet another Thanksgiving, and I was stuck in my uncle’s basement watching the Redskins face off the multivariate control, Dallas . Integrity! Cowboys.
Michael Jordan, Serena Williams, and various other famous athletes all grinned at dissertations, me from their respective Wheaties boxes, seemingly mocking my pain. My uncle collected them and, for integrity some reason, had decided the bright orange boxes would be a great decorative addition to the basement wall behind the television. I remember once, when I was younger, I was searching. 3OH!3 , American football , Canadian football 1152 Words | 3 Pages. set short and long term goals that are reachable for the client(s). Essay Amy Tan! The social worker than looks at the Addressing framework, this framework was designed . by Hays (2008) (describe the theory that covers the cultural and traditional influences and personal information).
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?Essay 1: Summary Response Narrative First Draft Due: Mon, Feb. 2 Final Draft Due: Wed, Feb. 4 Purpose and Overview: Essay 1 represents . several objectives of English 102, and perhaps builds upon skills learned in ENG 101. This essay will focus on the skill set of successfully summarizing a reading selection -- re-communicating the author’s purpose and main points -- and then responding to that author’s ideas appropriately, which requires a certain degree of critical and careful reading and thinking. Critical thinking , Essay , Five paragraph essay 1183 Words | 4 Pages.
FORMAT OF NARRATIVE REPORT A. Title Page B. Development! The Trainee C. Integrity! Acknowledgment D. Summary - . Two Kinds Amy Tan! One (1) page summary of the essays, report E. Table of Contents F. Introduction ( 1 page only ) - Background of the study - Importance or significance of the study (generally) G. Objectives - These will state what you are trying to achieve after the statistical process control, completion of your OJT. H. Company Profile This will include. Book design , Practice , Training 363 Words | 4 Pages. start to see how the essays, impact of maternity leave provisions on multivariate statistical control mothers. The FMLA has required employers to integrity essays, provide employees job-protected and unpaid leave . for qualified medical and family reasons. Some qualified medical and family reasons include personal or family illness, family military leave, adoption, pregnancy, or the foster care place of a child. Essay Two Kinds! The act started off by saying that “…it is important for the development of children and integrity essays, the family unit that fathers and mothers be able to participate. Bill Clinton , Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 , Health care 1288 Words | 4 Pages. twitter, Facebook and I would always come up with some bullshit person just pretending to be someone, and although they saw it as some funny game but it was . Development Communication Dissertations! a nasty joke to me that would tare up my hope every year. So when my mom’s (my real mom’s) personal investigator found the integrity essays, names of my brother and my birth mom the first thing I did was search for 5 paragraph essay leadership them on Facebook, I found my brother and I messaged him three times on October 29, 2013 and received nothing. Finally when I had given up on essays everything.
English-language films , Parent 1143 Words | 4 Pages. MLA Style Research Paper based on the 7 ed. Social Outline! of the MLA Handbook for integrity Writers of Research Papers. Amy Tan! Created Nov 10, 2009. Your name . Professor Course name Date John Smith Professor Williams American Studies 104 14 March 2008 Title is centered Found Voices: Carl Sagan th Your last name, and page # on upper right corner of each page ? inch from top border. Integrity Essays! Smith 1 Use Times New Roman 12 pt. or similar easy to read font. Carl Sagan was perhaps one of the most influential scientific minds Double space.
1939 , 1973 , Carl Sagan 1344 Words | 5 Pages. knowledge to instruct me how to kick a football, so he found someone who could and paid lavish amounts to send me to the best—Ray Guy. He is essay outline considered the . best punter ever to play professional football, and his football camps also contributed to integrity, my personal growth as an individual. I discovered who I was and still who I am today. I had such a passion for place-kicking and punting in American football. Communication Dissertations! I played my freshman and sophomore year as the essays, starting junior-varsity kicker. Essay About Leadership! I loved it. Although. American football , Anterior cruciate ligament , Cruciate ligament 1023 Words | 2 Pages. Writing a Personal Narrative Story Organizer Directions: Fill in the story organizer with information about the integrity essays, experience . that you plan to write about. Event ______________________________________ ______________________________________ When? ______________________________________ Where? ______________________________________ Details 1. ___________________________________________ 2. ____________________________________________ 3. ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________.
Cat , One Rainy Afternoon , Storytelling 436 Words | 3 Pages. Structure of a Personal Narrative Essay. CLRC Writing Center Structure of a Personal Narrative Essay “ Narrative ” is a term more commonly known as . “story.” Narratives written for college or personal narratives , tell a story, usually to some point, to illustrate some truth or insight. Following are some tools to help you structure your personal narrative , breaking it down into parts. The “Hook” Start your paper with a statement about your story that catches the reader’s attention, for example: a relevant quotation, question, fact. First-person narrative , Grammatical person , Grammatical tense 789 Words | 5 Pages. ?Personal Essay on Discrimination Guidelines. ? Personal Essay on Discrimination Prompt/Guidelines 1. Select a form of discrimination in which you are passionate about. Be able to use an . anecdote about yourself or someone close to you to “personalize” the essay and to elicit your passion for thesis the subject.
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5 Steps to integrity essays, Submitting a Writing Sample That Will Blow Hiring Managers Away. Your resume is down to one page. Your cover letter is memorable, yet professional, and explains why you’re a great fit for the position. But, you’re not done yet. You scroll down to the supplemental requirements and see that you’re supposed to communication dissertations, submit a writing sample.
Now what? Should you submit a research paper you wrote as an undergrad, a persuasive email, a personal blog post, a speech that’s kind of boring (but that you gave at essays a prestigious event), or maybe a newsletter you co-wrote? Too often, you’re told that writing samples are simply there to two kinds, demonstrate your writing ability. Certainly, that’s part of it. And if you start with the integrity process of elimination, this discounts anything with typos, or run-ons, or that’s boring (bye-bye speech). But the trick is what you do next: Conceptualize your application as a complete picture, with your writing sample as a supporting element. Here’s how it works. You know that the objective statement is wasted space on your resume (because obviously your objective is to land the role job). Integrity! However, you should come up with a tagline for ib tok essay 2005 yourself . Who are you as an applicant? Are you a leader? Are you over-the-moon creative?
What do you want the integrity interviewer to remember about ib tok 2005 you? Get really clear about the integrity essays impression you want to make—maybe even jot down a few words. Let’s say you decide you want your tagline to be “brilliant, thoughtful client services professional with a passion for politics and tech startups.” Just so we’re clear, this is for social anxiety essay your eyes only, so feel free to think as big—and be as ballsy—as you’d like. Step 2: See What Needs Reinforcement. Integrity Essays! Now that you know what you want to demonstrate, re-read your slogan, resume, and cover letter one right after the other. Do your desired attributes shine through?
For example, maybe you don’t think it’s clear how thoughtful you are (because, “considered all clients’ feelings” would make for kind of a strange resume bullet). Look at your writing samples: A paper on development communication presidential succession—no matter how mind-blowingly well written—isn’t going to evidence how you work with people. So, in integrity, this case you’d want to choose a persuasive memo, or perhaps part of control grant that you’ve written; something that shows you think through how programs influence people. Or, perhaps it’s a technical position and you want to underscore your research skills. Take a pass on the witty blog post, and choose the well-researched paper. You can say that you’re a quick and talented study in your cover letter, but your writing sample is an integrity opportunity to amy tan, show (rather than only integrity essays, tell). Step 3: Consider the Classic Advice. Now that you’ve targeted in on how your writing sample will present you as a candidate, it’s time to revisit the classic advice. Social! First, never send a writing sample with a typo.
I’m sorry if you love the essays document otherwise: Just imagine the control hiring manager reading it with blinking sign overhead that says “poor attention to detail and doesn’t know the difference between there and their ” (and then throwing your application in the trash). Next, you’ve probably heard that a writing sample should be relevant. So, if you’re applying to an environmental think tank, a piece about climate change would be ideal. This is good advice—so long as it fits in integrity, with your personal slogan. Development Dissertations! If you want to emphasize your background in integrity, the field, by all means go with the climate change piece. That said, if all of multivariate process thesis your degrees are environmental and you’re applying for a fundraising role, a letter that you wrote asking major donors to fund cancer research might better demonstrate your ability to raise money. Finally, do consider any consequences.
Any documents containing confidential information or that were written with the assistance of others are no-gos. View them like lying on your resume: It might get you an interview, but once the nature of your writing sample is discovered, your candidacy (or job) will be in jeopardy. SOUNDS LIKE YOU’RE IN THE MIDDLE OF THE INTERVIEW PROCESS. Integrity! Step 4: Stick to a Reasonable Length (and Tone) Just like your resume and cover letter, a writing sample should max out at one page (unless you’re specifically asked to send something longer, like a research paper). A hiring manager has a lot to read. If your sample is longer than a page, it’ll be skimmed (or perhaps not even read beyond a certain point). You’ll be more memorable with a document that’s concise and effective.
So, if all of your samples are long, consider an excerpt, such as an abstract from a long paper or the amy tan conclusion of an integrity essays exciting speech. As far as tone, refer to disorder outline, the company’s website, blog, and marketing materials. A snarky blog post may catch a reviewer’s eye, but it likely won’t earn you an interview at a conservative firm. Integrity! On the statistical other hand, a stuffy sample may make the hiring manager at a creative organization wonder whether you’d be a culture fit. If it could go either way, lean formal, as you can always loosen up later. Step 5: Write an Introductory Paragraph. Integrity! You know why you chose the press release over the academic abstract (or vice versa). Ib Tok Essay! But if you’re applying for a job at a fitness startup, the hiring manager may need you to integrity essays, tell her why you submitted it (as opposed to an essay on running). So, give her a roadmap. 5 Paragraph Essay About Leadership! At the top of your writing sample, write a couple of sentences that state when you wrote the integrity essays document, why (or if it’s an excerpt, what it’s excerpted from), and what you think it evidences.
It looks like this: Please see below for a press release I wrote in June 2016 to promote the launch of a new product. Two Kinds! I chose this as my writing sample because I believe it demonstrates my ability to concisely and effectively generate interest around new ideas. Photo of woman typing courtesy of essays Marcy Milks#46; Sara McCord is role of an a freelance writer and editor, who most frequently covers the essays career beat. Of An Nco Essay! For nearly three years, she was an editor at The Muse, and she's regularly contributed career advice to Mashable. Her advice has been published across the web ( Forbes , Newsweek , Fast Company , TIME , Inc. Integrity! , Business Insider , CNBC and more). Essay! Sara has experience managing programs; recruiting, interviewing, and referring job applicants; building strategic partnerships; advising executive directors; and essays supporting a national network of volunteers. Learn more and send her a note through her website, or follow her on Twitter @sarajmccord. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class.
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