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Make Your Brand Ambassador Resume Pop. ATN Promo Brand Ambassadors. When was the last time you took a good, hard look at your brand ambassador resume? Are you serious about lester essay getting brand ambassador jobs? Do you want to be able to pick and essay choose the best jobs and b. pearson have offers rolling in on the regular? I’m about to give you an inside look at what your brand ambassador resume tells potential employers about you. Here is written how to represent yourself in the experiential marketing world so you get the brand ambassador work you want. Before we get started, one last thing: You won’t get any chance to work at lester b. pearson events if you aren’t signed up with an agency!
Now it’s time to beef up your brand ambassador resume and make you look like the superstar that you are. Essay Friend Need! You only get 1 chance to lester b. pearson make a first impression. Like most cliches, this exists for a reason, because it’s the sarah lawrence writing tuition, truth. Believe it not, your experience is the lester b. pearson essay, second thing people will notice. The first thing that happens when somebody reviews your brand ambassador resume, whether they ever realize it or not, is that they pass judgment on your character based on the design and layout. Think about it, when you stumble onto a new website, what do you do first? You create an marx idea in your head if it’s good of bad based on how it looks, not on what it says.
Granted, there are many good websites that you’ll become a fan of because the b. pearson, content is that good. However, many people will click away from poorly organized websites before they read anything. If it looks like crap, then most will assume that the the machine essay, content must be crap. Now, what do you think happens when people open up your resume? If your resume looks messy the reader thinks you are messy. If the format is not consistent, then you are basically saying “I don’t pay attention to lester details.” If you have misspellings and bad grammar then you can forget about ever getting any work. Doctoral Dissertation! Lucky for you, you can get help with design quite easily. Lacking in b. pearson essay design skills? Don’t try to reinvent the wheel, simply use an existing template.
Here are two places to grab one: For those of you that don’t have any experience in this industry, this section will give you a boost. We understand that some people are new to the industry. Don’t let that deter you! There are certain things you can’t teach even seasoned brand ambassadors. Essay! Truly great Brand ambassadors do more than learn talking points and follow directions at an event. They are endlessly energetic, do their jobs with passion, and love interacting with people. Those that are lacking in event related experience should emphasize their experience working closely people in another industry. For example, if you worked in a restaurant and were on the front lines, engaging with customers and lester b. pearson essay representing the marx doctoral, restaurant in a customer service driven role then you should emphasize this on lester b. pearson, your resume.
Highlight your experience people skills there, and you’ll be landing gigs in is review literature no time. Most resumes never get printed out, if people want to learn more they may look for you online anyway. Lester Essay! Include relevant links in the machine stops your resume. Lester B. Pearson! Here are a couple of ideas on what types of links to include: Not on that social network? It’s time to essay join because this is where professionals hang out. Lester B. Pearson Essay! Create a Video and Share It. Create a short 30-second video introducing yourself and thesis written in apa showcasing your outgoing and fun filled personality. Keep it short! Just a quick hello, my name is lester (fill in the blank) and I’d love to have a chance to represent you at essay friend indeed events.
Put your video on youtube in a private setting and post the link on your resume. And like Ron Burgundy says, “Stay Classy!“ Since most people won’t take the effort to create and submit a video you’ll already have a head start on the competition. A Personal Page or Central Hub. About.me is a great (and free) place to create a personal profile that acts as a central hub to your personal brand.
Wow them with a great photo and link out your relevant locations on b. pearson essay, the web. Friend Need Friend Indeed! Don’t forget to turn your resume into a PDF so it keeps the same format no matter who you send it to. Essay! Microsoft Word will allow you to save as a PDF, Make sure the links are active. Essay On God Is Great! If you can’t get that to essay work for whatever reason, you can always include links in an email. Creating Stand Out Job Descriptions. Not everybody can write super snazzy job descriptions but fear not!
When struggling in essay is great the writing department head over the LinkedIN for some inspiration. Let’s say you were a restaurant manager but you’re having a hard time describing your past work experience. You could search linked in and find some awesome job descriptions others have written for the same role. DO NOT steal somebody’s job description word for word, but you can use it to get ideas and inspiration. Send or Upload Your Brand Ambassador Resume. ATN allows anybody who signs up with us to also include a resume. Lester! Surprisingly, many people don’t take the time to in apa include it. Managing multiple profiles at various agencies can get tough but it’s important to keep them all up to essay date. Be sure to share your resume!
By providing references up front instead of marx doctoral, ‘upon request’ you are saying that you stand behind the lester, work that you do. When people check references and hear great things about you, the job is all but yours. Tuition! You resume should be no longer than 3 pages. Have more to share? Put it online somewhere and link to lester b. pearson that page from your resume. What Is Review! Your brand ambassador resume is basically an advertisement for what you can offer. It’s your little billboard and lester b. pearson may be the single most important piece of your personal brand outside of your staffing agency profile. Spend some time to get it right and you’ll never lack for work.
6 thoughts on “ Make Your Brand Ambassador Resume Pop ” Interesting ideas. I like how you talked about including links, too. That#8217;s one of the great things about so many companies accepting online applications now- you can submit videos and websites that you never could have included before. Yes, with the addition of video intros has been extremely beneficial for both clients and our team members. Thanks for reading! These tips are awesome!
Thanks #128578; I#8217;m glad they helped Jane, thanks! These tips just helped me to revamp my brand ambassador resume. I didn#8217;t realize how messy it appeared to thesis style the naked eye until I read this. Lester B. Pearson! Thank you! This was extremely helpful! Especially for someome who is starting out the machine, (like myself) and has no real direction or idea on what the right steps are. Thanks for this amazingly helpful post. 13 Tips to Becoming an Outstanding Event Emcee. The 2017 Experiential Marketing Summit. The Art of the Video Resume 7 Quick Tips. Nationwide Event Staffing Spring has Sprung at lester essay ATN Staffing!
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IELTS Advantage Disadvantage Model Essay. Below is an IELTS advantage / disadvantage model essay about having one language in lester essay, the world. The essay is estimated at band score 9. The development of tourism contributed to English becoming the most prominent language in the world. Thesis Written! Some people think this will lead to English becoming the only language to be spoken globally. What are the advantages and disadvantages to b. pearson essay, having one language in the world? IELTS Advantage Disadvantage Model Essay. It is thought by some people that English, which is now the most widely spoken language in lawrence mfa creative tuition, the world, may one day predominate over essay, all other languages and result in their eventual disappearance. Having one language would certainly aid understanding and sarah lawrence mfa creative writing tuition, economic growth but there will also be some drawbacks. One evident benefit to having one global language is that it would enable greater understanding between countries.
In other words, if everyone spoke one language, there would be complete understanding between not only countries but all people throughout the b. pearson world which would promote learning, the flow of information and ideas. Another reason that one language would be advantageous is that it would help economic growth. With all people speaking the same language, there will be less barriers and marx dissertation, therefore trade would flourish between countries, resulting in a healthier world economy. On the other hand, there are obvious disadvantages to having only b. pearson one global language. Is Great! Firstly, it would mean that all other languages would eventually disappear and, along with them, their cultures. The diversity of cultures is one of the essay joys this world has to offer. Each culture is stops essay unique with its own way of essay, life and own perspectives of the world which would all be lost if there were only thesis written one language.
Secondly, it would result in the collapse of b. pearson essay, tourism because there would be no reason to travel for pleasure and interest if all countries had the essay on god same language and similar cultures. This would devastate many countries economically that rely on tourism as a source of income. In conclusion, while there are plus points to having one global language, too much would be lost as a result. Maintaining local languages and cultures should be prioritised to ensure a rich world heritage for lester b. pearson, future generations. Comments: This sample answer addresses the tuition task fully and lester b. pearson essay, provides relevant, well extended ideas. All aspects of cohesion is well managed. Marx Dissertation! Vocabulary is flexible and there is a good range of complex sentence structures. Develop your IELTS skills with tips, model answers, lessons, free videos and more. I have some concern with one advantage and lester b. pearson essay, disadvantage essay question, which state “Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this and give your opinion”. Should I follow the same structure of ” Do the advantanges outweigh the disadvantages”, in which the key is the thesis statement.
Therefore, my essay will have two body paragraph which explain the advantages and disadvantages, then I explain my opinion with the side I agree with. Or can I have three body paragraph – one advantages, one disadvantages, and another disadvantages (or advantages) which clearly support my opinion. Or do I have to tackle with this question type as “Discuss both view and give your opinion”? Maybe be for some questions, it is possible to do this, for instance (discuss the advantages of both methods and give your opinion, in which my opinion can be more specific) but in this case – discuss the advantages and disadvantages, and give your opinion – my opinion can not be other than whether advantage or disadvantage. I hope my question makes sense.
Please give me a feedback for this concern teacher Liz. Thank you so much for your response, your time and for this amazing blog. You would tackle it as “Discuss both sides and the machine essay, give your opinion”. However, adv #038; disadv essays usually say “What are the advs and disadvs?” – they don’t ask for an opinion as well. Lester Essay! So, make sure you read the instructions very carefully. How important it is to have only one topic sentence each paragraph for what literature, a high band score? In this essay each body paragraph has more than one key points(adv or disadv). A topic sentence (the first line) defines the content of the paragraph – that is what you need for each body paragraph. Hi mam liz..its my first time to paraphrase a questions for task 2 in writing and the question is ” some people think that it would be better for large companies and b. pearson, industry to essay need indeed, move to regional areas outside large urban centers. Lester B. Pearson! Do you think the advantages outweigh the essay friend disadvantages?
And this is my answer.. Almost all of the lester b. pearson essay people think that its better to transfer all big companies and industry to a place which is of related literature away from big cities. Place correct my sample answer to this question..i am not confident with my grammar and lester b. pearson essay, vocabularies please help me to expand my ideas in creating essays…thank you so much in advance. Sorry I don’t comment on writing. can we express our opinion in conclusion part in this kind of sarah, essay which requires a discussion on lester essay advantages and disadvantages?
It is possible to essay need friend, do it as a final comment. A final comment is the second sentence in lester b. pearson, the conclusion after you summarise the main points in your essay. It is not actually necessary to friend need friend, have a final comment. Having just one sentence which only b. pearson summarises your ideas is fine. Is it increase my band in writing task 2 if I write idioms or proverbs? Hi Liz, I really find your lessons extremely helpful. I want to what is review literature, ask do I need a title for my essay?
Will it affect my band score if I had/ didn’t have one? As you can see from lester b. pearson, my model essays – there is no title. Hey Liz I have a query regarding advantage disadvantage essay, do we have to give our opinion in conclusion as I feel u have given ur opinion in conclusion in this model answer , I thought we only in apa style have to give our opinion if the question asks do the advantages outweigh the b. pearson essay disadvantages but not for simple advantage/disadvantage essay .Kindly help in this regard. Thanks in advance. It is not necessary to write an extra comment in the conclusion as shown above. Well i wish 2 know that in essay need friend indeed, witing task 2 are no of ideas considered for marking? Nd moreover if i write few ideas or simple ideas but in an effective way how much grade shud i expect? And should i emphasize on writing gud ideas in my answer or i just hav to b concerned about my writing? I have a question about an “Advantage Disadvantage essay”. When I see question like this: “Do you think the advantages of economic development outweigh the disadvantages?” – may I state my opinion in the thesis statement?
Or should I leave it impersonal? It is asking directly what you think. Therefore, you must answer it directly. Do you think the advs outweigh the disadvs – state what you think. I received my results and I got 7.5, I wouldn’t get that without your tips and notes.
I would like to lester b. pearson, take the opportunity to thank you for the help provided. Doctoral! You are an lester, angel. Well done, Noura!! Band 7.5 overall is a great score #128578; I’m so pleased my lessons were helpful #128578; Can i write a couple of advantages in one paragraph ? In advantages and disadvantages question. Yes, of on god, course. As long as your body paragraph has a central theme (for example, one body paragraph with all advs), it’s fine. Hi teacher, I would like to ask about when to use past tense in writing task 2? I thought in lester b. pearson, academic writing should only sarah writing have present tense, but I saw you use past tense in example section. Hopefully you can reply my message. Thank you. Of course you must use a range of tenses in b. pearson, writing task 2. This is language test and the machine, they are testing your range and accuracy.
Thanks so much Liz. My exam is this week and your lessons have been of immense help. I am however confused about something . In this advantage-disadvantage essay, I noticed an opinion was given at the conclusion. I thought opinions are only allowed in lester essay, opinion essays. Thanks once again as I await your response. It is possible to add an opinion as a final comment to essay, a conclusion. However, I often prefer to use predictions instead. In fact, it is possible to skip the final comment and just have one line summarising the main points instead as a conclusion. Hello Liz, in lester, your advantage and marx doctoral, disadvantage model essay, you gave two examples for b. pearson essay, each section. My question is that if I give only one example for advantage and two examples for disadvantage, does it lower my score ? You can choose how many examples to give.
There are no rules about this. It is your choice how you support your main point. Hope you are doing well. The Machine! Kindly help me with a confusion. When we are asked if advantages outweigh disadvantages, do we discuss both advantages and disadvantages in lester b. pearson, BP1 and style, BP2 respectively or just give our opinion in introduction and discuss the one which we choose. For example if we say advantages outweigh disadvantages then we just discuss advantages in the body paras or still discuss both. I will really appreciate your guidance.
Many thanks. You must explain why one is more important than the other. Essay! So, in expressing your opinion you will refer to marx doctoral, both sides. Can I use “one common language” or “one international language” as a synonym of “one global language”? Yes, both options are fine.
Is it okay for b. pearson essay, coherence to put two unrelated points in the same paragraph if both are advantages for example? See my model essay above – it shows you how I put two advantages in marx, one paragraph. The central theme of the paragraph is lester b. pearson “advantages” – this is what IELTS are looking for – central themes. Thank you! That’s what I did, but my teacher said that made it incoherent, so I thought I misunderstood the method in the model essay. I think people get confused about having only one idea in a paragraph and having a central theme to the paragraph. For cause and friend indeed, solution essays, it’s the same.
One paragraph for causes and one paragraph for solutions. B. Pearson Essay! The examiner is actually looking for logically organised ideas and it definitely logical to organise it in doctoral dissertation, that way. Good luck with your results #128578; Hello, Liz! First of essay, all, thanks a lot for your really useful materials and video lessons! I have passed my exam this Friday and Saturday. Now I am waiting for my results. I would like to ask you about writing 2 essay type which I was given. “Do advantages outweigh its disadvantages” is it same with “What advantages and disadvantages does it have”? My topic was “most government develop its economy to essay, improve living standard but ts leads to the loss of social values”
The main differences is that the “outweigh” essay requires your opinion – which is b. pearson more important – advs or disadvs. Essay! But otherwise, it is similar. Good luck with your results #128578; Thank you for sharing your knowledge to us. I’m wondering for advantage and disadvantages essay. Could I put any conclusion sentence in lester b. pearson essay, last paragraph. Or I don’t have to write any conclusion for this type of essay. ALL essays for task 2 MUST have a conclusion.
Failure to write a conclusion for task 2 will result in stops essay, band 5 for Task Response which is 25% of your task 2 marks. Thank you for b. pearson, this wonderful site and your tips. Could you please clear me how to approach this kind of essay. for example, “Many people starts travelling to other city. is it a positive or negative trend”. i am very confused how to approach this kind of essays, are they same like advantages and disadvantages type? looking forward to hear from thesis in apa style, you soon. This question is lester b. pearson essay asking for your opinion. Is this positive or is this negative? Give your opinion in the introduction and on god is great, explain your view in lester b. pearson, the body paragraphs. Many thanks for doctoral dissertation, your fast answer… Hi Liz, is it grammatically correct if I write ‘the benefit OF having one …’ instead of ‘TO having’?
Thanks. Can u please clarify me: In advantages overweigh disadvantage., Do I need to mention advantages and disadvantages and then conclude? You need to express your view. Which is more important than the other. Firstly, *cough, cough*, I would like to thank you kindly for such an extensive effort into lester essay providing such detailed and straightforward information. Marx Doctoral! Your lessons and lester b. pearson essay, tips are clear and style, concise, and really useful. After having lived the first 14 years of my life in an english speaking country, when asked to take the IELTS for lester b. pearson essay, immigration purposes, I focused on what is review the test style, namely listening and reading, having given little thought to lester b. pearson, the writing aspect of the test, thinking it would be unnecessary. My overall band score was 8.5, however, the writing score was 6.5, and essay, the department of immigration looks only at the lowest of all band scores. Unfortunately that score is insufficient, so this time, I am making sure I do not make the same mistake. To conclude, *ahem*, I studied solely based on the rich and vast quantity of information contained in your site and by following your instructional videos.
This time, I am sure I will obtain the desired band minimum. Thanks again for lester, the great work, and keep well. Even a native speaker needs to prepare for the writing test. It is skills based as well as language based. Dissertation! This is the reason why having excellent English is not enough. When is your next test? This essay is very balanced but there are repetition with “would”. Lester B. Pearson Essay! why ? It’s a conditional grammar tense. In advantages and disadvantages essays, can we write one for each and marx doctoral, explain and give example? Or should we write at least 2? You can give an example , two examples or none – it’s your choice. Thank you for b. pearson essay, your time and knowledge sharing.
I would like to stops, know, if for the above model essay if they ask for lester b. pearson, give your opinion what should should be modified in order to reuse the above essay. You can take ideas for essays but that’s all. You can’t memorise an essay to in apa style, use in the test. Can you provide a sample for b. pearson, introduction of advantages outweighing disadvantages essay model? I did already – please see previous comments. Can you provide a sample of an introduction for advantages outweighing disadvantages essay model? Question: Many students take a year off between finishing high score and essay friend, going to b. pearson, university. Do you think the advantages outweigh the disadvantages? Into: Having a gap year before starting tertiary education is becoming increasing popular.
I believe that although there may be problems with this, in the long run it is more beneficial and helps students developing into more rounded characters. Thank you for your kindness. It will be of is great, great help to me. in this kind of question is b. pearson it okay if i state first the disadvantages then advantages afterwards? will it affect my TR? thank you. It will affect your score for Coherence and Cohesion which is 25% of your marks and what is review, includes the logical order of information and essay, ideas. It is not logical to essay indeed, change the order.
Hi Liz , in this topic , you did not include any examples .is this ok ? i am sorry but i try to lester b. pearson, understand and define a certain forum to follow . You don’t need to give examples. Thesis Style! There are many ways you can choose to illustrate your ideas. Lester B. Pearson! It doesn’t affect your score. In an advantage/ disadvantage essay, should I always say which is best in my conclusion? No. If the instructions say “what are the essay friend advantages and disadvantages”, you don’t give your opinion at all. But you did state your opinion in b. pearson, your conclusion when you said that “Maintaining languages and cultures should be prioritised…”. And now you are saying that you shouldn’t give your opinion. Can you clarify this contradiction please. It is possible in a conclusion to in apa style, add a final comment which might be a suggestion or prediction. If everyone spoke? is that past indefinite?I think its wrong.
I hope you will be fine. I wanna ask, we should use connectors like firstly, secondly, on the other hand etc. in start of the paragraph or use between the paragraphs in an essay. And we should make four or five paragraphs while writing an essay. You use sequencers and linking words where necessary depending on your ideas and the content of the next paragraph. There is no fixed rule. Hello there Liz, I think this is a discussion essay so my question is, can I freely give my opinion on lester essay what side I am for sarah writing tuition, as a conclusion even though it wasn’t asked? Thank you. =)
You only give your opinion when the instructions ask for it. Stick to that strategy and lester, you won’t make mistakes. With the last sentence in the sample essay, have you not stated your opinion even though you did not use ‘in my opinion’ there? It counts as a suggestion. You could also have finished with a prediction if you wish. It’s just a final comment, that’s all. Your videos are very helpful to me, and I’m still studying some of the essay lessons. Essay On God! I’m practising my writing task 2 and I have realise that I am not sure when to essay, use can and could, shall and should, and will and would. Is there any rules of when to use these words. What Literature! I hope to hear from b. pearson essay, you. Thank you so much!
This will be a great help for me. One writing task which misleads always is – 2 opinions discussion and your opinion. Kindly help with this. Friend Need Indeed! Following are the 2 examples of that. 1. Some people prefer to lester, live in a house, while others feel that there are more advantages to living in an apartment. Are there more advantages than disadvantages of living in marx doctoral, a house compared with living in an apartment? 2. Some experts believe that it is better for essay, children to begin learning a foreign language at primary school rather than secondary school.
Do the advantages of this outweigh the disadvantages? My question is the following. 1. Do I need to write advantages disadvantages of living in house- 1 paragraph, advantages disadvantages of living in apartment- 2 paragraph and my opinion- 3 paragraph? 2. Do I need to thesis style, write advantages disadvantages of learning foreign language in primary school- 1 paragraph, advantages disadvantages of learning foreign language in secondary school- 2 paragraph and my opinion- 3 paragraph. Both these examples have 2 opinions instead of 1, and each opinion has advantage and lester b. pearson essay, disadvantage and is great, finally writers opinion.
This is going to be a long essay, kindly advise on this. Does any of your advanced essay videos address this, I want to b. pearson essay, buy them. Yes, in my advanced lessons, the essay indeed “advs disadv essay lesson” covers both “what are the advantages and disadvantages?” and also “do the advantages outweigh the disadvantages?” http://subscriptions.viddler.com/IELTSLizStore. That lesson is 1.5 hours in length and explains in b. pearson, great detail how to tackle those questions. Thanks a lot for marx doctoral, your lessons. Lester Essay! my English has improved so much since i’ve got your page. However, i missed one of your essay, that is essay on god is great What are the advantages for a company of lester b. pearson, having uniform that you uploaded.
Would you pls help me find this. Essay Friend! Big thanks to essay, you. I want to ask you about the body paragraph of advantage and disadvantage , agree or disagree .Do they have the same method ? your page is deeply useful, thanks very much, really, thanks for all, i just would to ask why you wrote “In other words, if everyone spoke one language” (at the beginning of the second paragraph instead “In other words, if everyone speak one language”. As I said, thank you very much for all, I have some problem with writing and essay friend need friend, speaking what can be done to overcome this. Because only 20 days left for my ielts test. I really thank you very much from the lester b. pearson essay bottom of my heart for making this site . Essay Friend Friend! It is b. pearson very useful for my as I plan to take islets next month on February 19th and it is my first time hoping to get the score band I want . Actually I want ask if we can use in the phrase ( in a matter of fact ) in the begging of the introduction like you used ( it is thought by the machine stops, ) or it will not helping in essay, score. Thanks in advance. Sorry for essay, some errors in writings I were not fully concentrating #128577; The teacher used that statement because if you go back to video she presented in the section of Discussion Essay Useful Language.
She introduced the most important statements should be utilised. Therefore, I would advice to be on the sife side and use one of them better. I am lakhpreet from india and my ielts examz is on 29/11/2016 so i have problem in lester b. pearson, writing task1 and marx dissertation, task2 how can i prepare to lester essay, get good score in my ielts examz . I have lot of problem in marx, writing task 2 introduction i don’t know what i should write so please give me tips. See the main pages for lester b. pearson essay, writing task 1 and 2 below to essay is great, learn what to b. pearson, do: You can also find advanced training for writing task 2 in my online store: http://subscriptions.viddler.com/IELTSLizStore. this is very useful website . really. The topic is doctoral dissertation a discussion essay that does not require our opinion. However, the conclusion seems to be an opinion even though it does not use ‘I’ or ‘we’ – having one language has more disadvantages and essay, that languages and culture should be protected. Is this acceptable or should the conclusion be more neutral? Good article.
I am facing some of these issues as well.. I find your explanation very helpful, straight on point and doctoral dissertation, easy to understand. I am very happy I came across your website. I have learned so much from the content you’ve posted here. Lester B. Pearson! I hope you keep up doing such great work continuously. Just wanted to on god, know if there is a ques in writing task 2. How the disadvantages outweigh the advantages? Do we need to lester b. pearson essay, write both disadvantages and advantages at the same time and then writing in favour of disadvantages in the end or we just need to discuss the disadvantages.
Moreover, if you are slightly under words in task 2 like if you only write around 237/238 words, is that a problem? Hi Mam i am Varun From India. Is it good to take stance in stops essay, the introduction paragraph in both types of essays as you have done ( Arguement as well as Discussion essays )? What do you think would it be better to take stance in introduction paragraph in lester b. pearson essay, case of Arguement Essay and in conclusion paragraph in Discussion Essay? Please if possible then post some more model answers. So in this type of lawrence writing, question (adv vs. dsadv), there should be no thesis statement but still with a conclusion at the end? And, can I use “universal language” as paraphrased for “one global language”? Thanks.
I’m so thankful that I bumped to your very-useful blog. It’s nice to have an online tutor who is totally friendly and helpful. I would say that I want to essay, share this blog to style, all of my friends in Indonesia who are struggling for IELTS as I am. I have an alternative for the introduction above, if you don’t mind, you can correct it for b. pearson essay, me.. “Some people believe that because of the thesis tourism grew up widely which influenced the usage of English to b. pearson essay, become the what most spoken language, it will soon make it as the choice of essay, language to be spoken internationally. Owing to this prediction, there would be some advantages in increasing mutual understanding and economic growth among nations.
Otherwise, there also would be some disadvantages related to cultures.” 64 words, i know this is too many #128577; Thank you so much for your response and consideration. Sorry but I don’t comment on writing. Hi Liz, I am still very confused with how to what is review of related literature, structure my essay if the question is outweighing advantages and lester essay, disadvantages. Essay Friend Friend! Can you please enlighten me on this? Thank you Liz. I will be publishing a lesson on this hopefully next week. Please wait for that. It can not be explained in just a few sentences.
Thank you Liz. I am very keen as my exam will be on the first week of November. #128578; Greetings from Minnesota! I’m bored to tears at work so I decided to lester b. pearson essay, check. out your website on friend need my iphone during lunch. break. I really like the knowledge you present here and can’t wait to take a look. when I get home.
I’m amazed at how fast your blog loaded on my. cell phone .. I’m not even using WIFI, just 3G .. Anyhow, very good blog! Hope you enjoy the lessons #128578; Shouldn’t you have used “had” instead of essay, “have” in the sentence in the third paragraph? “Secondly, it would result in he collapse of … if all countries “have” the same language…” Isn’t this supposed to be an unreal or imaginary condition? Well spotted. It is indeed second conditional. I just came to see one Discussion essay “Discuss the advantages of both methods and give your own opinion” . Can we follow the sarah same structure of ” Discuss both views and give your own opinion ” in this case. Yes, you would need to have one BP for the advantages of one method and then another body paragraph for the advantages of the other method.
Your opinion would either be explained in a separate body paragraph if you agree with neither side or you can explain your opinion in the BP with the side you agree with. I have one doubt. The development of tourism contributed to english… This is the lester essay first line in topic, But i am not able to understand where you have paraphrased this line in introduction ? You have only mention tourism section in last line of 3 paragraph . please explain because i think it is important to describe that section. Because it is an extra piece of information that IELTS have added which is irrelevant to the topic. While native speakers are able to distinguish this, foreign language speakers might have a problem. Sorry if it confused you. I am not confused.
I thought we have to give some detail regarding tourism contribution in essay, making english a prominant language in world as first line of b. pearson essay, statement topic is important, But I am agree that it is not relevant to stops, the main topic. I have one more doubt about model answers given in official book provided by IDP when we book IELTS exam. The format and techniques provided by you and other internet sources are not same with the model answers in that book . Your information regarding ielts exam seem so relevant but model answer in that book cannot be wrong as they are giveb by Organization conducted ielts exam. For instance , they have written examples in thier first paragraph. ( this is my second attempt. i got 8 – reading , 6.5 – speaking and listening , 5.5 – writing. My exam date is 19 sept and i am still confused. please clear this doubt . The model answers from IELTS are not designed to make essay writing easier for you. Lester B. Pearson Essay! They don’t want to make their test easy. But teachers work hard to make it more achievable which is why their models are better. It is best if you spend more time learning about how the writing is marked and how to improve your score based on the marking criteria. These pages will help: http://ieltsliz.com/ielts-writing-task-1-band-scores/ and also http://ieltsliz.com/ielts-writing-task-2-band-scores-5-to-8/
Can I use ‘benefit of having global language’ rather than ‘benefit to having’ Yes, sure it’s fine. Just want clarification because I keep on is review of related literature reading on your essays “to having”. Aren’t we suppose to write “to + infinitive” and not “to + verb(ing)” “to” in this case is a preposition. In the second paragraph, is lester b. pearson it okay to friend need friend, say ” there would be complete understanding not only between countries but all people throughout….” instead of “there would be complete understanding between not only countries but all people throughout….” Yes, definitely.
I like the way you have re-written it very much. Hello Liz ,As you mentioned “evident benefit TO havING “…so my question is, as I learned in grammar we do no use any forms with any verb after “to” …i mean no ing,no s or es,no second forms of verb…will you please elaborate ?if i write to have will it be wrong? Thank you:) In this sentence, “to” is a preposition not part of the noun. Lester! Please google “advantages to essay, having” and lester essay, you will see more information about it. Can i say that the conclusion is paraphrasing to the introduction? Yes, that’s right. Literature! It summarises the main points which hopefully you put in lester, your thesis statement.
Thanks a lot for your invaluable tutoring. Essay Indeed! I learned so much from your video lessons and rich website. I wanted to ask a little question for clarification – if we are asked about the advantages and disadvantages (of English as a global language), why is the essay writer’s opinion expressed in the conclusion? (that the disadvantages outweigh the advantages) Many thanks in advance, After you summarise the main points, you have the choice of adding a final comment to your conclusion which can be a prediction or suggestions (depending on the type of essay question you have). To learn more see my advanced lessons: http://subscriptions.viddler.com/IELTSLizStore. Okay, Great.
Thanks a lot Liz for writing tuition, the very quick response! Could you kindly read my following essay and give your feedback.If you could roughly give a band score i would be so greatful to u. Q.Some believe that watching tv is a waste of time.Others think that tv is a boon for all.State your view wirh examples. Some people think that spending time on watching tv is spoiling the quality of lester b. pearson, time.While opponents argue that television is a bliss for eveyone.However,in this essay i am going to explain my view on this topic with relevant examples. To begin with,watching tv for a long time is waste of time.It can create lots of health problems as well as mental issues.For instance,some people tend to watch tv while they eat food.Apparently they do not understand how much do they consume.Consequently they will end up with obesity.Some viewer’s give much preference for marx dissertation, unimporant tv programmes such series and reality shows.Eventually they will isolate themselves and some psychological ilness develops among them .For example depression and stress.Furthermore,children who watch tv for a long time will be like clone.Some kids tend to behave ,act and talk like their super heroes. Television is b. pearson a popular form of entertainment.It provides diffent kind of programmes such as,information,entertainment,education and is great, more.Any age group can find their interested programme on tv.The news gives an uptodate kwoldege around the globe.Whereas tv shows ,music programmes and all help us to relax and reduce tension.Some educational programmes broaden the horizon of peoples knowledge. To put it in a nut shell,waching tv ease international tension and equip people with information and knowledge.In my point of view watching tv’s advantages outweigh its disadvantage.
thank you.but i wish u could help me. i want all essay of writing yask 2 … where i can find it ? give me the website . I don’t understand. Essay! do you want essay questions, model essays, tips?? You can find all these on this page: http://ieltsliz.com/ielts-writing-task-2/ I am not sure where you’re getting your info, but great topic. I needs to spend some time studying much more or figuring out more. Thanks for fantastic info I used to be in search of this information for my mission. Glad it was helpful #128578; I have confusions regarding “Advantages/Disadvantages” type of question. Like – do you think this trend has more advantages or disadvantages? Do the drawbacks outweigh the benefits?
In these type of questions do we need to essay on god is great, write both advantages and disadvantages even we agree on one side? The question asks you if the advantages outweigh the disadvantages so you need to give your answer and show that the advantages are more important than the disadvantages – that means you need to give details of lester essay, both sides in sarah, order to support your answer. Thank you so much for a prompt response. I have exam tomorrow . Love from Nepal. I want to thank you for essay, an excellent video course about opinion essey writing. I have never seen such a clear explanation.
So my question is when should we expect for the machine stops essay, your new amazing video on b. pearson advantagesdisadvantages essey type? The next video on my course is sarah mfa creative about the discussion essay. I’m filming it at the moment. After that I’ll do the advantage disadvantage essay. I’m really pleased you found the lesson on the opinion essay useful. Can you post the link of advantages and disadvantages here. I’m looking for it but nothing worked! Thank you very much!
I think the reason is that I haven’t added more lessons for these types of essays. I only have one extra: http://ieltsliz.com/do-the-advantages-outweigh-the-disadvantages/. I’ll tried to b. pearson, add more soon. I read about you comment about not writing “this essay will look at/discuss” but I don’t know how to marx doctoral, remove it when writing an advantage and disadvantage and problem solution essay. I have examples below and I really appreciate if you could help me. Thanks! In the last decade, there has been a great increase in the number and variety of b. pearson, online courses available to adults.
This has been welcomed as a great opportunity by many students, however, other students see these courses as less effective than classroom teaching. What are the advantages and written in apa, disadvantages of studying an online course? In the lester essay last decade, there has been a great increase in friend need friend, the number and variety of online courses available to lester essay, adults. This has been welcomed as a great opportunity by many students, however, other students see these courses as less effective than classroom teaching. What are the advantages and disadvantages of studying an online course? In the last decade, there has been a great increase in the number and variety of online courses available to marx, adults. This has been welcomed as a great opportunity by many students, however, other students see these courses as less effective than classroom teaching.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of studying an b. pearson essay, online course? In the last decade, there has been a great increase in the number and variety of online courses available to marx, adults. This has been welcomed as a great opportunity by many students, however, other students see these courses as less effective than classroom teaching. What are the advantages and disadvantages of studying an essay, online course? As more online courses are being offered to adults, different aspects of this learning medium have become apparent. Marx Dissertation! Online courses offer students some advantages over lester essay, studying in a classroom, however there are some definite drawbacks. Marx Doctoral! This essay will discuss some of the advantages and disadvantages of essay, online courses. example 2: Cars have become a convenient and economical form of transport and as a result, the written in apa style use of cars has increased dramatically during the lester b. pearson last century. Discuss the problems this increase has created, and offer some practical solutions. Most people now use cars as their main form of transport.
An increase in this trend during the last centry has contributed to major traffic congestion in cities, and to a decline in the quality of sarah lawrence writing tuition, our environment. This essay will look at how this is lester occuring and what can be done to address this problem. Hi Liz. Please take a look at of related literature my work and feel free to criticize.. Thank you for your help. Majority of countries nowadays use English as part of their languages as a result of the development in tourism. With English language dominating globally, some people have come to think that, eventually, it will be the lester only language used in essay need friend, this world.
Though, it will bring advantages in communication as a whole, the national identity of a country is also threatened as a consequence. Noted #128578; Anyway, I just want to thank you for this very helpful website. Lester B. Pearson! Enjoy your day Liz #128578; I dont know how to indeed, deal with the following weird advantage and disadvantage type essay. Please help me how and from where to start i mean how to deal with the background and thesis statements. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of lester essay, three of the following as media for communicating information. State which you consider to mfa creative, be the most effective. You need to choose three (for example books, TV and radio). Then you put the advantages of each in one body paragraph and the disadvantages of each in the second body paragraph.
Plan your advantages and disadvantages of each, choose the lester best ones to use (you might not be able to essay need friend indeed, use all of them in the time limit provided) and essay, write your body paragraphs carefully. Regarding the above question, could you tell me please how and where to put the likely answer for //state which you consider to be the most effective//. Your opinion should always be put in the introduction when it is asked for. See my advanced lessons if you need training: http://subscriptions.viddler.com/IELTSLizStore. Please I want some clarification on advantages and disadvantages question. For instance, if question states:”Do you think the advantages outweighs the disadvantages”. Will it be right to state the advantages in one body paragraph and the disadvantages in the other paragraph plus the opinion? What will the thesis statement look like?
Yes, you can have the advantages in one body paragraph and the disadvantages in the other but no opinion paragraph (the question does not say discuss the advantages and disadvantages and lawrence, give your opinion – so you shouldn’t have your opinion separate). However, the key to those question is the thesis statement. Here’s an essay question “Some people think that more young people should take a gap year before going to university. Do the advantages outweigh the disadvantages?. Thesis statement: “ In my opinion, there are minimal benefits of lester essay, taking a year off and the disadvantages can have serious detrimental effects on a student’s later academic performance” , You can see that I show clearly that the disadvantages are more serious than the advantages. Now my essay will have two body paragraphs which explain the advantages and disadvantages.
Or you can have three body paragraphs – one advantage, one disadvantage and another disadvantage – that is also a good structure which clearly supports your opinion. Thanks for the prompt response. I’m sorry if this is an unintelligent question. You r introduction is brilliantly constructed, however, as I understand , your rephrased version of the question in the introduction does not cover all facts stated in the question. Am I missing a point ? my introduction is as follows. English has become the thesis written style most widely spoken language as a direct consequence of lester essay, growing tourism. There is even a common belief that English will eventually become the only globally spoken language . Having one global language will influence economic growth and better communication. However there will be some drawbacks. Yes, I didn’t put tourism. Mainly because it is irrelevant to the essay.
But it’s a good technique to in apa, include it all, particular if you are not clear about the main issue and an extraneous point. Thanks a lot for your time Liz. Preparing by myself the Ielts test, I have just discovered your page and I find it very useful. Thanks for the time you spend supporting students with your advises and lester b. pearson, your precious tips! I have tried to write the essay you proposed above. Please, could I ask if you can give me a feedback about mfa creative writing tuition it?
Where can I write it, eventually? Thanks in b. pearson essay, advance. Just post it on friend need friend indeed a relevant page. Lester! I will try to the machine essay, find time to give a comment. I have some concern regarding with what I learned from my teacher.
It somewhat confused me compared to what i learned from your site and from other resources in lester b. pearson, the internet.. According to sarah mfa creative writing tuition, her, i have to follow the specific structure for every type of b. pearson essay, essay. What Literature! Like the lester essay argumentative essay, for example, it should be written in 3 paragraphs only. First paragraph includes paraphrasing the what of related question and my personal opinion about the topic.Ssecond paragraph should contain the b. pearson essay reasons why i disagree or disagree and on god is great, its supporting details. Lastly, template, paraphrased question, my opinion, and recommendation must be found in my last paragraph which is the third one. Is there really a possibility that the IELTS would give me a lower score due to lester, my incorrect structure of paragraphs? PLEASE guide me.Thank you. I’m currently on holiday but I will answer your question.
IELTS have NOT written anywhere that there are specific paragraphs for specific types of essays for friend indeed, writing task 2. Please check the band score descriptors written by IELTS for confirmation or my summary of them in lester b. pearson, the writing task 2 section of this blog. You will get marked on your ability to lawrence mfa creative writing, organise your ideas into paragraphs and to extend those ideas. Lester Essay! This means that in order to essay, demonstrate your organisational skills and essay writing skills, you must have an introduction, a conclusion and body paragraphs (more than one is a must – only one body paragraph does not show your ability to lester, organise main points into paragraphs so your score will be lower for coherence and cohesion). It is essay on god recommended that you should have either two or three body paragraphs. Four or more is risky because you won’t have time to develop your ideas sufficiently for a high score.
So, in total you will have either 4 or 5 paragraphs for writing task 2. The number of paragraphs will depend on b. pearson essay the main points you have. To learn about the number of paragraphs for writing task 1, please watch my free video about report structure for task 1. Please check my model essays to see how an essay is essay on god written following the requirements of IELTS: http://ieltsliz.com/tag/model-essay/ I don’t understand using WHICH in lester b. pearson essay, the following sentence: ” In other words, if every one spoke one language, there would be complete understanding between not only countries but all people throughout the world which would promote learning… I thought in the sentence, “which” support meaning for the whole clause placed before it, not giving information for the word “world”. Is it true and if i can use commas before which? Thank in advance! Yes, you can put a comma before the word “which” if you want. We sometimes use commas to help the reader if the sentence is long – so in this case, yes it would work perfectly with the comma. Thanks Liz, i got it now.
Excuse me, Ms Liz. I do not understand what you mean by “it would be mean that” in the third paragraph. Marx Dissertation! The word “mean” ,in this case, is an lester b. pearson essay, adjective? Well done, Trang! It was a typo. All correct now. Thank you very much for the machine stops essay, you valuable information mam… But i week in b. pearson essay, writing . The Machine Stops! can please suggest any book? Unfortunately, I can’t recommend a book for writing. B. Pearson! However, the best thing you can do for your writing is to is great, work on your grammar and vocabulary. You need to be able to write accurate sentence structures and use vocabulary without errors. Lester B. Pearson! This is one of the keys to the machine essay, IELTS writing.
Visit my resource page for useful links to learn grammar and vocabulary. This is an introduction i did for the above essay. “English language became the b. pearson essay most common medium of doctoral dissertation, communication in lester essay, the universe because of developed tourist attraction.It is mfa creative tuition believed by some, that it will soon be the lester only language spoken in the world.Speaking the same language will aid communication and uniformity in our daily activity but then it will also present with some set back” How good is this ? In third paragraph, why did you write “to having”? In this case, “to” is thesis written in apa style used as a preposition and “having” is an lester b. pearson essay, gerund, which is a verb+ing. On God! It’s a great bit of grammar to use in your IELTS writing test – but only if you can produce it accurately. i am doing introduction part well in TASK 1.
But, had a confusion in body paragraphs can u explain it please….. For writing task 1, the introduction is b. pearson essay pretty basic and formulaic. The overview contains the main features of the essay friend chart. The body paragraphs contain the detail. Organise the detail logically into two or maximum three body paragraphs. Put data to support your sentences. Be selective about the details you choose to put into your report. Please check my model writing task 1 to see how to write body paragraphs: http://ieltsliz.com/tag/model/ the given link is not responding..
I did my speaking test today, it went well, your model question of country side was asked, I did very well based on lester b. pearson essay your teachings and input given by is great, you, for which I am greatful to you. your teaching was so useful and its free. Lester Essay! May God bless you for all the good work that are doing. LRW exam on marx Saturday and preparing for that based on all your teaching. Thank you once again. Regards, Samuel Raj.
Well done! I’m glad you remembered the speaking tips. Yes, living in the countryside is a common question ins IELTS speaking. Good luck with your other skills on Saturday. “Fingers crossed!” as we say in England. Current IELTS exam topics and questions:
Share your IELTS test results. Reading Skills for IELTS: Paraphrasing. Useful Links for IELTS Line Graphs in WT1. WT1 Table 30th Sept: To be completed. IELTS Model Essays for lester b. pearson, September 2017.
IELTS Writing Questions September 2017. Hi, my name is essay need Elizabeth (Liz). I'm an experienced IELTS teacher from the UK and a graduate of the University of essay, London. I have been teaching for over 16 years and for the last 9 years I have specialised, exclusively, in IELTS. I have taught in a number of marx doctoral, countries: England, Spain, New Zealand, South Korea, China and Vietnam, where I taught at the British Council.
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conservatism essays Liberals in the United States have been losing political debates to conservatives for essay a quarter century. In order to start winning again, liberals must answer two simple questions: what is conservatism, and marx doctoral, what is wrong with it? As it happens, the lester b. pearson, answers to these questions are also simple: Q: What is conservatism? A: Conservatism is the domination of society by an aristocracy. Q: What is wrong with conservatism? A: Conservatism is incompatible with democracy, prosperity, and civilization in general. It is a destructive system of inequality and prejudice that is founded on deception and in apa style, has no place in the modern world. These ideas are not new. Indeed they were common sense until recently.
Nowadays, though, most of the people who call themselves conservatives have little notion of what conservatism even is. They have been deceived by one of the great public relations campaigns of human history. Only by analyzing this deception will it become possible to revive democracy in the United States. //1 The Main Arguments of Conservatism. From the pharaohs of ancient Egypt to the self-regarding thugs of ancient Rome to the glorified warlords of medieval and absolutist Europe, in nearly every urbanized society throughout human history, there have been people who have tried to constitute themselves as an aristocracy. These people and their allies are the conservatives. The tactics of lester, conservatism vary widely by place and time. But the most central feature of conservatism is deference: a psychologically internalized attitude on the part of the common people that the aristocracy are better people than they are. Modern-day liberals often theorize that conservatives use social issues as a way to mask economic objectives, but this is almost backward: the true goal of conservatism is to establish an essay, aristocracy, which is a social and psychological condition of inequality. Economic inequality and regressive taxation, while certainly welcomed by the aristocracy, are best understood as a means to their actual goal, which is simply to be aristocrats.
More generally, it is crucial to conservatism that the people must literally love the order that dominates them. Of course this notion sounds bizarre to modern ears, but it is perfectly overt in the writings of leading conservative theorists such as Burke. Democracy, for lester essay them, is lawrence mfa creative writing tuition, not about the mechanisms of voting and office-holding. Lester Essay! In fact conservatives hold a wide variety of opinions about dissertation, such secondary formal matters. For conservatives, rather, democracy is a psychological condition. Lester Essay! People who believe that the aristocracy rightfully dominates society because of its intrinsic superiority are conservatives; democrats, by thesis, contrast, believe that they are of equal social worth. Conservatism is the antithesis of democracy. This has been true for thousands of years.
The defenders of aristocracy represent aristocracy as a natural phenomenon, but in reality it is the most artificial thing on earth. Although one of the goals of every aristocracy is to b. pearson essay make its preferred social order seem permanent and timeless, in reality conservatism must be reinvented in every generation. This is true for many reasons, including internal conflicts among the aristocrats; institutional shifts due to climate, markets, or warfare; and marx dissertation, ideological gains and losses in the perpetual struggle against democracy. In some societies the aristocracy is rigid, closed, and stratified, while in others it is more of an aspiration among various fluid and factionalized groups. The situation in the United States right now is toward the b. pearson essay, latter end of the spectrum. A main goal in need life of all aristocrats, however, is to pass on their positions of privilege to their children, and many of the aspiring aristocrats of the United States are appointing their children to positions in government and in essay the archipelago of think tanks that promote conservative theories.
Conservatism in every place and dissertation, time is founded on deception. The deceptions of conservatism today are especially sophisticated, simply because culture today is sufficiently democratic that the b. pearson essay, myths of the machine stops, earlier times will no longer suffice. Before analyzing current-day conservatism's machinery of deception, let us outline the main arguments of conservatism. Although these arguments have changed little through history, they might seem unfamiliar to many people today, indeed even to people who claim to be conservatives. That unfamiliarity is essay, a very recent phenomenon. Sarah Tuition! Yet it is only through the classical arguments and their fallacies that we can begin to analyze how conservatism operates now. According to the first type of argument, found for example in lester b. pearson essay Burke, social institutions are a kind of capital. A properly ordered society will be blessed with large quantities of this capital. This capital has very particular properties. It is a sprawling tangle of social arrangements and patterns of thought, passed down through generations as part of the culture.
It is generally tacit in lawrence mfa creative writing nature and lester b. pearson, cannot be rationally analyzed. It is fragile and marx doctoral dissertation, must be conserved, because a society that lacks it will collapse into anarchy and tyranny. Innovation is lester essay, bad, therefore, and prejudice is stops, good. Although the institutions can tolerate incremental reforms around the edges, systematic questioning is lester b. pearson, a threat to social order. In particular, rational thought is sarah lawrence mfa creative, evil.
Nothing can be worse for the conservative than rational thought, because people who think rationally might decide to lester essay try replacing inherited institutions with new ones, something that a conservative regards as impossible. Friend! This is where the word conservative comes from: the supposed importance of conserving established institutions. This argument is not wholly false. Institutions are in fact sprawling tangles of social arrangements and patterns of thought, passed down through generations as part of the culture. And people who think they can reengineer the whole of human society overnight are generally mistaken. Lester B. Pearson Essay! The people of ancien regime France were oppressed by the conservative order of their time, but indeed their revolution did not work, and would probably not have worked even if conservatives from elsewhere were not militarily attacking them. After all, the conservative order had gone to on god is great insane lengths to deprive them of the education, practical experience, and patterns of thought that would be required to operate a democracy. They could not invent those things overnight. Even so, the argument about conserving institutions is mostly untrue. Most institutions are less fragile and more dynamic than conservatives claim. B. Pearson! Large amounts of institutional innovation happen in every generation.
If people lack a rational analysis of institutions, that is lawrence writing tuition, mostly a product of conservatism rather than an lester, argument for sarah lawrence writing it. And although conservatism has historically claimed to conserve institutions, history makes clear that conservatism is only interested in conserving particular kinds of institutions: the institutions that reinforce conservative power. Conservatism rarely tries to conserve institutions such as Social Security and welfare that decrease the common people's dependency on the aristocracy and the social authorities that serve it. To the contrary, they represent those institutions in various twisted ways as dangerous to to the social order generally or to their beneficiaries in particular. The opposite of conservatism is lester b. pearson, democracy, and contempt for democracy is a constant thread in the history of conservative argument. Essay On God Is Great! Instead, conservatism has argued that society ought to be organized in a hierarchy of orders and classes and controlled by its uppermost hierarchical stratum, the aristocracy. Many of these arguments against lester egalitarianism are ancient, and most of them are routinely heard on the radio. One tends to hear the arguments in bits and pieces, for example the emphatic if vague claim that people are different. Of course, most of these arguments, if considered rationally, actually argue for meritocracy rather than for aristocracy.
Meritocracy is essay friend need indeed, a democratic principle. George Bush, however, was apparently scarred for life by having been one of the last students admitted to Yale under its old aristocratic admissions system, and having to lester b. pearson essay attend classes with students admitted under the meritocratic system who considered themselves to be smarter than him. Although he has lately claimed to oppose the system of the machine, legacy admissions from which he benefitted, that is a tactic, part of a package deal to eliminate affirmative action, thereby allowing conservative social hierarchies to be reaffirmed in other ways. American culture still being comparatively healthy, overt arguments for aristocracy (for example, that the children of lester b. pearson essay, aristocrats learn by osmosis the profound arts of government and thereby acquire a wisdom that mere experts cannot match) are still relatively unusual. Instead, conservatism must proceed through complicated indirection, and the next few sections of essay, this article will explain in lester b. pearson some detail how this works. The issue is not that rich people are bad, or that hierarchical types of organization have no place in a democracy. Nor are the descendents of aristocrats necessarily bad people if they do not try to need indeed perpetuate conservative types of domination over society. The issue is b. pearson, both narrow and enormous: no aristocracy should be allowed to trick the rest of society into deferring to it. But isn't conservatism about what of related, freedom?
Of course everyone wants freedom, and so conservatism has no choice but to promise freedom to its subjects. Essay! In reality conservatism has meant complicated things by freedom, and the reality of lawrence tuition, conservatism in practice has scarcely corresponded even to the contorted definitions in conservative texts. To start with, conservatism constantly shifts in essay its degree of authoritarianism. Conservative rhetors, in the Wall Street Journal for example, have no difficulty claiming to mfa creative writing be the party of lester, freedom in one breath and attacking civil liberties in the next. The real situation with conservatism and freedom is best understood in tuition historical context. Conservatism constantly changes, always adapting itself to provide the minimum amount of freedom that is required to hold together a dominant coalition in the society. In Burke's day, for example, this meant an alliance between traditional social authorities and the rising business class.
Although the business class has always defined its agenda in terms of something it calls freedom, in reality conservatism from the 18th century onward has simply implied a shift from one kind of government intervention in the economy to another, quite different kind, together with a continuation of medieval models of cultural domination. This is a central conservative argument: freedom is impossible unless the common people internalize aristocratic domination. Lester B. Pearson Essay! Indeed, many conservative theorists to the present day have argued that freedom is not possible at friend indeed, all. Without the internalized domination of conservatism, it is argued, social order would require the external domination of state terror. In a sense this argument is correct: historically conservatives have routinely resorted to terror when internalized domination has not worked. What is lester, unthinkable by mfa creative writing, design here is the possibility that people might organize their lives in a democratic fashion. This alliance between traditional social authorities and the business class is artificial.
The market continually undermines the institutions of cultural domination. It does this partly through its constant revolutionizing of institutions generally and partly by encouraging a culture of entrepreneurial initiative. Lester Essay! As a result, the alliance must be continually reinvented, all the while pretending that its reinventions simply reinstate an eternal order. Conservatism promotes (and so does liberalism, misguidedly) the on god is great, idea that liberalism is about activist government where conservatism is not. This is absurd. It is unrelated to the history of conservative government. Essay! Conservatism promotes activist government that acts in the interests of the aristocracy. This has been true for thousands of years. What is distinctive about on god, liberalism is not that it promotes activist government but that it promotes government that acts in the interests of the majority. Democratic government, however, is not simply majoritarian.
It is, rather, one institutional expression of a democratic type of essay, culture that is still very much in the process of being invented. //2 How Conservatism Works. Conservative social orders have often described themselves as civilized, and so one reads in the Wall Street Journal that the enemies of civilization hate bow ties. But what conservatism calls civilization is little but the domination of an aristocracy. Every aspect of social life is subordinated to this goal. That is not civilization. The reality is quite the opposite. To impose its order on society, conservatism must destroy civilization. In particular conservatism must destroy conscience, democracy, reason, and language. * The Destruction of Conscience. Liberalism is a movement of the machine stops, conscience.
Liberals speak endlessly of conscience. Yet conservative rhetors have taken to acting as if they owned the language of conscience. They even routinely assert that liberals disparage conscience. The magnitude of the lester b. pearson essay, falsehood here is so great that decent people have been set back on their heels. Conservatism continually twists the need indeed, language of conscience into its opposite. Lester! It has no choice: conservatism is unjust, and cannot survive except by friend need, pretending to be the opposite of what it is. Conservative arguments are often arbitrary in nature. Consider, for example, the controversy over Elian Gonzalez. B. Pearson! Conservatism claims that the stops essay, universe is ordered by absolutes.
This would certainly make life easier if it was true. The difficulty is that the absolutes constantly conflict with one another. When the absolutes do not conflict, there is rarely any controversy. Lester B. Pearson! But when absolutes do conflict, conservatism is forced into sophistry. In the case of Elian Gonzalez, two absolutes conflicted: keeping families together and not making people return to tyrannies. In a democratic society, the decision would be made through rational debate. Conservatism, however, required picking one of the two absolutes arbitrarily (based perhaps on tactical politics in Florida) and simply accusing anyone who disagreed of flouting absolutes and thereby nihilistically denying the fundamental order of the universe. This happens every day.
Arbitrariness replaces reason with authority. When arbitrariness becomes established in the culture, democracy decays and marx doctoral dissertation, it becomes possible for aristocracies to dominate people's minds. Another example of conservative twisting of the lester b. pearson essay, language of conscience is the argument, in the context of the attacks of 9/11 and the war in Iraq, that holding our side to things like the Geneva Convention implies an equivalence between ourselves and our enemies. This is a logical fallacy. Sarah Lawrence Mfa Creative! The fallacy is something like: they kill so they are bad, but we are good so it is okay for b. pearson essay us to kill. The argument that everything we do is okay so long as it is not as bad as the most extreme evil in the world is a rejection of marx dissertation, nearly all of civilization. Lester! It is precisely the destruction of conscience. Or take the notion of political correctness. It is true that movements of conscience have piled demands onto people faster than the culture can absorb them. That is an unfortunate side-effect of social progress.
Conservatism, however, twists language to is review make the b. pearson, inconvenience of conscience sound like a kind of oppression. The campaign against political correctness is doctoral, thus a search-and-destroy campaign against all vestiges of conscience in society. B. Pearson! The flamboyant nastiness of rhetors such as Rush Limbaugh and Ann Coulter represents the friend indeed, destruction of conscience as a type of liberation. They are like cultists, continually egging on their audiences to destroy their own minds by punching through one layer after another of essay, their consciences. Once I wrote on the Internet that bears in zoos are miserable and should be let go. In response to this, I received an e-mail viciously mocking me as an animal rights wacko.
This is an example of the sarah writing, destruction of conscience. Any human being with a halfways functioning conscience will be capable of rationally debating the notion that unhappy bears in zoos should be let go. Of course, rational people might have other opinions. They might claim that the bears are not actually miserable, or that they would be just as miserable in the forest. Conservatism, though, has stereotyped concern for lester essay animals by associating it with its most extreme fringe. This sort of mockery of conscience has become systematic and commonplace. * The Destruction of Democracy. For thousands of years, conservatism was universally understood as being in opposition to democracy.
Having lost much of its ability to attack democracy openly, conservatism has tried in recent years to redefine the essay on god, word democracy while engaging in deception to make the substance of democracy unthinkable. Conservative rhetors, for example, have been using the word government in a way that does not distinguish between legitimate democracy and b. pearson essay, totalitarianism. Then there is the notion that politicians who offer health care reforms, for the machine stops essay example, are claiming to be better people than the rest of us. This is a particularly toxic distortion. Offering reforms is a basic part of democracy, something that every citizen can do.
Even more toxic is the notion that those who criticize the president are claiming to be better people than he is. This is authoritarianism. Some conservative rhetors have taken to literally demonizing the very notion of a democratic opposition. Rush Limbaugh has argued at length that Tom Daschle resembles Satan simply because he opposes George Bush's policies. Ever since then, Limbaugh has regularly identified Daschle as el diablo. B. Pearson! This is the emotional heart of conservatism: the notion that the conservative order is ordained by essay is great, God and that anyone and anything that opposes the conservative order is infinitely evil. * The Destruction of Reason. Conservatism has opposed rational thought for thousands of years. What most people know nowadays as conservatism is basically a public relations campaign aimed at persuading them to lay down their capacity for b. pearson rational thought.
Conservatism frequently attempts to destroy rational thought, for example, by what is review literature, using language in ways that stand just out of lester b. pearson essay, reach of rational debate or rebuttal. Conservatism has used a wide variety of methods to destroy reason throughout history. Fortunately, many of these methods, such as the suppression of popular literacy, are incompatible with a modern economy. Once the stops essay, common people started becoming educated, more sophisticated methods of lester essay, domination were required. What Literature! Thus the invention of public relations, which is lester essay, a kind of essay friend need, rationalized irrationality.
The great innovation of conservatism in recent decades has been the systematic reinvention of politics using the technology of lester, public relations. The main idea of public relations is the distinction between messages and facts. Messages are the things you want people to believe. A message should be vague enough that it is difficult to on god is great refute by rational means. (People in politics refer to messages as strategies and people who devise strategies as strategists. B. Pearson Essay! The Democrats have strategists too, and it is thesis written, not at all clear that they should, but they scarcely compare with the vast public relations machinery of the right.) It is useful to think of each message as a kind of pipeline: a steady stream of facts is selected (or twisted, or fabricated) to fit the lester b. pearson essay, message. Contrary facts are of course ignored. The goal is essay need friend, what the professionals call message repetition. This provides activists with something to do: come up with new facts to fit the conservative authorities' chosen messages. Having become established in this way, messages must also be continually intertwined with one another. This is lester, one job of pundits.
To the public relations mind, the public sphere is a game in which the opposition tries to knock you off your message. Take the example of one successful message, Gore's lies. The purpose of the game was to return any interaction to written the message, namely that Gore lies. So if it is lester b. pearson, noted that the supposed examples of Gore lying (e.g., his perfectly true claim to have done onerous farm chores) were themselves untrue, common responses would include, that doesn't matter, what matters is Gore's lies, or the tuition, reasons people believe them is because of Gore's lies, or yes perhaps, but there are so many other examples of Gore's lies, or you're just trying to change the essay, subject away from what literature Gore's lies, and so on. Many of these messages have become institutions. Whole organizations exist to provide a pipeline of facts that underwrite the message of liberal media bias. These facts fall into numerous categories and essay, exemplify a wide range of fallacies. Some are just factually untrue, e.g., claims that the New York Times has failed to cover an event that it actually covered in written in apa detail. Other claimed examples of lester, bias are non sequiturs, e.g., quotations from liberal columns that appear on thesis in apa the opinion pages, or quotations from liberals in news articles that also provided balancing quotes from conservatives. Others are illogical, e.g., media that report news events that represent bad news for the president. The methods of identifying bias are thus highly elastic.
In practice, everything in the media on political topics that diverges from b. pearson conservative public relations messages is contended to be an example of dissertation, liberal bias. The goal, clearly, is to purge the media of everything except conservatism. The word inaccurate has become something of a technical term in the political use of public relations. B. Pearson! It means differs from our message. Public relations aims to break down reason and replace it with mental associations.
One tries to associate us with good things and them with bad things. Thus, for example, the famous memo from Newt Gingrich's (then) organization GOPAC entitled Language: A Key Mechanism of Control. It advised Republican candidates to associate themselves with words like building, dream, freedom, learn, light, preserve, success, and truth while associating opponents with words like bizarre, decay, ideological, lie, machine, pathetic, and traitors. The issue here is not whether these words are used at all; of course there do exist individual liberals that could be described using any of these words. The issue, rather, is a kind of cognitive surgery: systematically creating and destroying mental associations with little regard for truth. Note, in fact, that truth is one of the words that Gingrich advised appropriating in this fashion.
Someone who thinks this way cannot even conceptualize truth. Conservative strategists construct their messages in a variety of essay on god, more or less stereotyped ways. B. Pearson Essay! One of the most important patterns of conservative message-making is is review of related literature, projection. Projection is essay, a psychological notion; it roughly means attacking someone by falsely claiming that they are attacking you. Conservative strategists engage in projection constantly. A commonplace example would be taking something from someone by claiming that they are in fact taking it from what is review you. Or, having heard a careful and detailed refutation of lester b. pearson, something he has said, the projector might snap, you should not dismiss what I have said so quickly!.
It is a false claim -- what he said was not dismissed -- that is an example of itself -- he is dismissing what his opponent has said. Projection was an important part of the Florida election controversy, for example when Republicans tried to get illegal ballots counted and prevent legal ballots from being counted, while claiming that Democrats were trying to steal the election. * The Destruction of Language. Reason occurs mostly through the medium of language, and so the destruction of reason requires the destruction of language. An underlying notion of conservative politics is that words and phrases of stops, language are like territory in warfare: owned and controlled by lester b. pearson, one side or the other. One of the central goals of essay, conservatism, as for example with Newt Gingrich's lists of words, is to lester b. pearson essay take control of friend, every word and lester essay, phrase in the English language.
George Bush, likewise, owes his election in great measure to the machine essay a new language that his people engineered for him. Lester Essay! His favorite word, for example, is heart. This type of linguistic engineering is highly evolved in the business milieu from which conservative public relations derives, and it is the day-to-day work of countless conservative think tanks. Bush's people, and friend friend, the concentric circles of punditry around them, are worlds away from John Kerry deciding on a moment's notice that he is b. pearson essay, going to start the word values. They do not use a word unless they have an essay is great, integrated communications strategy for taking control of that word throughout the whole of society. Bush's personal vocabulary is lester b. pearson, only a small part of conservative language warfare as a whole. Since around 1990, conservative rhetors have been systematically turning language into of related, a weapon against liberals. Words are used in lester essay twisted and exaggerated ways, or with the opposite of their customary meanings.
This affects the doctoral, whole of the language. B. Pearson Essay! The goal of marx, this distorted language is not simply to defeat an enemy but to destroy the minds of the people who believe themselves to be conservatives and lester essay, who constantly challenge themselves to ever greater extremity in style using it. A simple example of b. pearson essay, turning language into a weapon might be the the machine essay, word predictable, which has become a synonym for lester liberal. There is no rational argument in this usage. Every such use of marx doctoral dissertation, predictable can be refuted simply by substituting the word consistent. It is simply invective.
More importantly, conservative rhetors have been systematically mapping the language that has historically been used to describe the essay, aristocracy and thesis in apa style, the traditional authorities that serve it, and have twisted those words into terms for b. pearson essay liberals. This tactic has the dual advantage of both attacking the the machine essay, aristocracies' opponents and depriving them of the words that they have used to attack aristocracy. A simple example is the term race-baiting. In the Nexis database, uses of race-baiting undergo a sudden switch in the early 1990's. Before then, race-baiting referred to racists. Afterward, it referred in b. pearson essay twisted way to people who oppose racism.
What happened is simple: conservative rhetors, tired of the political advantage that liberals had been getting from their use of that word, took it away from essay is great them. A more complicated example is the word racist. Conservative rhetors have tried to take this word away as well by constantly coming up with new ways to stick the word onto lester b. pearson, liberals and is review of related, their policies. For example they have referred to affirmative action as racist. Lester! This is false; it is an attempt to destroy language.
Racism is the notion that one race is intrinsically better than another. Affirmative action is doctoral, arguably discriminatory, as a means of partially offsetting discrimination in b. pearson essay other places and stops, times, but it is not racist. Many conservative rhetors have even stuck the word racist on people just because they oppose racism. The notion seems to be that these people addressed themselves to the topic of race, and the word racist is sort of an essay, adjective relating somehow to race. Essay! In any event this too is an lester essay, attack on language. A recent example is the word hate. The civil rights movement had used the sarah lawrence mfa creative writing, word hate to refer to terrorism and stereotyping against black people, and during the 1990's some in the press had identified as Clinton-haters people who had made vast numbers of bizarre claims that the Clintons had participated in murder and drug-dealing. Beginning around 2003, conservative rhetors took control of lester, this word as well by labeling a variety of perfectly ordinary types of stops, democratic opposition to George Bush as hate. In addition, they have constructed a large number of messages of the form liberals hate X (e.g., X=America) and established within their media apparatus a sophistical pipeline of facts to support each one.
This is also an example of the systematic breaking of essay, associations. The word partisan entered into its current political circulation in the early 1990's when some liberals identified people like Newt Gingrich as partisan for doing things like the memo on language that I mentioned earlier. To the conservative way of politics, there is nothing either true or false about the liberal claim. It is simply that liberals had taken control of some rhetorical territory: the word partisan. Conservative rhetors then set about taking control of the word themselves. They did this in written a way that has become mechanical. Lester! They first claimed, falsely, that liberals were identifying as partisan any views other than their own. They thus inflated the word while projecting this inflation onto the liberals and disconnecting the word from the particular facts that the liberals had associated with it.
Next, they started using the on god, word partisan in the inflated, dishonest way that they had ascribed to their opponents. This is, very importantly, a way of b. pearson essay, attacking people simply for having a different opinion. In twisting language this way, conservatives tell themselves that they are simply turning liberal unfairness back against the liberals. Doctoral Dissertation! This too is projection. Another common theme of conservative strategy is that liberals are themselves an aristocracy. B. Pearson Essay! (For those who are really keeping score, the sophisticated version of this is called the new class strategy, the message being that liberals are the American version of the Soviet nomenklatura.) Thus, for example, the constant pelting of liberals as elites, sticking this word and written style, a mass of others semantically related to it onto liberals on lester b. pearson every possible occasion. A pipeline of facts has been established to underwrite this message as well.
Thus, for stops example, constant false conservative claims that the rich vote Democratic. When Al Franken recently referred to his new radio network as the media elite and proud of it, he demonstrated his oblivion to the workings of the conservative discourse that he claims to contest. Further examples of this are endless. Lester Essay! When a Republican senator referred to the few liberals, hardly any liberals gave any sign of getting what he meant: as all conservatives got just fine, he was appropriating the phrase the few, referring to the aristocracy as opposed to the many, and the machine stops essay, sticking this phrase in a false and mechanical way onto liberals. Rush Limbaugh asserts that they [liberals] think they are better than you, this of course being a phrase that had historically been applied (and applied correctly) to the aristocracy. Lester Essay! Conservative rhetors constantly make false or exaggerated claims that liberals are engaged in stereotyping -- the criticism of stereotyping having been one of the machine essay, history's most important rhetorical devices of democrats. And so on. The goal here is to make it impossible to criticize aristocracy. For an especially sorry example of essay, this pattern, consider the word hierarchy. Written Style! Conservatism is a hierarchical social system: a system of ranked orders and classes.
Yet in lester b. pearson essay recent years conservatives have managed to of related literature stick this word onto liberals, the lester essay, notion being that government (which liberals supposedly endorse and conservatives supposedly oppose) is hierarchical (whereas corporations, the military, and the church are somehow vaguely not). Liberals are losing because it does not even occur to them to refute this kind of mechanical antireason. It is often claimed in the media that snooty elitists on the coasts refer to marx doctoral states in the middle of the country as flyover country. Yet I, who have lived in liberal areas of the coasts for most of my life, have never once heard this usage. Lester! In fact, as far as I can tell, the Nexis database does not contain a single example of doctoral dissertation, anyone using the phrase flyover country to disparage the non-coastal areas of the United States.
Instead, it contains hundreds of examples of people disparaging residents of the b. pearson essay, coasts by claiming that they use the phrase to describe the interior. The phrase is a special favorite of newspapers in Minneapolis and Denver. This is projection. Likewise, I have never heard the phrase political correctness used except to disparage the people who supposedly use it. Conservative remapping of the language of aristocracy and democracy has been incredibly thorough. Consider, for example, the terms entitlement and dependency. The term entitlement originally referred to aristocrats. Aristocrats had titles, and they thought that they were thereby entitled to marx dissertation various things, particularly the deference of the common people.
Everyone else, by b. pearson, contrast, was dependent on the aristocrats. This is conservatism. Yet in the 1990's, conservative rhetors decided that the people who actually claim entitlement are people on welfare. They furthermore created an empirically false association between welfare and thesis style, dependency. Lester B. Pearson Essay! But, as I have mentioned, welfare is precisely a way of eliminating dependency on the aristocracy and the cultural authorities that serve it. I do not recall anyone ever noting this inversion of written style, meaning.
Conservative strategists have also been remapping the language that has historically been applied to conservative religious authorities, sticking words such as orthodoxy, pious, dogma, and lester, sanctimonious to liberals at every turn. //3 Conservatism in American History. Almost all of the early immigrants to America left behind societies that had been oppressed by conservatism. The democratic culture that Americans have built is truly one of the monuments of civilization. And American culture remains vibrant to this day despite centuries of conservative attack. Yet the history of American democracy has generally been taught in confused ways. This history might be sketched in terms of the great turning points that happened to occur around 1800 and the machine essay, 1900, followed by b. pearson, the great reaction that gathered steam in on god the decades leading up to essay 2000. America before the revolution was a conservative society. It lacked an entitled aristocracy, but it was dominated in very much the sarah lawrence mfa creative writing tuition, same way by its gentry. Americans today have little way of knowing what this meant -- the hierarchical ties of lester b. pearson essay, personal dependency that organized people's psychology. We hear some echo of it in the hagiographies of George Bush, which are modeled on the way the gentry represented themselves.
The Founding Fathers, men like Madison, Adams, and Washington, were, in stops essay this sense, products of aristocratic society. They did not make a revolution in order to establish democracy. Quite the contrary, they wanted to be aristocrats. They did not succeed. The revolution that they helped set in motion did not simply sweep away the church and crown of England. As scholars such as Gordon Wood have noted, it also swept away the entire social system of the gentry, and it did so with a suddenness and thoroughness that surprised and amazed everyone who lived through it.
So completely did Americans repudiate the conservative social system of the gentry, in fact, that they felt free to mythologize the lester essay, Founding Fathers, forgetting the Founding Fathers' aristocratic ambitions and pretending that they, too, were revolutionary democrats. This ahistorical practice of projecting all good things onto the Founding Fathers continues to the present day, and it is unfortunate because (as Michael Schudson has argued) it makes us forget all of the work that Americans have subsequently done to build the democratic institutions of today. In reality, Madison, Adams, and Washington were much like Mikhail Gorbachev in the Soviet Union. Like Gorbachev, they tried to literature reform an oppressive system without fundamentally changing it. And like Gorbachev, they were swept away by the very forces they helped set into lester b. pearson essay, motion. The revolution, though, proceeded quite differently in essay friend need friend the North and South, and led to a kind of essay, controlled experiment.
The North repudiated conservatism altogether. Indeed it was the only society in modern history without an the machine stops essay, aristocracy, and as scholars such as the late Robert Wiebe have noted, its dynamic democratic culture was most extraordinary. It is unfortunate that we discuss this culture largely through the analysis of Alexis de Tocqueville, an lester b. pearson, aristocrat who wanted to graft medieval notions of social order onto a democratic culture that he found alien. Thesis Style! In the South, by contrast, the conservative order of the gentry was modified to something more resembling the lester b. pearson essay, oppressive latifundist systems of Latin America, relieved mainly by of related literature, comparatively democratic religious institutions. The Northern United States during the early 19th century was hardly perfect. Left-over conservative hierarchies and lester b. pearson essay, patterns of psychology continued to damage people's minds and lives in numerous ways.
But compared to the South, the North was, and has always been, a more dynamic and successful society. Thesis Style! Southern conservatism has had to b. pearson modify its strategies in on god is great recent decades, but its grip on the culture is tragically as strong as ever. Something more complicated happened around 1900. Railroads, the telegraph, and mass production made for massive new economies of scale, whereupon the invention of the corporation gave a new generation of would-be aristocrats new ways to reinvent themselves. The complicated institutional and b. pearson essay, ideological events of this era can be understood in microcosm through the subsequent history of the what is review, word liberal, which forked into two quite different meanings. B. Pearson! The word liberal had originally been part of an intramural dispute within the conservative alliance between the aristocracy and the rising business class. Their compromise, as I have noted, is that the aristocracy would maintain its social control for the benefit of both groups mainly through psychological means rather than through terror, and that economic regulation would henceforth be designed to benefit the business class. And both of these conditions would perversely be called freedom. The word liberal thus took its modern meaning in a struggle against the aristocracy's control of the state.
Around 1900, however, the corporation emerged in a society in which democracy was relatively strong and the aristocracy was relatively weak. Antitrust and many other types of state regulation were not part of traditional aristocratic control, but were part of democracy. And this is why the word liberal forked. Democrats continued using the word in its original sense, to signify the the machine stops essay, struggle against aristocracy, in this case the new aristocracy of b. pearson, corporate power. Business interests, however, reinvented the stops, word to signify a struggle against something conceptualized very abstractly as government. In reality the lester, new business meaning of the word, as worked out in detail by people like Hayek, went in an opposite friend, direction from its original meaning: a struggle against the people, rather than against the aristocracy. At the lester, same time as the corporation provided the occasion for the founding of a new aristocracy, however, a new middle class founded a large number of professions. The relationship between the professional middle class and the aristocracy has been complicated throughout the 20th century. But whereas the goal of conservatism throughout history has primarily been to what is review literature suppress the mob of common people, the conservatism of the late 20th century was especially vituperative in its campaigns against b. pearson essay the relatively autonomous democratic cultures of the professions. One of the professions founded around 1900 was public relations. Early public relations texts were quite openly conservative, and public relations practitioners openly affirmed that their profession existed to manipulate the marx doctoral, common people psychologically in order to ensure the domination of society by a narrow elite.
Squeamishness on this matter is a recent phenomenon indeed. The modern history of conservatism begins around 1975, as corporate interests began to react to the democratic culture of the sixties. This reaction can be traced in the public relations textbooks of the essay, time. Elaborate new methods of public relations tried to prevent, coopt, and of related literature, defeat democratic initiatives throughout the society. A new subfield of public relations, issues management, was founded at this time to deal strategically with political issues throughout their entire life cycle. One of the lester b. pearson, few political theories that has made note of the large-scale institutionalization of public relations is the early work of Jurgen Habermas. Even more important was the invention of the think tank, and especially the systematic application of public relations to politics by essay friend indeed, the most important of the conservative think tanks, the Heritage Foundation.
The Heritage Foundation's methods of issues management have had a fantastically corrosive effect on democracy. The great innovation of Ronald Reagan and the political strategists who worked with him was to submerge conservatism's historically overt contempt for the common people. The contrast between Reagan's language and b. pearson, that of conservatives even a decade or two earlier is most striking. Jacques Barzun's The House of Intellect (1959), for example, fairly bristles with contempt for demotic culture, the what is review of related, notion being that modern history is the inexorable erosion of aristocratic civilization by democracy. On a political level, Reagan's strategy was to place wedges into lester b. pearson, the many divides in that era's popular democracy, including both the thesis in apa, avoidable divides that the counterculture had opened up and the divides that had long been inherent in conservatism's hierarchical order. Reagan created a mythical working class whose values he conflated with those of the conservative order, and he opposed this to an equally mythical professional class of liberal wreckers. B. Pearson Essay! Democratic culture in sarah lawrence mfa creative writing the sixties had something of lester b. pearson, a workable theory of conservatism -- one that has largely been lost. But it was not enough of essay friend need, a theory to explain to lester working people why they are on the same side as hippies and gays. Written In Apa Style! Although crude by comparison with conservative discourse only lester b. pearson, twenty years later, Reagan's strategy identified this difficulty with some precision.
People like Ella Baker had explained the psychology of conservatism -- the internalized deference that makes a conservative order possible. But the new psychology of democracy does not happen overnight, and it did not become general in the culture. In the 1990's, American conservatism institutionalized public relations methods of politics on a large scale, and it used these methods in a savage campaign of delegitimizing democratic institutions. In particular, a new generation of highly trained conservative strategists evolved, on the foundation of classical public relations methods, a sophisticated practice of real-time politics that integrated ideology and tactics on what of related a year-to-year, news-cycle-to-news-cycle, and often hour-to-hour basis. This practice employs advanced models of the dynamics of political issues so as to launch waves of precisely designed communications in countless well-analyzed loci throughout the society.
For contemporary conservatism, a political issue -- a war, for example -- is a consumer product to be researched and rolled out in a planned way with continuous empirical feedback from lester essay polling. So far as citizens can tell, such issues seem to materialize everywhere at once, swarming the culture with so many interrelated formulations that it becomes impossible to think, much less launch an marx, effective rebuttal. Such a campaign is successful if it occupies precisely the ideological ground that can be occupied at a given moment, and it includes quite overt plans for holding that ground through the construction of a pipeline of facts and intertwining with other, subsequent issues. Although in one sense this machinery has a profound kinship with the priesthoods of lester b. pearson, ancient Egypt, in another sense its radicalism -- its inhuman thoroughness -- has no precedent in history. Liberals have nothing remotely comparable. //4 The Discovery of Democracy. Humanity has struggled for thousands of years to emerge from the darkness of conservatism. At every step of the way, conservatism has always had the advantage of a long historical learning curve. There have always been experts in the running of conservative society. Most of the stupid mistakes have been made and forgotten centuries ago. Conservatives have always had the leisure to write careful books justifying their rule.
Democracy, by contrast, is still very much in an experimental phase. And so, for example, the 1960's were one of the written in apa, great episodes of civilization in b. pearson essay human history, and they were also a time when people did a lot of stupid things like take drugs. The history of democracy has scarcely been written. Of what has been written, the great majority of democratic theory is friend indeed, based on the ancient Greek model of deliberative democracy. Much has been written about the lester b. pearson, Greeks' limitation of citizenship to perhaps 10% of the marx doctoral, population.
But this is lester b. pearson, not the reason why the Greek model is inapplicable to the modern world. The real reason is that Greek democracy was emphatically predicated on a small city-state of sarah lawrence mfa creative writing tuition, a few thousand people, whereas modern societies have populations in the tens and essay, hundreds of millions. The obvious adaptation to stops essay the difficulties of scale has been representation. B. Pearson Essay! But as a democratic institution representation has always been ambiguous. For conservatism, representation is a means of written in apa, reifying social hierarchies. The Founding Fathers thought of themselves as innovators and modernizers, and the myth-making tradition has thoughtlessly agreed with them. But in reality the US Constitution, as much as the British system it supposedly replaced, is little more than the Aristotelian tripartite model of king, aristocracy, and gentry (supposedly representing the commons), reformed to some degree as President, Senate, and House. Many people have noted that George Bush is consolidating executive power in a kind of elective kingship, but they have done little to place the various elements of Bush's authoritarian institution-molding into historical context. In theoretical terms, though, it has been clear enough that representative democracy provides no satisfactory account of citizenship. Surely a genuine democracy would replace the Aristotelian model?
Fortunately, there is little need to replace the b. pearson essay, Constitution beyond adding a right to privacy. After all, as historians have noted, Americans almost immediately started using the essay on god, Constitution in a considerably different way than the Founders intended -- in a democratic fashion, simply put, and not an aristocratic one. The president who claims to be a uniter not a divider is b. pearson, hearkening back to the myth-making of a would-be aristocracy that claims to be impartial and to stand above controversy while systematically using the machinery of government to crush its opponents. But his is not the winning side. Not that democracy is a done deal. One recent discovery is that democracy does not mean that everyone participates in everything that affects them. Every citizen of a modern society participates in hundreds of institutions, and it is impossible to be fully informed about all of them, much less sit through endless meetings relating to all of them. There are too many issues for everyone to be an expert on everything.
It follows that citizens in a large modern polity specialize in particular issues. In fact this kind of issue entrepreneurship is not restricted to politics. It is central to the making of careers in nearly every institution of thesis style, society. Lester B. Pearson Essay! Conservatism claims to own the theme of entrepreneurship, but then conservatism claims to own every theme. In reality, entrepreneurship on the part of the essay, common people is antithetical to essay conservatism, and conservatism has learned and taught little about the skills of friend indeed, entrepreneurship, most particularly the entrepreneurial cognition that identifies opportunities for various sorts of useful careers, whether civic, intellectual, professional, or economic. Entrepreneurship is not just for economic elites, and in fact never has been. One part of democracy, contrary to much socialist teaching, is the democratization of goods and skills, entrepreneurial skills for example, that had formerly been associated with the b. pearson, elite. Of Related! American society has diverged dramatically from that of Europe largely because of the democratization of entrepreneurship, and that trend should continue with the writing down and teaching of generalized entrepreneurial skills. The real discovery is that democracy is lester, a particular kind of social organization of knowledge -- a sprawling landscape of overlapping knowledge spheres and sarah mfa creative writing, a creative tension on lester b. pearson essay any given issue between the marx dissertation, experts and the laity.
It is not a hierarchical divide between the knowledge-authorities in the professions and a deferential citizenry; instead it democratizes the lester essay, skills of knowledge-making among a citizenry that is plugged together in ways that increasingly resemble the institutional and cognitive structures of the professions. This generalized application of entrepreneurial skills in the context of a knowledge-intensive society -- and not simply the multiplication of associations that so impressed Tocqueville -- is lawrence mfa creative writing tuition, civil society. The tremendous fashion for civil society as a necessary complement and counterbalance to the state in a democracy, as launched in the 1980's by people like John Keane, has been one of the lester b. pearson essay, most hopeful aspects of recent democratic culture. The Machine Essay! Indeed, one measure of the success of the discourse of civil society has been that conservatism has felt the need to destroy it by lester, means of distorted theories of what is review of related literature, civil society that place the populace under the tutelage of the aristocracy and the cultural authorities that serve it. Economics, unfortunately, is still dominated by the ancien regime.
This consists of three schools. Neoclassical economics is b. pearson, founded (as Philip Mirowski has argued) on superficial, indeed incoherent analogies to sarah lawrence tuition the mathematics of classical mechanics whose main notion is equilibrium. Economies, it is held, are dynamic systems that are constantly moving to an optimal equilibrium, and government intervention will only move the economy to the wrong equilibrium. For a long time this theory has dominated academic economics for the simple reason that it provides a simple formula for creating a model of b. pearson, any economic phenomenon. Its great difficulty is that it ignores essentially all issues of information and institutions -- important topics in essay friend indeed the context of any modern economy. Lester! Austrian economics (associated with Hayek and Mises) began in what the context of debates about the practicability of central planning in socialism; as such, it is organized around an opposition between centralized economies (bad) and decentralized economies (good). Lester B. Pearson! Although preferable in some ways to marx doctoral neoclassicism in its emphasis on lester b. pearson information and institutions, as well as its rhetorical emphasis on entrepreneurship, it is nonetheless hopelessly simplistic.
It has almost no practitioners in academia for the simple reason that it is friend indeed, nearly useless for analyzing any real phenomena. A third school, a particular kind of game theory based on the work of John Nash, does have elaborate notions about lester, information and at least a sketchy way of modeling institutions, and as a result has established itself as the thesis in apa, major academic alternative to b. pearson essay neoclassicism. Unfortunately Nash game theory's foundations are no better than those of neoclassicism. Whereas neoclassicism, though ultimately incoherent, is essay, actually a powerful and useful way of thinking about the economy, Nash game theory is based, as Mirowski again has argued, on a disordered model of relationships between people. Fortunately it has no particular politics. The state of economics is unfortunate for democracy. Conservatism runs on ideologies that bear only a tangential relationship to reality, but democracy requires universal access to accurate theories about a large number of nontrivial institutions. The socialist notion of economic democracy essentially imports the Greek deliberative model into the workplace. As such it is probably useful as a counter to lester b. pearson essay conservative psychologies of internalized deference that crush people's minds and prevent useful work from being done. It is, however, not remotely adequate to the reality of an interconnected modern economy, in which the workplace is hardly a natural unit. A better starting place is with analysis of the practical work of producing goods in social systems of actual finite human beings -- that is, with analysis of information and is great, institutions, as for example in the singular work of Thorstein Veblen, John Commons, Joseph Schumpeter, Karl Polanyi, John von Neumann, Mark Casson, Joseph Stiglitz, Paul David, Bruno Latour, and Michel Callon.
This work emphasizes knowledge and lester b. pearson, the very general social conditions that are required to produce and use it. Simply put, knowledge is best produced in a liberal culture. This is why the most prosperous and innovative regions of the United States are also the most politically liberal, and why the thesis written style, most conservative regions of the country are also the b. pearson essay, greatest beneficiaries of the machine, transfer payments. Liberals create wealth and lester, government redistributes it to conservatives. This is, of course, the opposite of the received conservative opinion in the media, and indeed in most of academia. But it is true. Another connection between democracy and a modern economy is the democratic nature of entrepreneurialism. People who reflexively defer to their social betters will never learn the social skills that are needed to essay found new types of social relationships. This was clear enough in the interregnum in the 19th century between the fall of the American gentry and the rise of the modern corporation. An economy of generalized entrepreneurialism, moreover, requires an elaborate institutional matrix that is part public and part private. As scholars such as Linda Weiss have argued, the conservative spectre of a conflict between government and lester essay, entrepreneurial activity is unrelated to the reality of entrepreneurship.
To be sure, much has been learned about the kinds of government policies that do and do not lay the foundation for economic dynamism. It is quite correct, for example, that direct price controls in competitive commodity markets rarely accomplish anything. (Labor markets are a much more complicated case, in very much the ways that neoclassical economics exists to ignore.) Free trade would also be a good thing if it existed; in practice trade is distorted by subsidies and by uneven regulation of externalities such as pollution, and free trade negotiations are a kind of power politics that differs little from the gunboat diplomacy that opened markets in a one-sided way in former times. The point is scarcely that markets are inherently democratic. The economic properties of infrastructure and knowledge create economies of scale that both produce cheap goods (a democratic effect) and concentrate power (an anti-democratic effect). Conservatives employ the democratic rhetoric of entrepreneurialism to sarah writing promote the opposite values of b. pearson, corporate centralization. But the 19th century's opinions about the political and in apa, economic necessity of lester b. pearson, antitrust are still true. More importantly, a wide range of public policies is required to facilitate a democratic economy and the more general democratic values on which it depends.
Lastly, an important innovation of democracy during the sixties was the rights revolution. Rights are democratic because they are limits to arbitrary authority, and people who believe they have rights cannot be subjected to conservatism. Conservative rhetors have attacked the rights revolution in numerous ways as a kind of demotic chatter that contradicts the eternal wisdom of the written in apa, conservative order. For conservatism, not accepting one's settled place in the traditional hierarchy of orders and b. pearson, classes is a kind of arrogance, and conservative vocabulary is full of phrases such as self-important. Institutions, for conservatism, are more important than people. For democracy, by contrast, things are more complicated. The rights revolution is hardly perfect. Doctoral Dissertation! But the main difficulty with it is just that it is not enough.
A society is not founded on lester b. pearson rights alone. Democracy requires that people learn and practice a range of nontrivial social skills. But then people are not likely to learn or practice those skills so long as they have internalized a conservative psychology of deference. The rights revolution breaks this cycle. For the essay on god, civil rights movement, for lester b. pearson essay example, learning to read was not simply a means of registering to vote, but was also a means of liberation from the psychology of conservatism. Democratic institutions, as opposed to the inherited mysteries of conservative institutions, are made of the everyday exercise of advanced social skills by people who are liberated in this sense.
//5 How to Defeat Conservatism. Conservatism is almost gone. Marx Doctoral! People no longer worship the pharaohs. If the gentry were among us today we would have no notion of what they were talking about. For thousands of years, countless people have worked for the values of democracy in ways large and small. The industrialized vituperations of conservative propaganda measure their success. To defeat conservatism today, the main thing we have to lester b. pearson essay do is to explain what it is and what is wrong with it. This is easy enough. * Rebut conservative arguments.
This is my most important prescription. Liberals win political victories through rational debate. But after a victory is won, liberals tend to essay on god is great drop the issue and move along. Lester B. Pearson! As a result, whole generations have grown up without ever hearing the arguments in favor of, for example, Social Security. Instead they have heard massive numbers of conservative arguments against liberalism, and these arguments have generally gone unrebutted. Sarah Lawrence Mfa Creative Writing! In order to save civilization, liberals need a new language, one in which it is easy to express rebuttals to the particular crop of conservative arguments of the lester b. pearson, last few decades. And the way to written in apa style invent that language is just to start rebutting the arguments, all of them.
This means literally dozens of new arguments each day. Do not assume that rebutting conservative arguments is lester b. pearson essay, easy, or that a few phrases will suffice. Do not even assume that you know what is wrong with the conservative arguments that you hear, or even indeed what those arguments are, since they are often complicated and confusing in their internal structure. Do not just repeat a stock response that worked for some previous generation of liberals, because your audience has already heard that response and already knows what the marx, counterargument is. Conservative rhetors have invested tremendous effort in working around liberals' existing language.
In the old days, racists were racists and polluters were polluters. But those old labels do not win arguments any more. Liberals must now provide new answers in plain language to the questions that ordinary citizens, having heard the arguments of conservatism, now have. Do environmental regulations work? Why do we protect the civil liberties of essay, terrorists? Are liberals anti-American? What do we need government for anyway? * Benchmark the Wall Street Journal.
The Wall Street Journal's opinion page is the most important conservative publication, and it is essay need friend indeed, often described as a bulletin board for the conservatism. A better metaphor, however, would be a war room. Essay! Day by day, the Wall Street Journal's editors detect liberal arguments coming over is review the horizon, and immediately they gather up and distribute the arguments that conservatives will need to rebut them. Since the retirement of its late editor Robert Bartley, the essay, Journal's opinion page has become more sophisticated. The crude lies and belligerent irrationality of the Bartley era have not disappeared, but they have certainly been attenuated. Daniel Henninger in particular does something interesting with clouds of associations that are subrational but not quite fallacious.
Liberals should not imitate the antireason of the Journal or other distribution channels of conservative opinion. Instead, as part of the hard work of inventing democracy, it will be necessary to tell the difference between methods that liberals ought to be applying in sarah lawrence writing their own work, such as the essay, day-to-day rebuttal of arguments, and methods that liberals need to analyze and place in the same category as the sarah lawrence writing tuition, priesthood of Egypt. * Build a better pundit. Political pundits in the media today are overwhelmingly conservative, and the few liberal pundits are overwhelmingly journalists rather than ideologists. It is difficult to identify a single pundit in the media who consistently explicates liberal ideology. It is time to build a democratic punditry. To start with, everyone in a modern democracy ought to lester b. pearson essay receive practical instruction in the communication genres of the mass media. There is no reason why every student cannot learn to write a clear 700-word op-ed column that traces an arc from a news hook to some ideology to a new and useful argument that wins elections.
A society in which the average citizen writes an occasional op-ed column would certainly be a step toward democracy. But even if the skills of punditry are widespread, there is no substitute for thesis written style professional pundits who can make brand names of themselves in the media, and talented people will not make careers out of democratic punditry until they are reasonably assured of being able to make money at lester essay, it. This is where think tanks and their philanthropic funders come in. Universities do not substitute for think tanks, because research is quite a different activity from punditry. Simply put, professional pundits need a wide variety of fallback options between media gigs. Mfa Creative Tuition! Conservative pundits grow fat on b. pearson essay their own think tanks, and liberals need their own war rooms of democratic reason. * Say something new. Conservative rhetors win audiences largely because the things they are saying seem new. People who read them or listen to them continually get the impression that they are being informed. If news and opinion editors seem biased against liberals, one reason is simply that liberals are not delivering the goods.
Whenever you get ready to express a political opinion in need friend indeed the media, first ask whether you have ever heard that opinion in the media before (as opposed, for lester b. pearson essay example, to scholarly works). If so, figure out what the counterarguments are -- because there will be counterarguments -- and then proceed to base your column on the counterarguments to that. Get ahead of the curve. Democracy requires that the great majority of citizens be capable of logical thought. The West, starting with the Greeks, has always taught logic in a narrow way. Logic does include the syllogism, but it also includes a great deal of savoir faire about what constitutes a good argument, a good counterargument, and a good counterargument to is review literature that. In particular, the citizen must have a kind of map of the arguments.
A caller to Rush Limbaugh said that liberals can't do the arguments, and he was right. Existing curricula on critical thinking are unfortunately very weak. Lester Essay! They should be founded on literature close analysis of actual irrationality. Many on lester b. pearson the left unfortunately abandon reason because they believe that the actual basis of sarah lawrence, politics is something they call power. People like this have no notion of what power is.
For example, they will argue that reason is useless because the powers that be will not listen to reason. This is confusion. The purpose of reason is not to petition the authorities but to help other citizens to cut through the darkness of conservative deception. Others on the left believe that reason is the property of the elite. This is true historically, but that is simply because the essence of conservatism is to deprive the common people of the lester b. pearson essay, capacity to engage in democracy. On God! Many bad theories of democracy actually reinforce conservatism, and this is one of them. Similarly, others on the left argue that requiring politics to be based on reason tilts the playing field in favor of the elite. This is historically true as well, and politics based on money does the same thing. But that is reality. The fact, again, is that democracy needs the citizenry to be educated, and the skills of reason are the foundation of democratic education. Democracy cannot be established in b. pearson essay any other way.
Aristocratic rule is not reinforced by the use of reason. The situation is the machine stops, quite the reverse: in b. pearson order to fight off democratic values, conservatism must simulate reason, and pretend that conservative deception is itself reason when it is not. Many conservative pundits, George Will and Thomas Sowell for example, make their living saying illogical things in a reasonable tone of voice. Sarah Lawrence Mfa Creative Writing Tuition! Democracy will be impossible until the great majority of citizens can identify in reasonable detail just how this trick works. * Conservatism is the problem.
Contemporary conservatism's discourse is engineered with tremendous sophistication to get past the specific arguments that liberals know how to make. Conservative strategists, moreover, are willing to achieve their goals incrementally, depending on lester the arguments that liberals are capable of marx dissertation, making at a given moment. Of course it is important for liberals to make the arguments against lester b. pearson each increment. But it is more important to explain what conservatism is in general, and then to explain what is what literature, wrong with it. For example, I once heard Rush Limbaugh discussing with a listener how school vouchers were just a conservative tactic, and how conservatives' real goal was to eliminate public funding for education altogether. This is the sort of thing that loses elections, and yet I have never heard a liberal pundit discuss it. The extreme nature of conservatism -- not just the extremity of its rhetoric but the oppressiveness of its prescriptions for society -- is clear enough in b. pearson essay the conservatives' own literature, but American culture no longer has the essay, categories to identify what it is. Indeed, one can hear fascism, never mind conservatism, on the radio any day of the week.
But Americans have mostly forgotten what fascism even is, so that they can listen to fascist rhetoric and it will actually sound kind of fresh. * Critically analyze leftover conservative theories. Liberal ideology is in disarray. After all, conservative ideology has dominated human thought for thousands of years, and it takes concentrated effort to liberate oneself from it. Such intellectual liberation will never happen without a detailed history of conservative theories -- which is to say, the essay, ways in essay friend friend indeed which these theories have been designed to lester b. pearson essay subordinate people's minds to a hierarchical social order dominated by essay on god is great, an aristocracy. Lacking such a history, liberal ideology draws in random and confused ways on conservatism, giving it a sentimental update without particularly changing it. Or else liberalism spins out into lester b. pearson, something wishfully called radicalism, which at best inverts conservatism into something that does not work as well and does not liberate anyone either.
A genuine tradition of liberatory social thought does indeed exist, but it must be disentangled from lawrence mfa creative its opposite. As an example, let us consider the notion of social capital, which has been fashionable among both conservatives and liberals for some time now. The conservative version of the social capital is a medieval ideology that justifies the hierarchical conservative order in terms of the values of community. This medieval notion of community is particularistic in nature: everyone in a community is knitted to everyone else through a system of lester essay, roles and relationships into which they are born, and which they supposedly accept and love. This network of relationships is made to essay sound harmonious, and objections to essay it are made to on god sound divisive, by neglecting to mention the oppression of the life-long hierarchical bonds that make it up.
This is the lester b. pearson essay, kind of society whose passing Tocqueville lamented, and that is at marx doctoral, the core of b. pearson, modern conservatism in authors such as Robert Nisbet. For Nisbet, modernity could only sarah mfa creative writing, be understood in a negative way as an erosion of the particular types of community and order that traditional institutions provided. This is what many conservatives mean when they value social capital, regret its decline, and essay, urge its revival. This notion of social capital should be contrasted, for example, with Ernest Gellner's notion of the modern democratic citizen as modular, that is, as capable of moving about within the society, building and rebuilding relationships and associations of diverse sorts, because of a set of social skills and social institutions that facilitate a generalized, dynamic mobility. The modular citizen gets a place in writing society not through birth or the bonds of an inherited order but through a gregarious kind of entrepreneurial innovation. The difficulty with too many liberal notions of social capital is that they are oblivious to essay the tension between conservatism and democracy. As a result, they are vague and ambiguous as to the nature of social capital, how it might be measured, and what kinds of institutions might erode or encourage it. For example, a theory of social capital that locates it in plain numbers of social network connections is insufficient because it undervalues social skills and overvalues particularistic forms of community that are not adaptive in a dynamic modern economy. This is how liberals end up quoting Tocqueville and sounding indistinguishable from conservative theorists of intermediary institutions. Social capital is just one example of a general crisis of liberal ideology.
The first step in resolving this crisis to get clear about what conservatism is and what is wrong with it. Post-sixties, many liberals consider themselves to be watered-down Marxists. They subscribe to a left-to-right spectrum model of politics in which they, as democrats, are located in some hard-to-identify place sort-of-somewhat-to-the-left-of-center, whereas the Marxists have the high ground of stops, a clear and lester, definite location at the end of the spectrum. These liberals would be further out on the left if they could find a politically viable way to do it. Conservative rhetors concur with this model, and indiscriminately calling liberals communists is sarah lawrence mfa creative, back in style. This is all nonsense. Essay! Marxism is not located anywhere on a spectrum. It is just mistaken. It fails to describe the real world. Attempts to implement it simply created an ugly and shallow imitation of conservatism at its worst.
Democracy is the right way to live, and conservatism is the wrong way. Marx was a brilliant analyst for his time. His analysis of technology's role in the economy was wholly original. He was the first to analyze the structural dynamism of a capitalist economy. But his theory of modern society was superficial.
It overgeneralized from the situation of its time: the marx doctoral dissertation, recent discovery of economies of scale, crude market institutions, no modern separation of ownership and lester essay, control, and a small middle class. Marx followed the political economy of his day in analyzing markets as essentially independent of the state. Doctoral Dissertation! But this is not remotely the case. One difficulty with Marx, which is the topic of a vast literature, is that his theory requires a periodization of history that does not correspond to historical reality. Lester! Capitalism, for example, is supposed to be a discrete totality, but claimed starting dates for what of related literature this totality range across a good four hundred years.
His economistic analysis of society, though indisputably productive in lester b. pearson the way that many powerfully wrong ideas are, makes history seem more discontinuous than it is. In fact, the relationship between conservatism and democracy is more or less constant throughout thousands of years of history. One evidence of written in apa style, this, for example, is Orlando Patterson's stunning discovery that Western notions of freedom were invented by former slaves in the ancient world and lester b. pearson, have remained more or less constant ever since. In economic terms, Marx's theory is mistaken because he did not analyze the role the thesis in apa, capitalist plays as entrepreneur. The entrepreneur does an important and distinctive type of work in inventing new ways to bring together diverse factors of lester, production. Now in fact the doctoral, nature of this work has remained largely hidden throughout history for a wide variety of reasons. Because Marx had no notion of it, the capitalist's profit seemed to him simple theft. It does not follow, though, that entrepreneurs earn all of b. pearson essay, their money. The theories of mainstream economics notwithstanding, serious how-to manuals for entrepreneurs are quite clear that the entrepreneur is trying to identify a market failure, because market failures are how you make money.
The relationship between entrepreneurship and the state is much more complicated than economics has even tried to theorize. Capitalists, moreover, are not a class. Particular networks of capitalists and other well-off or otherwise connected personages may well try to constitute themselves as an aristocracy, but this is a phenomenon with several more dimensions than just economics. Nor is Marxism of doctoral dissertation, any use as politics. All that Marx offered to people who worked in deadening factory jobs was that they could take over the factory. While unions and collective bargaining exist in essay many contexts for good economic reasons, they are an mfa creative writing tuition, essentially medieval system of negotiations among orders and classes.
They presuppose a generally static economy and society. Lester! They are irrelevant to knowledge-intensive forms of work. Nor do they provide any kind of essay friend indeed, foundation for democratic politics. People want their kids to be professionals, not factory workers, and essay, democracy helps people to knit themselves into the complicated set of institutions that enable people to what literature build unique and productive lives. Despite all of the conservative attacks, American English remains a useful language. So use it, and learn to say democratic things in it. There is a style of academic theory-talk that claims to lester b. pearson be advanced and sophisticated but actually lacks any precision. Privilege, for example, is not a verb. If new words are needed and are actually good for analyzing the deception of conservatism or the invention of democracy, go ahead and teach them. Integrate them into the vernacular language.
While you are at it, forget the whole strategy of the counterculture. Be the written in apa, culture instead. * Stop surrendering powerful words. Many liberals abandon any word that conservatives start using. That means, since conservatives systematically lay claim to every word of the English language, that liberals have been systematically surrendering powerful words such as family, nation, truth, science, tradition, and religion. This has made it increasingly difficult for liberals to explain what they believe. There is no alternative: if conseratives have been twisting a powerful word, then you have to explain in concise American English what the word really means and how the b. pearson essay, conservatives have distorted it. Essay Is Great! Contest the lester b. pearson essay, signifiers.
Use the words. * Tipper Gore is right. Snoop Dogg's music really is garbage. Lawrence Mfa Creative Writing Tuition! Some liberals, however, argue that racists hate rap and so therefore any disapproval of rap abets racism. This is bad logic and stupid politics. B. Pearson Essay! If racists hate rap then the logical, rational, politically efficacious thing to do is to say that some rap is good and lawrence mfa creative tuition, some rap is bad, and that good rap is an lester essay, art form like any other, and that the bad rap exists because the people who rap it are bad people. Do not be afraid of losing contact with young people. If all you know about youth culture is Snoop Dogg, then I suppose it is time for some focus groups. Use the focus groups to identify language that Martin Luther King would approve of.
Besides, there is plenty of good politics in thesis mass culture, as cultural studies professors have explained at lester b. pearson essay, length. Nor should you be afraid of losing campaign contributions from the what, entertainment industry. The Hollywood moneybags will keep funding liberal candidates for the simple reason that many conservatives really do support censorship, where liberals do not. That said, there is certainly a disconnect between some liberal entertainers and the liberals who win elections. Some entertainers are willing to get up on b. pearson essay stage and embarrass John Kerry.
Scorn them. * Assess the sixties. Make a list of the essay friend, positive and lasting contributions of the sixties. Americans would benefit from such a list. The spiritual leader of modern liberalism, Martin Luther King, taught nonviolence. B. Pearson! This has been narrowly construed in terms of not killing people. But, as King made clear, it has other meanings as well. You have to love your enemies. This is difficult: the reality of conservatism is so extreme that it is difficult even to friend discuss without sounding hateful. There is also an intellectual dimension to nonviolence. Nonviolence means, among other things, not cooperating in the destruction of conscience and language.
Nonviolence implies reason. Analyze the various would-be aristocracies, therefore, and explain them in b. pearson essay plain language, but do not stereotype them. Nonviolence also has an epistemological dimension. Few of us have the skill to hate with a clear mind. Conservatism is very complicated, and you cannot defeat it by shouting slogans. This is the difficulty with Michael Moore.
He talks American, which is good. But he is not intellectually nonviolent. He is not remotely as bad as Ann Coulter, and liberals have criticized him much more thoroughly than conservatives have criticized Ann Coulter. But he is essay, not a model for liberal politics. There is no doubt that Martin Luther King would be in George Bush's face. But how? That is why liberals need a language. * Tell the taxpayers what they are getting for their money. Civilization requires a substantial number and variety of public services, which in turn require moderate and reasonable amounts of taxes.
Despite decades of conservative rhetoric, a majority of Americans are perfectly happy to pay their taxes. And yet liberals keep letting conservatives clobber them with rhetoric that makes taxes sound like a bad thing. It is time for liberals to b. pearson stop losing this argument. To start with, do not talk about amounts of money (we should spend $15 billion on on god health care). Instead, talk about what the money buys (we should provide medical care to 15 million children). B. Pearson! And stop letting Bush call his tax policies tax cuts: he is not cutting those taxes; he is just postponing them. * Make government work better for lawrence writing tuition small business. The market continually undermines both conservatism and democracy. Both systems must continually improvise to accommodate it. The difference is b. pearson, that conservatism pretends to be a timeless order whereas democracy is all about experiment, innovation, and entrepreneurial culture. Conservatives have historically tried to sarah lawrence tuition include entrepreneurs in their coalition, even though conservatism is almost the opposite of the cultural conditions of a modern economy.
A certain amount of tension between democracy and the market is indeed irreducible. But a great deal has been learned about markets and lester essay, their relationship to government, and the democratic culture of innovation can reduce the unnecessary tensions between small business and government while providing for social values such as urban design, consumer information, and the environment. An excellent example of this is duplicative paperwork. Small business people must often fill out dozens of forms for various government bureaucracies. This is a significant expense. These forms should be combined and given a clean and unified interface. The bureaucracies, however, each analyze things in their own incompatible ways, and so the forms cannot simply be merged. Like much of doctoral, democracy, this is an interesting design matter. * Clone George Soros.
George Soros is an excellent citizen. Conservatism has gotten so out of sync with the conditions of a modern economy that significant numbers of wealthy people, especially young entrepreneurs who live and b. pearson, breathe the liberal culture that makes successes like theirs possible, would be happy to help build the institutions that a democratic society needs. What is needed right now are institutions that train people to win arguments for democracy in the mass media. Antireason has become thoroughly established in the media, and it will take real work to invent languages of reason that are fresh and cool. And this work just costs money. * Build the Democratic Party. Your model should be Pat Robertson. He is as extreme on is review of related literature the right as anybody in the United States is on the left. Yet his people took over lester large parts of the Republican Party. They did this in three ways: laboriously designing a mainstream-sounding language, identifying large numbers of talented activists and training them in the day-to-day work of issue and party politics, and essay friend indeed, building their own communications systems.
Liberals should do the same. Now, many liberals argue that the lester b. pearson essay, Democratic Party would magically start winning again if it would only move to sarah the left. This is lazy nonsense. The Democratic Party has moved to b. pearson essay the right for sarah mfa creative writing the simple reason that liberals do not have a language that wins elections. To take over the Democratic Party, liberals need to replace the left-wing policies that do not work and, for the policies that do work, get a language that moves 51% of likely voters to vote Democratic. Other liberals argue that the Democratic Party, and the system in general, are irretrievably broken, and that they must build a third party, such as the Green Party with its endorsement of Ralph Nader. The difficulties with this notion are hard to count. For one, splitting the left is a certain recipe for centuries of aristocratic domination. For another, building a party with only people who share your opinions to the nth degree is a certain recipe for factionalism and isolation.
For another, the Green Party is a chaotic mess that has no serious chance of becoming a mass-based political party. Life under aristocratic domination is lester essay, horrible. The United States is lawrence, blessed to have little notion of what this horror is like. Europe, for b. pearson essay example, staggered under the weight of need indeed, its aristocracies for thousands of years. B. Pearson Essay! European aristocracies are in decline, and Europe certainly has its democratic heroes and its own dawning varieties of civilized life, and yet the psychology and essay, institutions that the aristocracies left behind continue to make European societies rigid and blunt Europeans' minds with layers of b. pearson, internalized oppression. People come to America to get away from all of that. The Machine Essay! Conservatism is as alien here as it could possibly be. Only through the most comprehensive campaign of lester, deception in human history has it managed to establish its very tentative control of the country's major political institutions. Conservatism until very recently was quite open about the fact that it is literature, incompatible with the lester essay, modern world.
That is right. Marx Doctoral Dissertation! The modern world is a good place, and it will win.
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