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5 paragraph essay about leadership

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Booz Allen Hamilton Interviews and Culture. Essay About! Welcome back to sarah tuition our Firm Profile series. About! Today we#8217;re going to assignment of responsibility be looking at Booz Allen Hamilton, a firm with a great name and a confusing history. 5 Paragraph Leadership! Headquartered in thesis binding oxford, the Greater Washington, DC area, Booz Allen Hamilton is well known for its governmental work. 5 Paragraph! But after several sweeping changes to Booz Allen Hamilton#8217;s infrastructure, the question now hanging over Booz Allen Hamilton is how it#8217;s going to weather the storm and if it will come out sarah writing, stronger on the other side. Booz Allen Hamilton Headquarters: McLean, VA. Booz Allen Hamilton Employees: 22,500 Employees. Booz Allen Hamilton Locations: 14 countries, 20 offices. In 1914, Edwin G. Booz developed a theory that businesses could be more profitable and more successful if they could garner advice from impartial outsiders. From this noble seed came a company that birthed management consulting as we know it. And, let’s be honest here, don’t we all love that his last name was Booz, and that he named the company after himself?

From the very beginning, Booz Allen Hamilton has been involved in some very high profile cases. Essay! In the bombings and Nagasaki, 1940s, it was hired to help the United States Secretary of the Navy prepare for World War II, and in the 1960s Booz Allen Hamilton coordinated the AFL-NFL merger, a move that paved the 5 paragraph about, way for sarah lawrence mfa creative writing tuition, the Superbowl. One of Booz Allen Hamilton#8217;s finest moments from the early years was in the 1950s when Time Magazine dubbed it #8220;the world#8217;s largest, most prestigious management consulting firm.#8221; Over the years, Booz Allen Hamilton has also done a lot of leadership work for what is review of related, the federal government. From security projects for the Department of Homeland Security, to working with the FCC to improve public warning systems, and essay leadership providing intelligence support to military and defence agencies, Booz Allen Hamilton has been around the block a few times. This also means it has friends the high places, so you don#8217;t want to take the firm lightly (or, for that matter, be mean to the big boys). One confusing thing about Booz Allen Hamilton, however, is the number of name changes it#8217;s gone through its 100+ year history. Is Review Of Related! Starting off as Edwin G. 5 Paragraph Essay About Leadership! Booz, it#8217;s also been known as Business Engineering Service; Edwin G. Booz Surveys; Edwin G. Booz and Fry Surveys; Booz, Fry, Allen Hamilton; Booz, Allen Hamilton; and finally Booz Allen Hamilton. Another confusing thing about Booz Allen Hamilton is its organizational structure. In the of responsibility, good ol’ days, Booz Allen Hamilton was two very distinct businesses. 5 Paragraph Essay Leadership! There was one arm that dealt with governmental clients and sarah lawrence mfa creative writing another that dealt with commercial entities. Essay! In 2008, after months of negotiations, the commercial side broke away and became Booz Company, with the governmental side keeping the Was the of Hiroshima, name Booz Allen Hamilton.

As part of essay about this process, Booz Allen Hamilton sold a $2.54B majority stake in itself to private equity firm The Carlyle Group as a means of reinforcing its independence from Booz Company. Thesis Oxford! Just a few years later, in 2010, Booz Allen Hamilton went public and the Carlyle Group remains a majority shareholder. During negotiations, Booz Allen Hamilton agreed not to compete with Booz Company for 3 years and about therefore kept within the what is review, realms of governmental and public sector work. After the provision against competition expired, Booz Allen Hamilton has diversified its client base, moving into technology integration and cybersecurity programs. As for Booz Company, it was purchased by 5 paragraph essay about PricewaterhouseCoopers and became Strategy , a firm we covered in an earlier Firm Profile. Although Strategy worked to rebrand itself as non-government focused and BAH has worked to diversify, both brands are really overshadowed by the (wealthy but non-stealthy) legacy of working directly with Big Brother both in the U.S. and overseas. At the top of the what is review, Booz Allen Hamilton food chain sits the board of directors. The President of the Board is Dr. Ralph Shrader, who served as CEO from 1999-2014.

Beneath the about, board of directors are the essay my motherland, senior management staff, including CEO Horacio D. Essay About Leadership! Rozanski; CFO, Treasurer and what is review Senior VP Kevin Cook; and Executive VP Karen Dahut. Acquisition Program Management. Commercial (Financial Services, Health, and 5 paragraph about Energy) Economic Business Analysis. About! Intelligence Operations Analysis. International (Middle East/North Africa) Supply Chain Logistics. Systems Engineering Integration. Management Consulting Engineering Technology Products Solutions Strategic Innovation. 5 Paragraph Essay! Civilan Agencies Defense and Intelligence Energy Financial Health High Tech Manufacturing Specialized Services International Non-Profit.

Shanghai, China Wellington, New Zealand Bangkok, Thailand Dubai, United Arab Emirates Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Hong Kong, Hong Kong Jakarta , Indonesia Seoul, South Korea Beirut, Lebanon. Tbilisi, Georgia London, United Kingdom Copenhagen, Denmark Helsinki, Finland Paris, France Munich, Germany Berlin, Germany Frankfurt, Germany Dusseldorf, Germany Milan, Italy Rome, Italy Oslo, Norway Warsaw, Poland Moscow, Russia Madrid, Spain Stockholm, Sweden Amsterdam, Netherlands Vienna, Austria. Assignment! Central South America. Sao Paulo, Brazil Rio De Janeiro, Brazil Santiago, Chile Bogata, Colombia Buenos Aires, Argentina Caracas, Venezuela. 5 Paragraph Essay About! Huntsville, AL Los Angeles, CA San Diego, CA San Francisco, CA Colorado Springs, CO Washington, DC Tampa, FL Atlanta, GA Honolulu, HI Chicago, IL Leavenworth, KS Linthicum, MD Lexington Park, MD Annapolis Junction, MD Rockville, MD Boston, MA Omaha, NE Parsippany, NJ Newark, NJ Eatontown, NJ New York, NY Cleveland, OH Dayton, OH Philadelphia, PA Charleston, SC Dallas, TX Houston, TX San Antonio, TX Salt Lake City, UT Mclean, VA Chantilly, VA Herndon, VA Falls Church, VA Arlington, VA Stafford, VA Norfolk, VA Mexico City, Mexico. Essay! Your career path at Booz Allen Hamilton migrates upwards through 6 total levels: Those joining the firm right out of college will be hired as Consultants and MBAs will join as Associates.

Booz Allen Hamilton offers 8-10 week long summer internships to all who can demonstrate the following: 30 credit hours of essay leadership coursework A declared major Enrollment at an accredited college or university at the undergraduate or graduate level. Literature! Because of the early requirements, BAH can be a great place to do an early internship. Unlike Bain or LEK, the firm doesn#8217;t restrict itself to junior hiring and essay leadership you have a great opportunity to learn some grand consulting processes and get a brand name on your resume with absolutely no experience. Essay My Motherland! Booz Allen Hamilton also has specific internship opportunities for disabled students, the Emerging Leaders Internship Program. If you have a qualifying disability under the 5 paragraph leadership, ADA, have completed at assignment of responsibility least 45 credit hours, and have a minimum 3.0 GPA, visit www.emerging-leaders.com for 5 paragraph essay about leadership, more information. To apply for essay, an internship, visit www.boozallen.com/careers, create a profile, and use #8220;internship#8221; keyword search all internship opportunities.

Hiring begins in 5 paragraph essay about leadership, the fall and lasts throughout the spring, but applications are accepted throughout the year. Candidates will be interviewed on campus or over the phone. As a high level firm with world class name recognition, you will have plenty of opportunities should you decide to transition out. From academia, to the corporate world, to MTV, former Booz Allen Hamilton employees have pretty much done it all, and that#8217;s before we get into essay all the about leadership, high level federal opportunities readily available to you. Essay! When you put things in the context of its history, Booz Allen Hamilton is 5 paragraph about uniquely positioned to give its alum access to a both public and private sector opportunities. Having retained the governmental work, kept the sarah lawrence mfa creative writing tuition, prestigious 100-year-old #8220;Booz#8221; name, but now exercising its freedom to work with commercial entities working at Booz Allen Hamilton would definitely be a wise move for your early career. That being said, even though Booz Allen Hamilton does now have the freedom to work with commercial clients, it#8217;s only been able do so since 2011 and building up a significant reputation and client base takes time. Jonathan Black – Director, Corporate Affairs University of 5 paragraph about Oxford Rohit Bhagat – Global Chief Operating Officer Barclays Global Investors Sir (Francis) Christopher Buchan Bland – Chairman Royal Shakespeare Company Chipper Boulas – Former Vice President of Corporate Strategy eBay Jonathan S. Bush – President, CEO, and about my motherland Co-founder Athena Health Art Collins – Chairman and CEO Medtronic, Inc.

Tim Collins – Founder and Chief Executive Ripplewood Holdings Edward C. Davies (Ted) – Managing Partner, Unisys Federal Systems Karen Fawcett – Director Standard Chartered Bank Malaysia Richard Gay – Senior Vice President of Strategy and Business Operations VH1 and CMT, MTV Networks Rhonda Germany – Vice President of Strategy and Business Development Honeywell Patrick Gorman – Senior Vice President and Chief Information Security Officer Bank of 5 paragraph America Gerry Horkan – Vice President of Corporate Strategy Yahoo! Inc. Paul Idzik – Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer Barclays PLC Abigail Johnson – President Fidelity Investments Raymond J. Lane – General Partner Kleiner Perkins Caufield Byers Edward J. O#8217;Hare – Chief Information Officer U.S. General Services Administration#8217;s Federal Acquisition Service Todd Y. Park – Co-founder and Chief Development Officer Athena Health Mark DeSantis – Chief Executive Officer ANGLE Technology Stan Scoggins – Vice President of Worldwide Digital Assets Universal Studios Owen Nieberg – Chief Operating Officer All About Braces Deven Sharma – President Standard Poor#8217;s Michael Wolf – Former President and COO MTV Networks. Boozers (yes, we#8217;re calling them that) seem to have mixed reviews when it comes to working at Booz Allen Hamilton. There are lots of perks, such as flexible hours, great benefits, great work-life balance, paid parental leave and paid overtime for homeschool essay writing, entry level Consultants who work more than 40 hours in a week (that will likely be you). 5 Paragraph About Leadership! But that#8217;s not to say there aren#8217;t drawbacks. After making a name for what is review, itself as a government contractor, the economic downturn hit. Hard.

This meant revenues shrunk rapidly, as government spending was cut. 5 Paragraph Leadership! Booz Allen Hamilton was left trying to literature recover fiscal ground and essay about there#8217;s been a huge push from the top to make sure the thesis oxford, bottom line is at a desirable level. Experienced staff, in about leadership, particular, are having a harder time in the midst of this season because they feel Booz Allen Hamilton#8217;s priorities have shifted in the wrong direction and they miss the way things used to be. Since Booz Allen Hamilton went public in 2010, they feel many of the decisions and is review cuts that the management made have been in the interests of 5 paragraph about shareholders and not employees. Many remember how things were before 2008 and sarah fear Booz Allen Hamilton will never return to 5 paragraph about the place of strength it once had.

If you look closer, there are a few decisions that are a little bit concerning. The health benefits, though still excellent, are more expensive than they used to be, with higher deductibles. About! Offices are being sold off to leadership increase the bottom line, despite falling revenues. Raises, too, are now no longer based solely on performance but are tied to many other factors, making them harder to of responsibility get. What#8217;s interesting though is 5 paragraph essay leadership that, in a case of not missing what you never had, newer staff members seem to essay my motherland really like working there and 5 paragraph don#8217;t really have as many complaints.

On balance, it would seem that Booz Allen Hamilton is thesis oxford still a good firm to work for, even if some of the about leadership, changes being made are disappointing, though not catastrophic. There are some within the firm who feel Booz Allen Hamilton is moving further away from strict management consulting and instead becoming a data sciences or high end analytics firm. Even though there are many great aspects to working at Booz Allen Hamilton and Was the it is 5 paragraph essay still a great place to work, there are obviously a few things you should take into consideration before accepting an offer. A definite high point about being a Boozer, however, is the firm#8217;s ongoing commitment to junior staff members#8217; career development. Even though all firms say it#8217;s a priority, not that many actually follow through with it. With internal courses, external courses, and mentoring programs among other things, Booz Allen Hamilton strongly encourages its staff to pursue growth throughout the is review of related, year. 5 Paragraph Essay About! Even if the essay about, firm itself is about leadership experiencing turbulence and atomic of Hiroshima and Nagasaki ethical? change, if you work there, especially at the start of essay you career, you#8217;ll definitely come out Was the atomic, with some valuable experience.

Start with character, intelligence, and industry Daily—think right, act right, eat right, sleep right, work right, and play right Know your own blind spots Always be willing to listen and to help worthy young people Require character, intelligence, and “hard work” as the starting foundation in selecting people Pick the cream of the crop for your partners Fear not the 5 paragraph essay about, future, nor people. Was The Atomic And Nagasaki Ethical?! (2015) #1 Best Consulting Firms for Public Sector Consulting Vault (2015) Perfect Score Corporate Equality Index Human Rights Campaign (2014) Susan Penfield (Vice President) Women of Excellence Award National Association for Female Executives (NAFE) (2014) Top 100 Companies for Working Mothers Working Mother Magazine. 5 Paragraph Leadership! BOOZ ALLEN HAMILTON INTERVIEWS AND RECRUITING. First things first: the chance of writing you getting a case to about solve in assignment, a Booz Allen Hamilton consulting interview is greatly reduced when compared to other large firms. It almost sounds sacrilegious to put that in print, but it#8217;s true (and wonderful for those of you that don#8217;t love cases). When you#8217;re interviewing at Booz Allen Hamilton, your first interview will be on campus, on the phone, or sometimes even in person it all depends on 5 paragraph essay about leadership, your circumstances (learn more about case interviews).

For the Was the of Hiroshima and Nagasaki ethical?, next interview, you will most likely have several 1:1 interviews with different mid-senior level staff members. Be prepared to speak highly of yourself and of your experience. Know your resume inside out so that you can walk your interviewer through your highlight reel with ease. Booz Allen Hamilton is a highly interpersonal firm, and essay many interviewees speak highly of the interview process, saying they felt like their interviewer was getting to lawrence mfa creative know them as a person and not just asking them a memorized set of questions, so remember to essay leadership present yourself well. Make and maintain good eye contact, a good firm handshake, etc. If you can make a good connection with your interviewers and about my motherland represent yourself well, you will put yourself in 5 paragraph about, a great position to be hired. Applying to Booz Allen Hamilton? Or maybe you already have an interview with Booz Allen Hamilton and would like to sarah lawrence writing make sure you#8217;re up to essay about speed with your resume and any potential cases that may pop up. Carnegie Mellon University Columbia University Duke University Florida State University George Mason University George Washington University Georgetown University Georgia Institute of essay about my motherland Technology Hampton University Harvard University Howard University Johns Hopkins University Mississippi State University MIT Morgan State University Norfolk State University Northeastern University Ohio State University Old Dominion University Penn State University Purdue University Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Gallaudet University Texas AM Towson University University of California, Irvine University of 5 paragraph leadership California, San Diego University of what is review of related Dayton University of 5 paragraph about leadership Delaware University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign University of Maryland, Baltimore Co. University of Maryland, College Park University of Notre Dame University of Puerto Rico University of atomic bombings ethical? Texas, Austin University of Texas, Dallas University of Texas, San Antonio University of Virginia Virginia Tech Williams College. Booz Allen Hamilton has established a forum for employees with disabilities, introduced ASL interpretation at major meetings and leadership closed-captioning of corporate videos.

Booz Allen Hamilton Chairman Ralph Shrader has also worked closely with the President#8217;s Committee on Employment of People with Disabilities (PCEPD), Business Leadership Network and Was the atomic and Nagasaki is the recipient of leadership awards from the National Business Disability Council.

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Group Dynamics Paper Essays and Research Papers. Group Dynamics Elizabeth Duncan Psych/570 November 5, 2011 Dr. Edward Garrido Group Dynamics . The dynamics of a group is very important to how the group functions. According toGreenlee and Karanxha, “ group dynamics , as a conceptual framework, provide a heuristic approach for understanding how effective groups both work and advance our knowledge” (2010 p. 360). The first area to essay about look at is what a group is. There are different areas to thesis oxford group dynamics . Essay? This paper will look at these areas.

Group dynamics , Group processes , Higher education 1615 Words | 5 Pages. Group dynamics is the study of groups , and essay my motherland also a general term for group processes. Relevant to the . 5 Paragraph Essay Leadership? fields of thesis oxford, psychology, sociology, and communication studies, a group is two or more individuals who are connected to each other by social relationships.[1] Because they interact and influence each other, groups develop a number of dynamic processes that separate them from a random collection of individuals. These processes include norms, roles, relations, development, need to belong, social influence. Crowd psychology , Group dynamics , Gustave Le Bon 983 Words | 4 Pages. Introduction Group Dynamics The study of essay about, group dynamics is strongly influenced by essay, the field of . social psychology. 5 Paragraph Essay About? Social psychologists try to understand human behavior in its broader social context, in contrast to binding oxford most subfields of psychology which focus on the individual.

In essence, social psychologists are interested in 5 paragraph essay about leadership, the ways that individuals, groups , and larger social aggregates influence people behaviorally, cognitively, affectively, and physiologically. Human behavior is thus viewed. Behavior , Definition , Group development 1001 Words | 4 Pages. 1. Of Related Literature? Trace the 5 paragraph essay leadership history of group dynamics . The history of group dynamics (or group . Homeschool? processes) has a consistent, underlying premise: 'the whole is greater than the sum of 5 paragraph about, its parts.' A social group is an entity, which has qualities that cannot be understood just by studying the homeschool essay writing individuals that make up the group . In 1924, Gestalt psychologist, Max Wertheimer identified this fact, stating ‘There are entities where the behavior of the whole cannot be derived from its individual elements nor from the. Group dynamics , Gustave Le Bon , Kurt Lewin 849 Words | 3 Pages. | Team Assessment Paper | [Type the document subtitle] | | | Working with my team in Group Dynamics . throughout the semester proved to be a rewarding, enlightening perspective into how groups and teams work together. Essay About? We encountered challenges along the way but for the most part we succeeded in setting out what we wanted to accomplish this semester and were able to reach our designated goals. One of the challenges I encountered first in my team was the varying degrees of of responsibility, trust and. Behavior , Group action , Group development 1751 Words | 5 Pages. changing value orientation through group dynamics . Here, findings are as follows: 1. Group . dynamics seminar changes the value orientation of the participant on the following: a) From being individualistic to about lineal or collateral b) From being past oriented to sarah writing tuition becoming more present or future oriented c) From being subjected to nature, to essay leadership mastery over essay writing and with nature d) From being to task orientation were significantly change by the group dynamics 2. Relational and 5 paragraph essay time task. Filipino psychology , Group dynamics , Loob 899 Words | 3 Pages.

Group Dynamics Group dynamics concerns different areas of a group’s fine points. In area one, this . essay will present an essay examination of a selected group’s description, covering the group’s objectives, demographic environment, gender, and education level of the group . In the second area of the selected group the author will investigate the developmental stages and its functions. The next area will focus on the structure of the group and how it effect’s the group’s performance. In the fourth. Group development , Group dynamics , Group Emotion 1716 Words | 5 Pages. Work groups are a common arrangement within today’s business organizations. Work is being restructured around groups of all kinds . and in 5 paragraph essay about leadership, all sizes of organizations. Managers need an understanding of group behavior and the concept of teams in order to appreciate what groups can and cannot do within organizations and writing how groups function. Any one member in group can influence the behavior of the individuals in the group and teamwork. We will examine some basic characteristics of groups including the.

Facilitator , Group development , Group dynamics 1043 Words | 3 Pages. wire is a murder. A gam is a group of whales. But what is a collection of human beings called? A group ’. (Forsyth, 2006 P.2) . A group can consist of two or more people interacting. 5 Paragraph Essay About Leadership? Bruce Tuckman and Meredith Belbin both devised theories relating to atomic bombings and Nagasaki ethical? the interactions and dynamics of groups , whilst Tuckman concentrated on the group as a whole, Belbin focused on the roles individuals played within a group . ‘For centuries, sages and scholars have been fascinated by groups – by essay leadership, the way they form, change.

2002 albums , Belbin Team Inventory , Bruce Tuckman 2061 Words | 7 Pages. ? Group Dynamics The Nature of Groups Day one in Group Dynamics was . quite interesting. About? The class as a whole was a diverse mix in culture and 5 paragraph essay leadership age. The activity for that session thankfully helped to break the is review ‘ice’ and become more comfortable with one another. It amazed me, although strangers, how much we actually had in common. My peers became a familiar face I could seek out in the passing of the about hall. Thus, the transition from aggregates to Campbell’s entitative group had begun. Conformity , Dead Poets Society , Group dynamics 1874 Words | 5 Pages.

Group Dynamics and Leadership Good team functioning is assignment of responsibility a product of cooperative structures and 5 paragraph leadership the intelligent, . responsible participation of the team's members. (Resource Manual for binding a Living Revolution, p. 43) Group dynamics and leadership are the core of understanding racism, sexism, and other forms of social prejudice and discrimination. These applications of the field are studied in 5 paragraph essay about leadership, psychology, sociology. Group dynamics , Kurt Lewin , Leadership 930 Words | 2 Pages. consider the essay various approaches to team building and group dynamics as well as to consider both conventional and virtual team . building concepts. According to Maddux and Wingfield (2003), “ groups provide the basis for 5 paragraph essay about family living, protection, warfare, government, recreation and work, (p.

4). Borkowski (2011) explains that individuals join groups to sarah mfa creative writing tuition fulfill basic needs of belonging as described in Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Yet, it is essay about apparent that group members realize greater success and Was the atomic bombings and Nagasaki satisfaction. Group development , Group dynamics , Group processes 1194 Words | 4 Pages. Assignment: Management and 5 paragraph essay about leadership Group Dynamics. of team dynamics ,explain why the packaging department is less productive than other teams at treetop 2. how should treetop change the . nonproductive norms that exist in the packaging group 3. what structural and other changes would you recommend that may improve this situation in mfa creative writing, the long term? INTRODUCTION group -is two or more individual interacting and interdependent who have come together to achieve a particular objective Group -this refers. Group dynamics , Kurt Lewin , Management 2198 Words | 7 Pages. Group Dynamics / Study Guide * Kurt Lewin- the father of Group Dynamics * Began in the 20th . century in North America * 4 stages of Group Process 1. Essay Leadership? Forming- getting to know you phase-uneasiness/distrust 2. Homeschool Writing? Storming-conflict occurs as the group tries to come together 3. Norming-conflict is resolved, group becomes cohesive 4. Performing- group members are cooperative 5. 5 Paragraph Leadership? Adjourning * Elements of effective meetings- clear and purpose and assignment agenda * Creativity- use. Consensus , Consensus decision-making , Decision making 630 Words | 3 Pages. Group Dynamics in a Business World.

Group Dynamics in 5 paragraph essay, a Business World Tammye Bass MGT415: Group Behavior in binding, Organizations Dennis Lauver January . 30, 2011 Group Dynamics in a Business World The knowledge of group behavior can affect the way one performs in a group setting. Leadership? Group dynamics is the scientific study of assignment of responsibility, behavior in groups (Johnson and Johnson, 2009). A group is two or more individuals who have interaction with each other to achieve a goal (Johnson and Johnson, 2009). Many businesses depend on 5 paragraph about leadership the high. Decision making , Decision theory , Group development 2300 Words | 6 Pages. Group dynamics The Breakfast Club. Whether groups are formed for social or task oriented purposes, the of related literature ability to produce and maintain a sense of affiliation, peer support and . collaboration is important for overall group functioning. The cohesion of a social group is produced through the establishment of a set of group norms, which are later defined as a guide for conduct accepted within a group of individuals. However, in order for 5 paragraph about a group to perform and produce results, the team leader should guide his/her team through the proper.

Group development , Group dynamics , Kurt Lewin 1071 Words | 3 Pages. Group Dynamics and Yheir Specified Roles and Functions. Groups Dynamics and their Specified Roles and Functions Within any group , there are many roles making up the list . generally included when considering group dynamics . All these roles are helpful to the success of the homeschool essay writing team, but there are some that are absolutely necessary for the team to 5 paragraph about leadership accomplish its mission. What Of Related? These roles are being played out in many different groups . This paper will focus on teams in 5 paragraph, the workplace and the roles that are a necessity for success. According to Benne and Sheats. Group dynamics , Team 1224 Words | 4 Pages. Pankaj Garg Date: 04/17/2006 ORG 530 (online) Group Process paper Our group is a 5-member team whose goal was . to binding oxford finish the essay leadership assignment on is review literature time.

We were committed to 5 paragraph leadership working together to be successful because our class experience and grade was related to successfully completing this assignment. Our team worked together collaboratively to analyze the issue and to plan for an organized presentation. When we began our meeting, we knew that we wanted our end-results to be some sort of solution and. Activity , Group dynamics , Kurt Lewin 1215 Words | 3 Pages. In this work MGT 415 Week 5 Final Paper you will find the overview of the following topic: Group Dynamics and . Interaction. Binding? Group Behavior in about, Organizations. Business - Management Focus of the Final Paper In Week One, you will choose a generic organization (manufacturing plant, hospital, etc.). Assume that you are a hired consultant for this organization. You have been asked by the president of the organization to prepare a background paper on the results of your research and to what of related literature make.

Black-and-white films , English-language films , Group dynamics 507 Words | 3 Pages. Individual Analysis of 5 paragraph essay leadership, Working in a Group Situation. Abstract In this paper I will describe and analyze my experience working in a group situation, writing a paper . on the movie 12 Angry Men. I will address therapeutic communication techniques used in our group situation. I will address any conflicts that arose in our group . Utilizing Tuckman’s group process theory, I will also address the effectiveness of our group process. Individual Analysis of Working in a Group Situation Learning how to work effectively in a group situation is key to. Bruce Tuckman , Communication , Group development 1204 Words | 4 Pages. 1. Executive Summary This report analyses meeting dynamics and suggests practices to mfa creative tuition improve the effectiveness and efficiency of 5 paragraph leadership, . Homeschool Essay? corporate meetings. The findings are based on a sociogram produced by observing a simulated meeting. Conclusions are drawn using communications theories. Findings suggest meeting dynamics are largely influenced by about, group members’ individual characteristics and the management of the meeting.

The turn taking method, leadership style and encouragement of member participation. Business Decision Mapping , Communication , Decision making 1624 Words | 6 Pages. ? Group Cohesion and Performance August 3, 2012 Abstract This paper explains the importance of and sarah mfa creative tuition aspects of . groups . It defines norms, roles and cohesiveness in respect to groups . It also discusses the 5 paragraph leadership roles conformity, groupthink and group polarization has in relation to group cohesiveness and performance. This paper uses several peer-reviewed journals and two textbooks on social psychology to literature argue that increased group cohesiveness negatively impacts group performance. Imagine yourself outside. Collective intelligence , Crowd psychology , Group development 1753 Words | 5 Pages. Introduction The purpose of this annotated bibliography is to demonstrate the effect of Team dynamics and change. In many terms, team . Essay About Leadership? dynamics is focused on mutual interaction among the of related team members, their actions, and responses. Essay About Leadership? Therefore, the rapidly changing work environment and adaptation to essay the changes are the about major facts leading to the switch of the comfort zones and fear of the possible changes within almost all the levels of the organization.

The theories of Kurt Lewinee and Bruce Tuckman. Bruce Tuckman , Facilitator , Group development 1369 Words | 4 Pages. when in interaction with others, we can learn how to communicate effectively. Group work demonstrates our capacity to communicate effectively, . share and reflect on our opinions, gain trust for group members, and resolve conflicts. A team can be defined as “a group of individuals who work together to writing produce products or deliver services for which they are mutually accountable (Tyrer, 2004).” Teamwork is described as “a dynamic process involving two or more [health professionals] with complimentary backgrounds. Communication , Free group , Graphic communication 1242 Words | 4 Pages. Group Observation Paper Introduction: Groups talk about goals in different ways, using different words. 5 Paragraph About? . Some groups have major and minor goals or meta- and micro-goals; others divide goals into mission, purpose or goal, and objectives, while other groups talk about aims and expectations.

A group is strengthened to homeschool the extent it has clear goals and all members know what their roles are in helping to achieve them (Dimock and Kass, 2008, p.62-63). My placement is currently in the Mental Health. Group dynamics , Health care , Health care provider 2190 Words | 7 Pages. Group Behavior in Organizations Introduction well-managed organization needs adequate talent to achieve its goals. In addition, . organizational leaders need to understand the essay leadership individuals that are working for essay writing the organization. By learning how the behavior and culture of individuals affects the organization, leaders and about leadership organizations move one step closer to assignment of responsibility success. Organizational behavior, OB for short is the essay study of human behavior in organizations. It is field of essay writing, study devoted to understanding. Group dynamics , Kurt Lewin , Leadership 1922 Words | 6 Pages.

Support Group Report Support Group Report In this paper , I . Essay About? will be discussing my finding in Overeaters Anonymous support group . Is Review Literature? I will enlighten the about leadership reader further by providing knowledge of the assignment of responsibility topic. The purpose of the OA meetings and objective will be included along with the 5 paragraph about support groups dynamics and binding demographics. I will be incorporating my observations from the Corey video and the reading. The working stage of 5 paragraph essay about, group development along with. Addiction , Compulsive overeating , Group development 1340 Words | 4 Pages. PSY 301 Week 5 Final Paper Social Psychology Bringing It All Together. There is PSY 301 Week 5 Final Paper Social Psychology Bringing It All Together in this pack Social Psychology: Bringing It All . Together According to essay my motherland Feenstra (2011): “Social psychologists investigate how we view ourselves and others, how we interact with others, how we influence others, and how we act when we are part of a group . Given the 5 paragraph essay leadership amount of time each of us spends thinking about and interacting with the people we encounter every day, much of our lives are spent with the. Aggression , Cognition , Group dynamics 632 Words | 4 Pages. The Apprentice Group Dynamics Evaluation.

and never wavered. He had plenty of help from his group members, but delegation of what of related literature, tasks is an leadership important part of being a leader. It is . unclear how Team Apex chose their leader, though Elizabeth had also previously been the object of criticism among other candidates. Her weakness early on during this task was her inability to choose plan of action, or flip-flopping, as her group members often called it. Sarah Lawrence Mfa Creative? She and another member of her group spent many hours correcting her group's misdirection. Group-dynamic game , Kurt Lewin , Leadership 1344 Words | 4 Pages.

There will be a group working in many areas and in lots of situations. Particularly, in the university the group working may be . the section of the student’s task. And in the company the group working should be needed in many aspects, such as the sales group , the marketing group , the production of 5 paragraph leadership, development group and so on. In this essay, I will discuss the definition of group dynamics , the group’s factors which involve norms, roles, cohesiveness and the development stages of group . And then I will. Group dynamics , Psychology , Role 750 Words | 3 Pages.

Group Observation on atomic bombings and Nagasaki ethical? Teen Dating Violence EXAMPLE #2 The group I observed was a teen . dating violence prevention group . It was held at A High School. The purpose of this group was to educate adolescents about domestic violence. The facilitator’s goal was to teach the adolescents about healthy relationships, unhealthy relationships, types of essay about, abuses, various red flags of an abuser, and essay about provide important resources for 5 paragraph leadership those who may be going through a domestic. Abelian group , Domestic violence , Education 1500 Words | 4 Pages. ?Focus Group Discussion1 A focus group discussion (FGD) is a good way to binding gather together people from similar backgrounds or . experiences to discuss a specific topic of 5 paragraph essay, interest. Literature? The group of 5 paragraph about, participants is guided by Was the atomic bombings, a moderator (or group facilitator) who introduces topics for discussion and helps the group to participate in a lively and natural discussion. The strength of FGD relies on allowing the participants to agree or disagree with each other so that it provides an insight into how a group. Facilitator , Focus group , Group dynamics 1061 Words | 4 Pages.

there are five stages of group development. The five stages are “forming”, “storming”, “norming”, “performing”, and “adjourning”. Forming is . when everyone is 5 paragraph instructed to group together for a particular purpose and understand the Was the atomic task to be accomplished but there are sceptical between each other. This is the period of testing-out our group members. About Leadership? Storming is where some minor confrontations will arise that is quickly dealt with. These may relate to the work of the group itself or to responsibilities. 2011 , Belbin Team Inventory , Group development 1443 Words | 4 Pages. Individuals and Groups 8.2 The individual: Factors that contribute to an individual’s development: Self-esteem: How an individual feels . about themselves in terms of worth or value. Self-esteem is often referred to homeschool essay writing as being ‘high’ or ‘low’.

Self-confidence: How likely we are to leadership feel ready to about my motherland take on challenges. Essay About Leadership? Self-actualisation: takes many years for an adult to achieve, it is satisfying all need to a certain level. Homeschool Essay? Peers: individuals of similar age. Being accepted by peers satisfies a human. Decision making , Group dynamics , Individual 2090 Words | 7 Pages. Organizational Group Behavior and Communication. Organizational Group Behavior and Communication Chris Bevins COM 425 Communication in Organizations Willetra Brittian 18 Jul 2010 . Organizational Group Behavior and Communication People are an 5 paragraph essay about leadership organization’s most important and valuable resource. How they interact and essay my motherland communicate can be one of the most important aspects of an organization’s success.

The knowledge, skills, and abilities people of today possess offer limitless opportunities to maximize work center effectiveness. 5 Paragraph About? People not. Behavior , Communication , Group dynamics 1454 Words | 5 Pages. Hsc 3088 Implement Therapeutic Group Activities. HSC 3088 Implement therapeutic group activities WDP (Westminster drugs project) SU’s (service users) Participating in therapeutic . group activities can benefit an individual’s identity, self-esteem and about my motherland well-being in 5 paragraph leadership, many different ways. For example during an open support group the sarah lawrence writing chairs are set out in a circle and the service user will take a seat with his/her fellow SU’s and 5 paragraph essay the group is facilitated by a trained practitioner. Thesis Oxford? At WDP this is very important for essay about leadership the SU’s self development.

Bruce Tuckman , Facilitator , Group 1311 Words | 3 Pages. Why Do We Need to Understand Group Dynamics to thesis oxford Understand Organizational Management and Organizational Behavior ?” : the Group . 5 Paragraph Essay? A Group is composed by 2 or more individuals, who come together to essay accomplish a particular task or goal, which is . why their behavior is very important and has to be studied first. A manager leading a group will have to take into 5 paragraph about account each of the individual characteristics in order for it to work. As individuals join and create a group , shall it be a formal or informal one, we slowly change focus. The individual needs, perceptions and assignment of responsibility motivations get absorbed and the Group creates. Facilitator , Group dynamics , Psychology 1754 Words | 5 Pages. ? Group can be defined as collection of essay, individuals who have regular contacts and frequent interactions, mutual influence, common feeling of . camaraderie and who works together to achieve a common set of goals for essay social and 5 paragraph essay economic benefits. There are five stages of assignment, group formation and this stages explains step by step on how the groups are formed from 5 paragraph essay about, scratch. The five stages are forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning.

The five stages were developed by Tuckman and Jensen based. Better , Group dynamics , Leadership 1045 Words | 3 Pages. Learnings from of responsibility, Individual and group behavior (IGB) ? Learning Paper on Individual and group behavior (IGB) Submitted by: Nimish Kumar (131533) The first meeting for one of our . 5 Paragraph About? group assignments was scheduled to be held in the hostel itself. However, it got over with virtually no gains, as only mfa creative two of us were present and about leadership the rest of the members didn’t turn up. Assignment Of Responsibility? Later on, I realized that this incident was a learning gain in fact, as it gave me a practical experience of the concept of Social Loafing, where some members try to reduce their individual.

Collective intelligence , Crowd psychology , Group dynamics 1404 Words | 5 Pages. efficiently and effectively than a group . And training in 5 paragraph essay leadership, group dynamics , whilst interesting, has no practical . value as a means of increasing the standard of group performance’ (Mullins, 2007, p296). Essay This essay is going to examine the main differences between the work of individuals and the work of a group . The perception of the binding oxford author of the essay title basically states that there are more benefits than drawbacks in the individual work when comparing to the group work as well as that a given. Group development , Group dynamics , Hans Eysenck 1967 Words | 6 Pages. Shift: The Effects of Group Influence on Individual Risk-Taking Tee Kai Yee Department of 5 paragraph essay leadership, Psychology University of . Sheffield Abstract This experiment is a replication of Wallach, Kogan and Bem (1962) study on Was the atomic of Hiroshima and Nagasaki Group influence on individual risk taking. The aim for this experiment is to investigate the 5 paragraph essay about effects of shift in risk across the pre-discussion, group -discussion and post-discussion.

Decision making , Group dynamics , Group processes 1803 Words | 6 Pages. Reflection on Social Work Group Work Processes. Introduction Group work is an integral part of lawrence mfa creative tuition, life, and in particular, an essential component of social work practice. 5 Paragraph About? Group . work provides a myriad of benefits that individual work cannot provide, such as the synergy among members that group work provides over case work (Corey amp; Corey, 2006), and Was the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki ethical? it is precisely why group work is applied in the social work setting. Various theories affect how group work is leadership practiced, affecting both group dynamics and the different stages of the group (Hepworth. Group dynamics , Social work , Sociology 1675 Words | 5 Pages. Organizations and Group Behavior Audrey A. Schanning MGT 415: Group Behavior in essay writing, Organizations Margaret Browne October 18, . 2010 Many companies have embraced executive coaching and mentoring as their main approaches to 5 paragraph leadership promote development initiatives. But in today’s businesses these do not address the real-world, group dynamics that executives must contend with.

Behavior within a group in the organization can be influenced by group dynamics , interactions, group cohesiveness, the work. Abelian group , Group dynamics , Kurt Lewin 1916 Words | 6 Pages. Introduction A group is a team of people, who are motivated to ethical? join, perceive each other as members and interact with each other. A . 5 Paragraph Essay About Leadership? group may also be defined as two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives. So simply congregation of assignment, people is not a group . Congregation of person must satisfy three conditions to become a group . There are: ? People must interact each other, ? They must psychologically. Group dynamics , Individual , Interaction 1492 Words | 7 Pages. Lisa Smart Kim Lane Group Process 3/8/13 Paper 1 Group Observation The group I chose to . observe was an alcoholics anonymous group . I chose this as the group to leadership observe because it relates to this field of what of related literature, work and also I have family members whom I attend meetings with for support. There are different types of AA groups . The most common two are open meetings, and closed meetings. About? Open meetings are meetings where speakers tell how they drank, how they discovered AA, and how its program has. Alcoholics Anonymous , Alcoholism , Family 1082 Words | 3 Pages. During our recent group presentations, we covered negotiation, building teams, working in groups , managing conflict, effective . meetings, facilitating team success, managing decisions and solving problems creatively (De Janasz, Wood, Gottschalk, Dowd, Schneider.

2006, pg 196-314). Our team was given working in teams for success as a presentation topic. I believe we not only clarified the topic but managed to thesis use the about leadership content to about our own benefit and produce a successful presentation. This essay highlights. Group development , Group dynamics , Kurt Lewin 1950 Words | 6 Pages. Group Work in the Human Service Industry. Group work in 5 paragraph essay leadership, the Human Services Field Introduction Group work has been cited as playing an integral role in ensuring that . Binding? people achieve more collaboratively than working as individuals.

In addition, group work has been perceived as a robust mechanism of essay about, helping people attain some novel skills and specific goals, mostly when a group is founded upon a particular objective. Nonetheless, despite these benefits attributed to working in groups , it is imperative to be cognizant of the fact that in many. Abelian group , Cancer staging , Group dynamics 1761 Words | 5 Pages. ? Group Process: Refection Paper III Damaris M. Morel NJCU . Thesis? Group Process: Refection Paper III “Being involved in the process of becoming self is 5 paragraph about a profound experience of personal choice” (Rogers, 1995, p.205); yet, according to Rogers therapeutic learning should not been teaches, rather it is an issue of assignment of responsibility, personal choice. 5 Paragraph Essay About Leadership? In the essay about same token, for a group process session to be effective the members need to be. Emotion , EMPG , Group dynamics 970 Words | 5 Pages. Groups and Teams Paper Groups . Teams.

High-performance teams. Essay? What is lawrence a group ? A . group is a collection of people who interact with one another regularly to attain common goals (Schermerhorn, Hunt Osborn, 2005). Over the years, groups have helped organizations achieve important tasks. They have also been resourceful of essay leadership, helping the members of essay, organization to improve task performance and experience more satisfaction with their work. Groups are good for people, can improve creativity, can. Group dynamics , Team building 1698 Words | 5 Pages.

| The Function of Groups in Business | | | | In an age when global economics is a household term and corporations span . 5 Paragraph Leadership? continents, the importance of understanding group dynamics is essay paramount to economic success. Group dynamics is the 5 paragraph essay social science that focuses on advancing knowledge about the nature of group life. In studying group dynamics you are about to look at the behavior of assignment of responsibility, group and how the group develops. Businesses today have decreased their workforce and achieved higher. Abelian group , American football , American football positions 2303 Words | 6 Pages. factors affecting group development. ?Factors affecting Group Development Leadership Style and Skills - This is the ability to persuade the 5 paragraph essay about group member to change . and oxford reflect the leadership style. Authoritarian leaders predominate compliant and dependent members Democrat leaders Persuade more active involvement Environment Physical factors ( space, temperature, seating arrangement) Space/room (location and set up, e.g. Lighting ventilation, seating arrangement) Emotional factors (emotional climate, verbal and non-verbal.

Facilitation , Facilitator , Group development 753 Words | 4 Pages. FIVE STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT By Sherryl M. 5 Paragraph Leadership? McGuire, Ph.D. There are five stages of group development. . However, not all groups reach all stages of homeschool essay writing, development. Leadership? The five stages of group development are Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and bombings ethical? Adjourning. 5 Paragraph Essay About Leadership? The stage which many groups do not necessarily reach is the thesis Performing stage. 5 Paragraph About Leadership? It is atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki ethical? possible that a group never develops past Storming, but this will often be either a dysfunctional group or a group in extreme chaos and stress. Cancer staging , Group development , Group dynamics 1297 Words | 4 Pages.

? “Chak De India” : the different stages of group development; group dynamics ; and leadership. GROUP . DEVELOPMENT The process of developing groups depends significantly on the type of group and the specific purposes to 5 paragraph about leadership be achieved. The various models of group development are (Zastrow 2009): 1. Sequential Stage Model The Garland, Jones, and Kolodny Model Tuckman Model The Northern and Kurland Model 2. Recurring-phase Model The Bales Model For the movie “Chak De India” none of the sequential. Abelian group , Chak De! India , Chitrashi Rawat 1101 Words | 2 Pages. Evoluction of Formal Organization Paper. Evolution of Formal Organizations Paper May 27, 2012 SOC/120 University of Phoenix . The past two centuries have witnessed rapid change unequaled in human history. Technology is the driving force, altering all facets of life including governments, families, her members and literature the conditions under which those altering all facets of life including governments, families, communities and essay leadership even the eco system within which we. Government , Government agency , Group dynamics 1323 Words | 4 Pages. Group Work This essay provides definitions of is review of related, community groups and examples of these with an analysis of their purpose and . structure.

Followed by group dynamics theory and the significance of communication within groups . The role of the community worker within groups and how the worker could manage difficult situations are also analysed. There are various definitions for groups I have included one; “To put it simply they are units composed of two or more persons who come into contact for. Abelian group , Communication , Group development 1853 Words | 6 Pages. Introduction Personal growth and development as a group participant McDermott (2002) suggests that groups are defined by . consisting of at least two persons, that share space and share a purpose. The interactions taking place amongst members may be important in the development of common goals, norms and roles, and some sense of 5 paragraph leadership, belonging. Within the Was the bombings of Hiroshima context of essay about leadership, a group , participants find the possibility of making comparisons between themselves and others, which can become an influential source. Facilitator , Group dynamics , Kurt Lewin 2169 Words | 6 Pages. QUESTION 1 In the what of related initial stage of group development, members begin to leadership develop their relationship with one another and learn what is expected . of them. Group members rely on safe, patterned behaviour and look to the group leader for guidance and lawrence writing direction. Group members have a desire for 5 paragraph leadership acceptance by the group and a need to be known that the group is safe (Corey, 1995).

They set about gathering impressions and thesis binding data about the similarities and differences among them and forming preferences for future. Behavior , Behaviorism , Cognition 1959 Words | 6 Pages. Group Development and Interaction Theory. Group Development and Interaction Theory Within the business setting, the shift from yesterday’s “singular” culture to today’s “team” culture . has brought about a new era of learning, development, and innovation. However, this shift has also brought with it a certain amount of dissatisfaction, conflict, and confusion.

This paper will focus on the Tuckman Theory, and discuss how Tuckman’s five stages of group development and interaction applies to 5 paragraph essay leadership the work environment and leadership effectiveness. Cancer staging , Group dynamics , Leadership 1914 Words | 6 Pages. Psychoeducational Group Summary – Session Four Matthew M. Mahar, MBCI, CBCP, MCP HSER511 Liberty University Professor Margo Farwell . Atomic Bombings Of Hiroshima? December 13, 2012 Psychoeducational Group Summary – Session Four Our final session was scheduled to begin at 7pm on Monday night. With this being the final planned and organized session, I don’t expect to have any additional participants show up. My hope is that this session will be productive, and 5 paragraph essay about act as a closeout to the progress we’ve made so far. Cengage Learning , Change , Gale 1035 Words | 4 Pages.

Groups or Teams What Is the of Hiroshima ethical? Difference? Groups or Teams What is the Difference? LaNise L. Heath Group Behavior in leadership, Organizations MGT 415 Prof Vera L. Davis, MPA, MATD . Binding Oxford? December 20, 2010 Groups or Teams What is the 5 paragraph essay about leadership Difference? Groups are a part of atomic bombings of Hiroshima, every aspect of our lives. Your family is an example of a group that people are a member of. About Leadership? You may be a member of a social group , a work group , or a small group in your church. Essay Writing? According to essay leadership Johnson and Johnson (2009) the definition of a group is “two or more individuals.

Decision making , Group development , Group dynamics 2274 Words | 6 Pages.

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The Media Bias and Its Effect on Media Choice. An editorial in the Columbia Journalism Review commenting on the nation and the media after the 2004 presidential election suggests it is possible that media outlets are getting a bad rap when it comes to essay leadership claims of media bias. Instead of the media being biased, the editorial asserts, perhaps it’s time to consider reader and viewer bias. Oxford! “We remain a red and essay about, blue nation,” the editorial points out, adding that media outlets, driven by economics, may have to cater to audiences’ political preferences and return to the time of the partisan press when readers knew before they picked up their paper in the morning what the writers’ opinions would be (“Red News”). Need essay sample on The Media Bias and Its Effect on Media Choice ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $12.90/page. Claims of media bias pervade the what is review of related literature, airwaves. Fox News often takes a right-of center stance in reporting the news but claims that it is justified in calling itself “Fair and Balanced” because of what it describes as a tendency for the rest of the essay about, mainstream news media to bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki ethical? lean to the left (Collins Hickey). Mainstream news outlets take a beating every week on 5 paragraph essay about, radio talk shows hosted by the likes of Rush Limbaugh and Bill O’Reilly, who accuse the news outlets of having a left-of-center political agenda. Still, others say that conservative owners and Republican editors of media giants set the media agenda (Parenti Jamieson).

Editorial page editors are all too familiar with accusations of media bias from both sides. Schmitt and colleagues point out a common problem for newspaper editors. “Two readers from opposing partisan groups write letters to the editor, each complaining that news coverage is biased in favor of the other side” (55). Many of those looking to back up their claims of media bias point to assignment a 1996 Freedom Forum/Roper Center survey as evidence that the news media lean one way or the other. The survey found that out of 139 Washington-based journalists surveyed, 61 percent of the sample identified themselves as “liberal” or “liberal to moderate.” Only 9 percent identified themselves as “conservative” or “moderate to conservative” (Hickey). 5 Paragraph Leadership! The book The American Journalist reported in 1996 that 44 percent of journalists lean toward the Democratic Party while 16 percent prefer Republicans and 16 percent prefer independents (Dennis). In his best-selling book Bias, journalist Bernard Goldberg lays out what is review of related, a number of studies that show journalists lean toward the left and contends journalists as a group are generally out-of-sync with “mainstream America” (127). But does this tendency for journalists to lean left-of-center result in an identifiable bias in news media? A sampling of content analyses show it does not. A study done analyzing news coverage during the presidential campaigns of 1988, 1992, and 1996 found that on the whole, campaign coverage of the Democratic and 5 paragraph leadership, Republican candidates was evenly balanced in assignment of responsibility, two of the three elections — the one aberration was in the 1992 campaign: Bill Clinton was found to 5 paragraph leadership receive 54.4 percent of positive coverage in his race against George H.W. Bush (Watts, Domke, Shah Fan). A study analyzing news coverage of the 1991 House banking scandal, in which members had written more than 8,000 checks resulting in insufficient funds in their House bank accounts, found that coverage was evenly balanced between Democrats and homeschool essay writing, Republicans, showing no evidence to support claims of “anti-Republican bias or any meaningful partisan bias” (Niven 648).

As researchers continue to undertake content analyses in response to about leadership media bias claims, another body of research is ongoing. This research is looking at audience perceptions and asking what consumers of news and essay about, information bring to the table when it comes to seeing a news story as biased. Could the news stories some readers and essay about, viewers deem biased actually be measured as fair and objective by other readers and homeschool essay, viewers? Could it be that audience members’ preconceived notions are responsible for the way they judge stories, and not the stories themselves? Though the essay about, answer is not that simple, previous research suggests individuals’ preconceived notions do play a big role in how they judge the fairness and objectivity of a news story. This study expands on that body of research, looking at audience perception of media bias and what is review literature, the hostile media effect, which Vallone and colleagues first described in 1985 as the about leadership, tendency of partisans on both sides of an issue to see new coverage as biased against thesis binding, their point of view. Since Vallone and colleagues’ coinage of the term, many researchers have sought to 5 paragraph replicate the hostile media effect, and many have been successful, finding that two viewers diametrically opposed to is review each other on an issue covered in the news will find the same story biased against 5 paragraph essay about, their point of of responsibility view.

Issues covered in these studies have included the ongoing Arab-Israeli conflict (Vallone et al.), the use of essay primates in research (Gunther et al.), and the use of Was the atomic ethical? genetically modified foods (Schmitt et al.). This study attempts to replicate the hostile media effect by looking at 5 paragraph essay how those who support and oppose the war in Iraq see a news story related to the war. It attempts to expand on the knowledge of the hostile media effect by seeing if it is strong enough to drive readers and binding oxford, viewers to other sources they see as friendly to their point of about leadership view. Why is about my motherland, it important to better understand the hostile media effect and its implications? Schmitt and colleagues put it this way: “…if people do subject information to 5 paragraph different cognitive and sarah mfa creative tuition, perceptual processing when it appears in 5 paragraph essay about leadership, mass media, understanding this processing may provide us with important clues to the singular role of mass media as an information source in society” (55). It is important to study this effect and understand what impact it will have in a society that is growing more segmented when it comes to media consumption. Evidence shows that audiences are becoming more fragmented based on political beliefs and other characteristics. Mainstream media outlets are losing viewers and listeners to new media sources, including cable television programming, Internet Web sites, chat rooms, and talk radio.

Jones states “For any given new media program, members of the thesis binding oxford, audience are more likely to essay about share common interests and political views” (159). Looking at the hostile media effect and the role it plays in selection of news sources sets the essay my motherland, stage for answering further important questions: How will getting news and 5 paragraph essay, information from a source that presents it in a light friendly to one’s political outlook affect their knowledge on issues? How will it affect political discourse and one’s willingness to engage in discussions with those who share differing views? How will citizens get critical information about elected officials and issues when media outlets serve as an extension of the political party and promote one side of the debate while discrediting the other? Review of binding oxford Literature. Trends in media consumption.

In 1996, Australian Rupert Murdoch launched Fox News in an attempt to be a major player in American television (Hickey). Nine years after its launch, Fox’s opinion-based format with a host of news personalities who boast mostly right of center views has helped the network eclipse the viewership of CNN and drawn people away from 5 paragraph leadership, network news to cable (Pew). Fox continues to climb ahead of essay about my motherland CNN in the Nielsen ratings. On election night 2004, Fox drew 8.1 million viewers compared to CNN’s 6.2 million viewers. About Leadership! Fox beat even the homeschool essay, broadcast networks in viewership during the Republican convention in September 2004 (Berkowitz).

Results from a 2004 Pew Research Center for the People and 5 paragraph, the Press survey show that since 2000, the number of Americans who watch Fox News has increased from 17 percent to 25 percent (Pew). Those gains have been greatest among political conservatives and Republicans. Fifty-two (52) percent of Fox viewersdescribe themselves as conservative, up from 40 percent when the survey was taken in 2000. While Republicans and political conservatives are coming to Fox in larger numbers, they are also shunning other news sources. The Pew survey showed that half as many Republicans as Democrats rated sources such as ABC News, CBS News, The New York Times, and U.S. News and World Report as credible.

The partisan divide isn’t present only in literature, Fox viewers. The gap between the percentage of Republicans and 5 paragraph about, Democrats who listen to talk radio is also growing, according to the Pew study. My Motherland! It defines talk radio as shows that invite viewers to 5 paragraph essay about discuss current events, public issues and politics and includes examples such as Rush Limbaugh’s show and call-in shows on National Public Radio. Homeschool Essay! In 2004, 24 percent of essay about leadership Republicans regularly listened to radio shows that invite discussion of current events and politics. Essay! Only 13 percent of Democrats listened to 5 paragraph essay leadership these shows.

In 2002, 21 percent of Republicans listened to talk radio versus 16 percent for Democrats. The Pew Center report also points out that while most Americans do not care if news reflects their viewpoint, 36 percent do. Thirty-three (33) percent of those who identified themselves as liberal reported liking news that shares their point of view. The report says liberals go to sources such as Comedy Central’s “The Daily Show” and National Public Radio to get news and information. Forty-three (43) percent of conservatives reported liking their news to share their point of view and 41 percent of Republicans go to Fox News to get news that coincides with that view.

Thirty-three (33) percent of moderates report liking news to share their point of view. Evidence points to a growing trend: Political partisans sense a growing presence of bias in mainstream news. This perception of sarah lawrence tuition bias leads them to seek out news programming and publications that square with the views they hold. The success of opinion-based programming shows that when given a choice, partisans will often abandon other news sources and stick with those they feel present the news in the light they most want to see it. The rise of cable and the Internet has given readers and viewers unprecedented choice in deciding where they want to get their news and information. This level of choice threatens to fragment audiences in new ways. It is important to look at essay about what drives the perception of bias, particularly among partisans. As the Pew Center data show, media bias is about my motherland, driving viewers and readers — particularly Republicans —to other specific sources of news and information that they and like-minded news consumers deem friendlier to their views. Building a theoretical framework: The hostile media effect Vallone and colleagues were the first to 5 paragraph leadership coin the phrase “hostile media phenomenon” to describe “the tendency for partisans (defined in this case as those who share opposing views on binding oxford, an issue) to view media coverage of 5 paragraph about leadership controversial events as unfairly biased and hostile to the position they advocate” (Discussion section 1). The researchers undertook an experiment asking students who identified themselves as either pro-Israel, pro-Arab, or as having neutral feelings on the conflict to watch six segments of news programs about the Beirut massacre in September 1982. When it came to thesis binding oxford the pro-Israeli and 5 paragraph essay, pro-Arab students, each side found the news segments as biased in favor of the other side.

Further, the researchers found that the perception of bias led those on essay about, both sides to believe that personal views of the editorial staffs who produced the essay, segments were opposite of their own when it came to the subject. Of Responsibility! Vallone and colleagues also noted that within both groups, those with the highest amount of knowledge were more likely to identify the media as biased. In their study, the researchers wrote, “Our suggestion is that viewers of media coverage of a continuing political struggle may see their side portrayed as villain, and the other side as the hero” (Media Coverage section 4). They came up with three possible explanations of about leadership why those who claimed media bias did. The first was that partisans would observe a story as devoting an equal amount of facts and time to about both sides, but because partisans believed their side’s claims to 5 paragraph essay about leadership be more accurate than the other, even balanced coverage would be seen as biased. Giner-Sorolla and Chaiken explain this in what of related, a later study, saying “Thus, even a correctly perceived balanced presentation would appear to be unfairly biased toward the opposition, by treating the ‘inferior’ claims of the opposition as equivalent to the ‘superior’ claims of the partisan’s own side” (166). The second explanation was that individuals recall the same images and arguments in a news report, but they are likely to 5 paragraph about leadership classify those images and argumentsas hostile to their own side.

Even neutral material is likely to essay my motherland be rejected, so that thevalence of images and arguments are seen as supporting the 5 paragraph about, other side. Giner-Sorolla and Chaiken call this “selective categorization.” The third explanation was that partisans remember the facts and images that went against thesis binding oxford, their beliefs better than they remembered the material that coincided with their beliefs. About Leadership! Giner-Sorolla and writing, Chaiken call this “selective recall.” Seeking to further understand how processes contributing to the hostile media effect work, Giner-Sorolla and Chaiken undertook additional experiments to 5 paragraph essay about leadership see if news stories on developments in the Middle East and abortion prompted thesame reaction among partisans. They were able to replicate the hostile media effect among a group of students on the Middle East issue, but not on the abortion issue. The two found through their experiment that selective recall and selective categorization did not explain the hostile media effect, but that “prior beliefs about media bias were the main ingredient on bias judgment, affecting viewers of the program both directly and through estimates of program content” (Giner-Sorolla Chaiken 179). Gunther built on the work of Vallone and Was the atomic bombings of Hiroshima ethical?, colleagues by looking more closely at who was vulnerable to the hostile media effect. After analyzing data from a study commissioned by the American Society of Newspaper Editors (ASNE), he found that if a person identified with a particular group, he or she was more likely to say media coverage of that group was unfavorable. While Republicans judged coverage of their own group as “not favorable enough,” Democrats found coverage of 5 paragraph about leadership Republicans “too favorable.” Gunther concluded that high involvement in an issue “increases the likelihood that a person will take a skeptical view of the oxford, source of that content” (161).

Those likely to have polarized attitudes about certain issues are those who have a sense of involvement with a group that is associated with an 5 paragraph essay about, “enduring” sense of self. These groups can include political, ethnic, religious, or other social groups. Those who identified themselves with particular groups were much more likely to say the media gave unfair coverage of that particular group. Gunther’s research gives merit to what Joseph Klapper wrote in Public Opinion Quarterly in 1957. In looking at the effect media had on a listener or viewer, Klapper called mass media a contributory agent in a process of reinforcement — or that the about my motherland, media were more likely to reinforce pre-existing beliefs than to change them. Leadership! Klapper discussed the power of group membership when it comes to mediating information from media, and he said that communications that were opposed to the norms of a group an audience member belonged to would be rejected, especially if the audience member highly valued his or her group membership. Thus, he says, “The typical audience member selects from the Was the atomic bombings and Nagasaki, media’s varied fare those commodities which are in leadership, accord with his existing likes, and typically eschews exposure to other kinds of material” (Klapper 467). Assignment! He went on to say that the audience member’s likes stem from his reference groups. 5 Paragraph Essay! Perloff alludes to this as well in one of his studies, saying that when individuals are strongly committed to essay about a position, “they assimilate or find support in about, evidence and information other people regard as ambiguous, inconclusive, and problem ridden” (238).

Studies on the hostile media effect have expanded on Gunther’s observation that group identity plays into the perception of media bias. Those whose sense of self is tied strongly into a group are more likely to demonstrate the hostile media effect (Duck et al.). Matheson built on homeschool essay writing, this research with an experiment that asked Bosnian Serbs and essay about, Muslim partisans and a neutral group to respond to what is review literature the coverage of the 1994 Sarajevo market bombing. Matheson found that “partisans’ perceptions of who is the villain and who is the about, victim stem from the motivation to distinguish between the in-group and out-group in such a way as to reinforce a positive and homeschool essay, distinct in-group identity” (Matheson 123). After the seminal studies on the hostile media effect were published, Gunther and colleagues investigated the larger effect of the essay leadership, phenomenon when it came to partisans estimating larger public opinion. Christen, Kannaovakun and Gunther stated that “hostile media perceptions are important only to the extent that they result in thesis binding, related attitude or behavior outcomes…” (425). Looking at the 1997 United Parcel Service strike, the researchers sought to find out whether groups on both sides of the strike — UPS workers and Teamsters — would exhibit the hostile media effect and if they did, how it would affect their perceptions of public opinion. They predicted it could go in 5 paragraph essay about, two directions. First, partisans who found media to be hostile to their point of view could perceive public opinion to follow the mediac overage they believed others were being exposed to (the persuasive press inference). Or, those who perceived media coverage to be biased could perceive public opinion to be a reflection of their own views (projection). The hostile media effect was replicated, with both the UPS and is review, Teamster partisans seeing news coverage as biased against their own groups.

But both groups did not feel that the hostile media would influence public opinion. Instead, both groups perceived public opinion to be a reflection of their own views (Christen et al.). Thus, it seems that this study adds fuel to the fire of 5 paragraph about leadership those making claims of media bias. If they feel others think as they do, they feel more confident in airing those claims. Schmitt and colleagues write about the power of essay about my motherland partisan opinions. “Their viewpoints can powerfully influence public opinion and public policy; they are the ones who campaign and lobby, who demonstrate, parade and picket, who promote their viewpoint in countless ways…” (623-624). Other studies have looked into projection bias and the persuasive press inference and how they interplay with the hostile media effect (Perloff; Gunther et al.; Gunther Christen). Recent studies have looked at how sources affect the essay about, perception of thesis bias in partisans. Arpan and Raney carried out a study to find out essay about leadership, whether news source resulted in the hostile media effect in partisans.

They asked research subjects to read a story about thesis binding, their hometown college football team in leadership, one of three newspapers: the hometown newspaper, the newspaper covering the city of a rival team and a newspaper from a neutral town. What! The hostile media effect was replicated, with fans perceiving the essay leadership, article in all three newspapers as more biased against the home team than the rival team. The researchers also found that participants rated the story as less biased against assignment of responsibility, their team when it was printed in the hometown newspaper than when it was printed in the rival-town or neutral-town newspapers. Schmitt and colleagues found that partisans who read information about genetically modified foods in a newspaper story found the information to 5 paragraph essay about leadership be disagreeably biased. But the hostile media effect disappeared when the identical information was presented to partisans in the form of a college student’s essay. Factors influencing audience perception. Watts and colleagues write that it is “primarily citizens’ partisan views that color perceptions of media fairness rather than assessments of actual bias” (147). But they acknowledge there are other factors at work when it comes to a reader, viewer, or listener coming up with an assessment that a story is biased. Of Related Literature! Along with their preconceived notions, external factors contribute to the notion that the 5 paragraph essay about, media could be “hostile” to a partisan’s point of view. One group to blame is the media itself, Watts and thesis binding, colleagues said.

They said there is 5 paragraph essay leadership, a new focus by journalists, candidates, and essay about, political pundits to look at the role the 5 paragraph leadership, news media play in elections. This has led to increased coverage of news programs and journalists themselves, something the is review of related, researchers refer to as “self coverage.” A study of such coverage found it focuses overwhelmingly on the alleged presence of a left-leaning bias. Watts and colleagues concluded: “These results, then, suggest that the rising public perception of a liberal news media may have more to do with news self-coverage than with biases in 5 paragraph essay, valence news content” (Watts et al. 159). They point out that the rise in media self-coverage is proportional to the increase in is review literature, the number of media outlets in the past 15 years. Another factor that Watts and colleagues studied was the public’s taking cues from conservative elites who allege a liberal media bias, perpetuating a notion that mainstream news channels use various techniques to essay about advance a left-leaning agenda. They cite poll data that shows an Was the of Hiroshima and Nagasaki ethical?, increase in complaints by the public during the 5 paragraph essay about leadership, 1988, 1992, and assignment of responsibility, 1996 presidential campaigns that news coverage in general was biased in favor of Democrats. The percentage of the public claiming the press treated the Republican candidate unfairly increased 13 percent during the 1988 campaign, 22 percent during the 1992 campaign, and 9 percent during the 1996 campaign. 5 Paragraph Essay! The rate of complaints about treatment of the Democratic candidate remained flat or declined each campaign. Watts and colleagues say studies of news coverage don’t support claims that Democrats were treated better in the press than Republicans. Rather, they say the decision that the of responsibility, press is liberal often results from readers and viewers taking cues from others.

Because people don’t have time to 5 paragraph essay pay attention to and absorb all the political news coverage that exists, they look for shortcuts. They turn to thesis binding figures who, in their mind, are trustworthy to take information from and form opinions. Thus, when candidates, talk show hosts, and other conservatives lodge accusations of a liberal media bias, members of the public taking cues from them are likely to 5 paragraph essay adopt similar attitudes. Watts and colleagues write, “For conservative elites, in particular, phrases such as ‘the liberal media’ and homeschool writing, ‘the media elite’ have become embedded in contemporary political culture and 5 paragraph essay, may possess considerable rhetorical weight. Liberal elites, in contrast, do not seem to have a comparable phrase” (151). The results support the findings of Was the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki Giner-Sorolla and Chaiken, who said that the hostile media effect could lead a partisan to declare a news broadcast to be biased even before he saw it by applying his prior beliefs about a media outlet.

Giner-Sorolla and essay, Chaiken say: “Thus, partisans may have accepted the contention of about my motherland fellow sympathizers that the mainstream media are biased” (167). In another study built on these findings, Watts and colleagues sought to find out whether conservative elites’ claims of liberal media bias came during periods when their candidates were subject to more negative press or when they were behind in the polls. The researchers found that claims of liberal bias in the news were more likely to come about 5 paragraph essay about, when Republican candidates were receiving positive coverage and sarah tuition, were ahead in the polls. They suggested that the use of the liberal media accusation occurs more frequently when Republicans are able to exert more control over 5 paragraph essay about, their message. They say this proves that complaints about news coverage are strategic to a certain point. In other words, conservatives lodge accusations that aren’t based in of responsibility, fact in order to exert control over a media message they have no control over. D’Alessio furthered the contention that cues are powerful in developing perceptions of 5 paragraph media bias. D’Alessio explored how a group of research subjects categorized a news story they were told was biased before reading it. He was interested in identifying what structural parts of the news story those subjects deemed as being biased.

Those who were told an article was potentially biased were more likely to identify it as being biased. Those who were not cued were more likely to essay my motherland say their article was free from bias. D’Alessio asked subjects to circle the parts of the 5 paragraph about, news story they claimed contained bias and then rate the article as biased or free from bias. Though participants who were given a cue that the article was biased were more likely to use that term to describe the story, they didn’t mark more statements as biased. Thus, D’Alessio concluded that perception of bias is thesis binding, related to charges of 5 paragraph essay about bias, not actual bias, supporting the research of Watts and colleagues. Atomic Of Hiroshima And Nagasaki! “Together, their findings and ours suggest another form of cognitive simplification has been brought into play, this one related to the bandwagon effect, in which people simply ‘go along’ with majority positions” (291). D’Alessio’s study also showed that those claiming there was bias in a news stor y were likely to about leadership point to quotes that fall outside their latitude of acceptance as making a story biased. Was The Of Hiroshima And Nagasaki Ethical?! This puts journalists in a tough position, he said, because this perception of bias results from the person who is quoted, not the journalist. It shows that simply by offering supporting quotes from essay about leadership, each side, a journalist is opening up him or herself to accusations of Was the atomic of Hiroshima and Nagasaki bias. For journalists who strive to be fair and objective, this finding is discouraging. Another cause of the perception of media bias to undergo examination has been the essay leadership, similarity of those whom partisan people tend to talk to.

Eveland and Shah carried out what of related literature, a study predicting that partisans who undertook discussions with other partisans would perceive a greater degree of about press bias in thesis binding, the media. They found that Republican Party identification, strong partisanship, and political involvement were positively associated with perceptions of 5 paragraph about leadership news bias. The extent to which these groups have political conversations with like-minded people significantly increases the perception that there is widespread bias. They write, “People who frequently discuss politics with others who share their views likely have distorted standards of what constitutes unbiased media content” (113). Oxford! These findings support those of Gunther and Klapper, who cited the role groups play in reinforcing ideas and sparking skepticism about the sources of essay about leadership media that challenge group ideas and norms. Questions of audience perception. In his book Tilted: The Search for atomic and Nagasaki ethical?, Media Bias, David Niven acknowledges the literature that says claims of media bias are a matter of audience perception, not of the actual content of news.

But he raises questions about leadership, audience perception being the sole cause of media claims. If personal politics were the driving force behind such claims, he said that there would be claims of bias by both Democrats and Republicans. Niven states: “Both Democrats and Republicans should see massive bias in assignment of responsibility, the news because of the steady stream of two-sided information in the media, half of essay about which is sure to offend them,” (Niven 45) He does not substantiate with research his claim that information in the media is two-sided. Karlberg and Hackett also challenge the contention that the hostile media phenomenon is in large part to blame for atomic bombings ethical?, partisan assertions that the news is biased and that journalists will insulate themselves from allegations of bias by “playing it down the middle” and covering both sides. The two undertook a survey in essay, Canada between respondents on opposite ends of the political spectrum (conservative/establishment and progressive/advocacy groups) asking them to identify weaknesses in thesis, media coverage. They sought to find out whether criticisms from the two groups would be mutually contradictory, which they said would be evidence of the hostile media phenomenon. The researchers found that criticisms of the two groups were not contradictory. “Both groups were critical of the 5 paragraph essay about, media for insufficiently covering positive stores and the social implications of economic policies (Karlberg Hackettp; Discussion section 5).

They went on sarah, to say, “The key point here is the intergroup similarity and the indication that dissatisfaction with media performance cannot be reduced to perceptions of hostile ‘bias’” (Karlberg Hackett Discussion section 5). This is one of the few studies undertaken to challenge the hostile media effect, but the study’s lack of focus on a specific issue may have failed to generate the passion and essay about leadership, feelings necessary among specific groups of Was the atomic of Hiroshima and Nagasaki ethical? partisans as previous studies have. Niven summarized the challenges media outlets face in today’s landscape. Whether perceptions of media bias are a result of audience perceptions or true bias in the news, the essay leadership, media still must respond or face a dearth of readers and viewers. He said this pressure has forced media organizations back in time.

The partisan press died years ago because the demand for neutral, balanced coverage outweighed the demand for binding oxford, news catering to specific groups holding specific beliefs. America gave bir h to a press steeped in partisanship. Writing about the essay, press in the late 1700s and homeschool essay, early 1800s, Sloan and Startt state: “Clearly, editors believed the overriding purpose of the press was to serve a partisan cause” (73). 5 Paragraph Essay Leadership! They say the distinctive characteristic of the press from 1783 to thesis binding 1833 was political partisanship, and they point out that newspapers played an important role during a critical stage in American politics. During this time, as the Constitution was being ratified and leadership, America’s democracy was being shaped, readers were “annoyed” when a newspaper would not take a partisan stand and had little respect for an impartial editor. This continued throughout the atomic bombings and Nagasaki, 1800s and early 1900s, when circulation of large dailies was tied to political parties. But in 5 paragraph essay about, 1920, Walter Lippmann, editor of the New York World, called for assignment of responsibility, the professional training of reporters in techniques related to objectivity: attributing information to official sources, balancing coverage by telling both sides of an about, issue, and offering context to lawrence writing tuition news events instead of 5 paragraph about presenting facts in assignment, isolation (Sloan Startt). Objectivity has been the gold standard in journalism since then, even though public officials throughout modern history have challenged the about leadership, press’s objectivity. But today, technology is what of related literature, giving viewers and about, readers more choices.

Along with the growing number of cable channels, people can find their own niche of likeminded folk and news and information catered to Was the of Hiroshima their interest on the Internet. Niven predicted that the popularity of conservative talk radio is the beginning of Republicans fleeing the mainstream media. He stated: “Ironically, the logical extension of the flight of leadership conservatives from mainstream media is the rebirth of the partisan press” (Niven 49-50). This observation points to the growing potential for audiences to separate into niches based on their own preferences, and in this case, based on what of related literature, their political views. Webster summarized the social implications of audience fragmentation that could be sparked by partisans’ fleeing mainstream news media, saying a “worrisome prospect is that technology and advertiser-driven programming will reconfigure the mass audience into many small, relative exclusive communities of interest that never encounter dissident voices or different points of essay about leadership view” (366). This study seeks to expand on previous studies done on the hostile media effect by examining whether preconceived notions about literature, a media source make a difference in perceptions of media bias and whether they play into the hostile media phenomenon. To explore this question, an experiment was undertaken. To test for the hostile media effect, a newspaper story on 5 paragraph essay, a development related to the war in Iraq was presented to research subjects.

The same story was made to Was the atomic of Hiroshima appear in three different made-up newspapers: The Conservative Times-Herald, The Liberal Times Media Herald and The Times-Herald. Research subjects received one of the three versions. Based on the literature, the following hypotheses have been formed. Hypothesis 1: Partisans on both sides of the issue will rate the story that appears in the three sources as biased against their point of view based on their overall assessment of bias and how they feel each side is portrayed in the story. Hypothesis 2: Overall, partisans on both sides of the issue will rate satisfaction with the story as low and essay leadership, rate themselves as less likely to turn to assignment of responsibility the source in the future to get information. Hypothesis 3: The level of perceived bias within each group of partisans will correlate negatively with their level of satisfaction with the story and the likelihood they will return to leadership that source for information on the issue. Hypothesis 4: Partisans on assignment of responsibility, both sides of the issue are likely to go to essay about leadership media they deem friendly toward their views to get more information on essay my motherland, the war in leadership, Iraq. Stimuli and research sample.

These hypotheses will be tested through an experimental design in which participants randomly receive a news story related to the issue of the war in Iraq in one of the three stimuli mentioned above. The news story was about Cindy Sheehan, the mother of a fallen soldier who made headlines carrying out war protests at President Bush’s ranch in bombings ethical?, Crawford, Texas, and at the White House in 2005. The story is 5 paragraph essay about leadership, made up with quotes and information from articles that appeared in The Los Angeles Times, The San Francisco Chronicle, The Washington Post, and on the Associated Press wire the day after she was arrested for protesting in front of the White House. The stories were found by carrying out oxford, a keyword search on “Cindy Sheehan” in 5 paragraph, Lexis Nexis. Assignment! The composite story is made to be as fair and balanced as possible by including information about Sheehan and anti-war protests as well as information about rallies staged in support of the administration that same weekend. The articles are formatted to appear as if they were printed out from the essay leadership, newspapers’ Web sites. The names of the three stimuli are selected to answer the question: Does media source play a role in the perception of media bias?

Will partisans (conservatives and liberals) deem a story biased simply based on the names of the newspapers? Made-up newspapers are chosen over existing publications because research subjects may not be familiar with the of responsibility, leanings the editorial pages some nationally circulated news publications are said to have. Included in subjects’ packet will be a pre-test seeking standard demographic information as well as questions asking about party affiliation, religiosity, and 5 paragraph, how much time they spend with media each day. To identify the independent variable, which is participants’ stance on the war in Iraq, subjects will be asked to what extent they support or oppose the war in Iraq. A seven-point scale will be included, with –3 being “Strongly oppose,” +3 being “Strongly support,” and zero being “Neutral.” The scale is what is review, adapted from a similar 11-point scale that Schmitt and colleagues used in a study testing for the hostile media effect when it came to information on the issue of the development of genetically modified foods.

Subjects who identified themselves as a –3 or +3 were coded as having partisan attitudes. Those who identified themselves on the scale as –2, –1, zero, –1, +1, or +2 were coded as having neutral attitudes. Participants will be asked to read the 5 paragraph essay leadership, news story in atomic, their packet and proceed to the post-test, adapted from the questionnaire Schmitt and essay, colleagues used in their study. To measure the dependent variable, which was perceived bias, subjects will be asked to rate different aspects of the story on the same seven-point scale used above. Questions included, “Would you say that the portrayal of the war in essay my motherland, Iraq in 5 paragraph, this article was strictly neutral, or was it biased in favor of one side or the other?” “Would you say the portrayal of the opponents of the war in Iraq in this article was strictly neutral, or was it biased for or against them?” and “Would you say the portrayal of mfa creative tuition supporters of the war in Iraq in this article was simply neutral, or was it biased for or against them?” Two items will be included asking what percentage of the 5 paragraph, story is favorable to the issue of the war and what percentage is unfavorable. Questions will be also asked about the source the story appeared in. Bombings Ethical?! Subjects will be asked to rank on the seven-point scale how they felt future stories on the issue would be covered in the source they read, whether it would the The Conservative Times-Herald, The Liberal Times-Herald, or The Times-Herald. Another section of questions was included to understand whether partisans seek out media they see as friendly toward their views in about leadership, reaction to an article they perceive as biased. Questions included, “After reading this article, are you satisfied with the information provided?” and “In the future, if you wanted find out more about the war in Iraq, would you be likely to turn to assignment of responsibility this source?” The final question asked the following: “Where would you go to 5 paragraph essay leadership get the most reliable information on bombings of Hiroshima, the latest developments in the war in Iraq? Please rank the essay leadership, following choices.” Sources included cable networks such as Fox News and CNN; non-mainstream news sources such as “The Daily Show,” Rush Limbaugh’s radio show, Al Franken’s radio show, the Drudge Report and the Daily Kos blog; news magazines such as The Weekly Standard and The Nation; and what is review literature, mainstream newspapers such as The New York Times and 5 paragraph, The Wall Street Journal. Conducting the test.

The researcher will undertake the experiment with a convenience sample: undergraduate students. A total of essay about 30 students will be in attendance on the day the study will be administered in early January 2007. The researcher will offer no incentive to complete the survey other than to explain that students’ participation would help to better understand attitudes about news coverage of the war in 5 paragraph essay, Iraq. The questionnaires will be distributed randomly by teaching assistants blind to the hypotheses in class. Subjects will be given roughly 25 minutes to take complete the questionnaire. Standard debriefing procedures will be undertaken after the homeschool, questionnaires will be handed in to let subjects know that they will be deceived and about, that none of the news sources contained in their packets exist in real life. Expectations and Conclusions. Evidence of the hostile media effect. Both strong opponents and strong supporters would demonstrate evidence of the hostile media effect. When it comes to questions of how opponents and supporters would be portrayed in the stimuli, both sides thought the story would be biased against the group they supported most.

For example, strong supporters of the assignment of responsibility, war would show a much stronger perception of bias than strong opponents of the war. When Vallone and colleagues (1985) carried out their study with Pro-Arab and Pro-Israeli students, a nine-point scale was used. Partisans were clustered more toward the 5 paragraph essay, extreme ends of the assignment, scale than in the present study, in which partisans would be remained more likely in the center. About! Such results are expected in assignment, this study. Previous studies on the hostile media effect have used partisan subjects from groups in 5 paragraph essay leadership, which formal membership is required. Thesis Binding! In the Vallone study, researchers recruited members of pro-Arab and pro- Israeli student associations. Essay About Leadership! Schmitt and colleagues selected partisans on bombings ethical?, the issue of development of 5 paragraph genetically modified foods by going to tuition annual meetings of groups with strong positions on the issue. Those who have done studies on the hostile media effect have recruited highly involved participants because the literature states that group membership is a high predictor of the hostile media effect. Leadership! Christen and colleagues argue that, “While attitude extremity may be necessary, membership in a formal group (with its attendant effects on self-identity and homeschool, depth of commitment) appears to be a sufficient condition for the hostile media perception” (433). As a result, they say, partisans in more general audiences would not show as strong of evidence of the hostile media effect.

While targeting highly partisan groups in this way helps researcher understand more about the hostile media effect and how it plays out, the results can’t necessarily be generalized to the rest of the 5 paragraph essay about, population. The results of this study and other studies on the hostile media effect should give journalists some hope. While a small and vocal group are making claims of media bias, the majority of the sarah lawrence tuition, public who take in news and information sources seem to sense that media outlets are fairly neutral when presenting the news. It is unlikely that any publisher fears losing a substantial number of readers or viewers because of claims of bias — the level of discourse on the media today indicates that people are paying attention. Essay! The rise of news and information sources, while fragmenting audiences, has the potential to draw more people into the national conversation than ever before. This expansion is the upside of segmentation — more diversity in voices.

Such diversity has the potential to lead to a better democracy. But there are dangers with audience segmentation as well. A study by Mendelsohn and Nadeau found that exposing audiences to the same group of national opinion leaders and media messages led those who initially took varying stances on assignment of responsibility, issues of essay national importance to become less varied in their opinions. The arrival of narrowcast media, they predict, will raise number of voices, which could be a good thing, but also enhance polarization and cleavages in public opinion, which could be a bad thing. Such cleavages could result in an increase in class politics, religious divisions, and about my motherland, party identification. Thus, it is important to be aware of the consequences of the 5 paragraph essay about, hostile media effect as it relates to media choice and audience fragmentation. Diversity of voices must be balanced so that niche media don’t isolate people to the point they feel they don’t need to expose themselves to the diversity of viewpoints. Essay About My Motherland! While journalists can’t do much to prevent perceptions of media bias, they can acknowledge it exists and do what they can to make the public aware of it. Arpan, L.M., Raney, A. An Experimental Investigation of News Source and the Hostile Media Effect. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 80, (2003): 265-282.

Berkowitz, B. U.S. 5 Paragraph Essay About Leadership! Election Viewers Flock to ethical? Fox News for Results. ABC News. Nov. About Leadership! 3, 2004. http://abcnews.go.com/Entertainment/wireStory?id=224924 Collins, S. Crazy Like a Fox: The Inside Story of How Fox News Beat CNN. New York: Penguin, 2004. Christen, C.T., Kannaovakun, P. Gunther, A.C.

Hostile Media Perceptions: Partisan Assessments of sarah Press and Public during the 1997 United Parcel Service Strike. Political Communication, 19, (2002): 423-436. D’Alessio, D. An Experimental Examination of Readers’ Perceptions of essay leadership Media Bias. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 80, (2003): 282-293. Dennis, E. How “Liberal” Are the essay, Media, Anyway? The Continuing Conflict of Professionalism and about leadership, Partisanship.

The Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 2, (1997): 115-119. Duck, J.M., Terry, D.J., Hogg, M.A. Perceptions of a Media Campaign: The Role of Social Identity and the Changing Intergroup Context. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24, (1998): 3-16. Giner-Sorolla, R., Chaiken, S. Was The Bombings And Nagasaki Ethical?! The Causes of Hostile Media Judgments. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 30, (1994): 165-180. Gunther, A.C., Christen, C.T., Liebhart, J. Chia, C.Y.S. Congenial Public, Contrary Press, and Biased Estimates of the Climate of Opinion. Public Opinion Quarterly, 65, (2001): 295-320.

Hickey, N. Is Fox News Fair? Columbia Journalism Review, (1998, March-April): 30-36. Jones, D. The Polarizing Effect of New Media Messages. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 14, (2002): 158-173. Jamieson, K.H. Everything You Think You Know About Politics…And Why You’re Wrong. New York: Basic, 2000. Karlberg, M., Hackett, R. 5 Paragraph Essay About Leadership! Canceling Each Other Out?: Interest Group Perceptions of the about my motherland, News Media.

Canadian Journal of Communications, 21, 1996. http://www.cjconline.ca/viewarticle.php?=id=383 Klapper, J.T. What We Know About the Effects of Mass Communication: The Brink of Hope. The Public Opinion Quarterly, 21, (1957-58): 453-474. Matheson, K., Dursun, S. Social Identity Precursors to the Hostile Media Phenomenon: Partisan Perceptions of Coverage of the Bosnian Conflict. About Leadership! Group, Processes and Intergroup Relations 4, (2001): 116-125.

Medelsohn, M., Nadeau, R. Thesis Binding! The Magnification and Minimization of Social Cleavages by Broadcast and Narrowcast News Media. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 8, (1996): 374-390. Niven, D. A Fair Test of Media Bias: Party, Race and Gender in Coverage of the 1992 House Banking Scandal. 5 Paragraph Leadership! Polity, 36 (2004): 637-649. Pew Research Center for essay writing, the People and 5 paragraph about, the Press. Online News Audience Larger, More Diverse, June 8, 2004 http://people-press.org/reports/display.php3?ReportID=215 Red News, Blue News. Columbia Journalism Review.

6, November/December, 2004. Parenti, M. The Myth of the homeschool essay, Liberal Media. Humanist, 55, (1995, January/February): 7-9. Perloff, R.M. Ego-Involvement and 5 paragraph essay leadership, the Third Person Effect of assignment of responsibility Televised News Coverage. Essay Leadership! Communication Research, 16, (1989): 236-262. Sloan, W.D., Startt, J.D. The Media in America: A History.

Northport AL: Vision Press, (1999). Schmitt, K.M., Gunther, A.C., Liebhart, J.L. Homeschool Essay! Why Partisans See Mass Media as Biased. Communication Research, 31, (2004): 623-641. Hickey, N. Is Fox News Fair?

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Against Corruption: a collection of 5 paragraph essay leadership essays. Essay? Published 12 May 2016. © Crown copyright 2016. This publication is 5 paragraph essay, licensed under the terms of the Open Government Licence v3.0 except where otherwise stated. Homeschool Essay Writing? To view this licence, visit nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3 or write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU, or email: psi@nationalarchives.gsi.gov.uk. Where we have identified any third party copyright information you will need to obtain permission from the 5 paragraph leadership copyright holders concerned. This publication is available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays. 1. Foreword by sarah lawrence writing tuition, David Cameron, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Corruption is the cancer at the heart of so many of essay about our problems in the world today.

It destroys jobs and holds back growth, costing the what of related literature world economy billions of pounds every year. It traps the poorest in the most desperate poverty as corrupt governments around the world syphon off funds and prevent hard-working people from getting the revenues and benefits of growth that are rightfully theirs. It steals vital resources from our schools and hospitals as corrupt individuals and 5 paragraph about leadership companies evade the taxes they owe. Homeschool Essay Writing? It can even undermine our security, as Sarah Chayes argues in her essay, if the 5 paragraph about leadership perceived corruption of local governments makes people more susceptible to the poisonous ideology of extremists. The longer I have been Prime Minister, and the more I have seen in homeschool, this job, the more I believe that we cannot hope to solve the big global challenges of our time without making a major dent in the whole cycle of corruption. If we continue to hide from this problem, how will developing countries blessed with natural resources ever break out of the poverty trap?

How will we stop people from risking their lives to cross the Mediterranean unless we enable them to about leadership build a better life back at homeschool essay, home? In the end, we have to deal with corruption if we are to have any hope of a truly prosperous and secure future. Furthermore, people actually want us to deal with this problem, every bit as much as they want us to essay about leadership tackle issues like poverty and migration. They want the law to be upheld and they want the lawrence writing corrupt to be punished, with justice and recompense for those who have suffered. Yet while corruption is such a huge problem, the about leadership national and of responsibility global efforts to 5 paragraph essay about deal with it are often weak. No country has a perfect record on these issues – and Was the atomic bombings ethical? so there is essay leadership, a hesitation in raising them. For too long there has been something of an international taboo over stirring up concerns. For too long it has just been too easy for those in authority to ignore or pretend not to know what is going on. As David Walsh puts it in his essay: this “longing to indulge the irresponsibility of not knowing” has been the what of related literature rock upon which corruption is built. I profoundly believe that this has to change – and it has to change in every country.

Make no mistake, corruption affects us all, Britain included. From tax evasion and overseas territories who have been accused of 5 paragraph essay about leadership hiding the proceeds of corruption, to an MPs’ expenses scandal that tore at the fabric of the world’s oldest democracy, we have our own problems and we are very much still dealing with them. That is why I have made tackling corruption such a political priority. From the 2010 Bribery Act to becoming the first major country in the world to establish a public central registry of who really owns and about my motherland controls companies, I am determined that we should do everything we can to demonstrate leadership on these issues and put our own house in order. Through our chairmanship of the G8 and about leadership the Summit at Lough Erne, I put tax, trade and transparency on the global agenda and sought agreement on a global standard for the automatic exchange of information over essay about my motherland, who pays taxes where. While many said it would never happen, today 129 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the international standard for exchange of tax information on request and more than 95 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the new global common reporting standard on tax transparency by 2018. 5 Paragraph Essay About Leadership? Through our chairmanship of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima United Nations High Level Panel, Britain secured the inclusion of tackling corruption at the heart of the essay about new Sustainable Development Goals to eradicate absolute poverty from our world. On my watch, the UK has signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative – and we’re leading a global drive to get other countries on board and clean up a sector which has for too long been vulnerable to corruption. We are going further still.

I am determined that the Was the bombings UK must not become a safe haven for corrupt money from around the world. We know that some high-value properties – particularly in London – are being bought by people overseas through anonymous shell companies, some of them with plundered or laundered cash. So we are consulting on ways to make property ownership by essay leadership, foreign companies much more transparent – and considering whether to insist that any non-UK company wishing to bid on a contract with the UK government should publically state who really owns it. Yet all of these measures address only parts of the problem. As the Panama Papers show, corruption is of Hiroshima and Nagasaki ethical?, a truly global challenge. Criminal networks operate across borders. 5 Paragraph? And wealth that is plundered from the thesis binding oxford poorest countries can end up hidden away in the richest countries.

So nations need to tackle this issue in partnership, developing a truly comprehensive, sustained and coherent international agenda to defeat the causes of 5 paragraph essay about corruption. That is why we are holding the Anti-Corruption Summit in London and why I have compiled this book. The essays in this book are not about trying to claim the moral high ground, nor about telling others what to do. Neither do they claim to be a comprehensive guide to tackling corruption. But they are an mfa creative writing, attempt to bring together some of the 5 paragraph essay about most pioneering thinkers on this issue to essay about my motherland begin a frank and informed global debate over how to about tackle what I believe is one of the most pernicious enemies of thesis oxford progress in our time. 5 Paragraph Essay About? While the essays cover a wide range of perspectives and experiences, there are a number of essay writing consistent themes. 5 Paragraph Essay? For a start, we can be clear about the essay about scale and about leadership extent of the problem. Jose Ugaz tells us that every year one in four people around the world pay a bribe to access public services. While in Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of its income on bribes for basic services to which they are already entitled – including water, medicine and education.

Christine Lagarde sets out the indirect economic costs of corruption, including the essay way corruption can act like a tax on investment and stifle the creation of new business. She also highlights its impact on the poorest and its damaging effect on the moral fabric of our society. Many of the essays bring home the essay about leadership sheer extent of corruption, reaching every country and binding oxford affecting so many areas of life – from the desperate stories of the vulnerable paying bribes to get treatment for a sick child, to 5 paragraph essay about the world of sport which was for so long indulged with a special status that left some of what is review of related its participants behaving as if they were exempt from the 5 paragraph essay leadership rules that everyone else was expected to follow. Some of the essay my motherland essays are very clear about the definitions of corruption. Francis Fukuyama, in particular, analyses the 5 paragraph about leadership origins of corruption, providing a strong historical and writing intellectual underpinning to the challenges we face. 5 Paragraph Essay About Leadership? Running through the essays is the sense that not only do you need the right rules and enforcement but you need to assignment change the underlying culture too. There is a clear message here. We cannot have one or the other; we need both. New Zealand Prime Minister John Key offers us his perspective when he uses a cricketing analogy to describe the national character of his country and essay about its intolerance of “underarm deliveries”. He argues that you have to thesis promote a culture which makes it close to impossible for the corrupt to prosper or escape detection. There is also a striking frankness and directness in the politicians who are writing about the 5 paragraph essay leadership history of corruption in their own countries.

President Ghani describes Afghanistan as, by any measure, “one of the most corrupt countries on earth”. In his essay on tackling corruption in essay about, Estonia, Mart Laar says that corruption was so ingrained that it had become a way of life. He writes: “we didn’t even understand that it wasn’t normal.” President Buhari uses that same concept to describe corruption in Nigeria as a “way of life” under “supposedly accountable democratic governments” and points to evidence suggesting that between $300 billion and. $400 billion of public funds have been lost to corruption since Nigeria’s independence in 1960. But that frankness about the problem will only deliver real change if there is true political leadership. Essay Leadership? Without that leadership, many of the rules, institutions and atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki ethical? mechanisms to address corruption will never actually bite. For years Nigeria had the laws and the anti-corruption agencies, but as President Buhari explains, there was “a complete lack of leadership political will to strengthen these agencies and to faithfully enforce the laws.” These laws were ignored with impunity and procurements were made with a complete disregard for due process. He cites one example of a provision to allow courts to treat unexplained wealth as evidence of is review corruption. There is a similar provision in Singapore, the use of which is explored in the essay by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. But the difference is that in Nigeria’s case, neither the Code of 5 paragraph essay about leadership Conduct Bureau nor the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission has ever invoked such provisions in their decades of existence. Above all, when I read through the essays I feel both depressed and uplifted.

Depressed because the of responsibility scale of leadership this problem is truly frightening and the human costs are so desperate. Homeschool Essay? It is essay about, hard not to pause on Jim Yong Kim’s essay when he describes the what is review literature situation in Sierra Leone where corruption stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children because nurses demanded rice in exchange for ‘free’ shots. But I am also uplifted because there is a consistent theme that we can crack this and there are so many encouraging stories of measures that have already had an impact. Angel Gurria tells us that between 1999 – the year the OECD convention tackling transnational bribery came into force – and 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for foreign bribery in 17 countries, with at about leadership, least $5.4 billion imposed in combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars. Jose Ugaz describes some of the ways that new technologies have already been employed to bring about real change. In Guatemala, a public campaign over is review of related, a customs fraud scandal forced the resignation of the president and vice- president. In Brazil, 40 civil society organisations mobilised two million Brazilians to 5 paragraph essay leadership use online actions and events to successfully campaign for a new law that prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption from assignment, standing for public office for at least eight years. When El Salvador gave citizens the right to 5 paragraph about ask for information about public officials’ assets, 6,000 citizen requests helped to uncover cases where the wealth of public officials had grown by about my motherland, 300% during their time in office. About Leadership? In Venezuela, a new smart phone app is allowing ordinary citizens to report on instances of bribery and any irregularities during elections, with more than 400 complaints registered for thesis binding, follow-up in 5 paragraph about, the most recent parliamentary elections. Christine Lagarde also cites an thesis binding oxford, example from 5 paragraph, Indonesia where the then Minister of Finance partnered with business to create ‘new rules of the game’. Assignment Of Responsibility? These meant that the government delivered a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for a commitment from business not to 5 paragraph essay about leadership offer any bribes to officials.

Jim Yong Kim describes how publishing school funding allocations in homeschool writing, local newspapers in 5 paragraph essay leadership, Uganda transformed the proportion of funds that made it through to the schools, with one study concluding that the amount of funds diverted away by local officials correlated to the distance of a school from a town where there was a newspaper outlet. All of lawrence writing these examples and more mean that the biggest message of 5 paragraph about this book is one of essay writing optimism. This battle can be won. Furthermore, there are clear lessons coming through that can help us to win it by shaping an international agenda to essay about defeat and deter corruption. First, corruption should be exposed so there is nowhere to hide. We need to of responsibility end the essay about leadership use of secret shell companies, so that the corrupt no longer have an easy and anonymous way to hide their loot and move it across borders.

We need to essay about drive out the rogue lawyers, estate agents and accountants who facilitate or tolerate corruption in essay about leadership, commerce and finance. We need to expose the theft or misuse of taxpayers’ money by thesis oxford, opening up budgets and 5 paragraph procurement so that people can see exactly how their money is used and they can demand that people are held to account when it is stolen. And we need a sustained effort in of Hiroshima ethical?, those areas which Paul Collier describes as the “pockets of high corruption”, including corruption-prone sectors such as the extractive and construction industries. At the heart of all of this is international co-operation on transparency. In the UK we have adopted legislation to give the public unrestricted access to beneficial ownership information on UK companies through a public central registry so that people can see who really owns and controls companies. But as Paul Radu argues, tracking international flows of finance requires international co-operation. Well-structured, transparent and 5 paragraph about leadership accessible databases could allow automated searches of ever-larger, global datasets that could feed real-time alerts to journalists in homeschool, every country.

His vision offers a network of 5 paragraph essay investigative journalists that could help make transparency the natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and corrupt officials all over the world. Given the sheer quantity of data to thesis get through, networks of civil society, activists and journalists – working with law enforcement – will be critical to holding people to account. Second, we need to deal properly and essay leadership comprehensively with the corruption we expose. That means bringing the assignment of responsibility perpetrators to justice, actively enforcing anti-corruption laws and working together across international borders to hunt down the corrupt, prosecute them and send them to jail. One cutting-edge idea to explore here comes from Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. In Singapore, instead of prosecutors having to prove the guilt of the 5 paragraph essay corrupt, they reverse the lawrence writing burden of proof so the accused have to show that they acquired their wealth legally. The Prevention of Corruption Act also provides for extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of Singaporeans overseas are treated in the same way as actions committed in Singapore, regardless of whether the corrupt acts had consequences in essay leadership, Singapore itself. It will be a while yet before everyone is as bold and as far- reaching as Singapore.

But what I believe we can all agree is essay, that we should send a clear message to the corrupt that there will be no impunity and that we will restrict their ability to travel and do business as usual in our countries. That’s why we in 5 paragraph essay about, the UK are looking closely at the potential of Unexplained Wealth Orders, and of responsibility why I urge other countries to do the same. Dealing with the corruption we expose also means taking responsibility to leadership support those who have suffered from oxford, corruption. 5 Paragraph Essay About Leadership? I believe that should include doing everything we can to track down looted money and create a trusted system to return it to binding its rightful owners. The looting of public wealth has been on such a scale in some countries, that returning it safely would make an enormous difference to their development prospects. It would also begin to address the sense of injustice that many in this book have so powerfully described. Third, we need more than just clear rules that are properly enforced. As so many of the 5 paragraph about leadership contributors have argued, we also need to make it much harder for corruption to thrive by driving out the underlying cultures that have allowed this cancer to fester for so long. This means tackling head on what John Githongo describes as the ‘pirate sector’ by creating a culture where the corrupt are (in Lesotho vernacular) “bobolu” and essay my motherland made to feel a social stigma that shames them for what they do. It means challenging corrupt behaviours globally by embracing the vast possibilities that Paul Collier highlights around the twinning of different countries’ institutions and professions. From tax collection agencies, treasuries and civil services to professions such as accountancy and law, twinning can begin to 5 paragraph about leadership build a newly shared culture of probity and homeschool writing honesty.

Changing the culture of 5 paragraph about leadership corruption also means embracing the power of new technologies to deliver greater accountability for public money and public services. Mfa Creative Writing? In India, for example, welfare smartcards are helping to prevent corrupt officials taking a cut of payments to the poor. Technologies like this can provide the information to essay about leadership enable government agencies, businesses, campaigning NGOs and individual citizens to come together in a comprehensive movement against homeschool essay, corruption. But all of about leadership this will only really work if political leaders have the courage to stand together, to speak up where previously there was silence, and to demand the strengthening and co- ordinating of international institutions that are needed to put fighting corruption at the top of the international agenda where it belongs. We cannot and must not fail this test of political leadership.

As David Walsh writes: “No longer in the dark, we now have the opportunity for change. It would be a crime not to seize it.” I intend to seize it, with the support of all the authors in thesis, this book and together with the widest possible coalition of leaders from politics, business and civil society. Together we are against corruption. About Leadership? And together we can defeat it. 2. Francis Fukuyama: What is Corruption? Corruption has in many ways become the atomic bombings and Nagasaki defining issue of the 21st century, just as the essay about leadership 20th century was characterised by about my motherland, large ideological struggles between democracy, fascism and communism. Today a majority of the world’s nations accept the legitimacy of democracy and at least pretend to 5 paragraph essay about hold competitive elections. What really distinguishes political systems from is review, one another is the degree to which the elites ruling them seek to use their power in the service of a broad public interest or simply to enrich themselves, their friends and their families. Essay Leadership? Countries from Russia and Venezuela to Afghanistan and Nigeria all hold elections that produce leaders with some degree of democratic legitimacy. What distinguishes them from Norway, Japan or Britain is not so much democracy as the quality of government which, in turn, is greatly affected by levels of corruption. Corruption hurts life outcomes in a variety of ways.

Economically, it diverts resources away from their most productive uses and acts like a regressive tax that supports the lifestyles of elites at the expense of everyone else. Corruption incentivises the best and the brightest to of related literature spend their time gaming the system, rather than innovating or creating new wealth. Politically, corruption undermines the legitimacy of political systems by giving elites alternative ways of holding onto power other than genuine democratic choice. It hurts the prospects of democracy when people perceive authoritarian governments to be performing better than corrupt democratic ones and undermines the reality of 5 paragraph democratic choice. However, the phenomenon labelled ‘corruption’ comprises a wide range of behaviours whose economic and political effects vary greatly. It is remarkable that, for atomic bombings of Hiroshima, all of the academic effort put into the study of corruption, there is still no broadly accepted vocabulary for distinguishing between its different forms. Before we can tackle corruption, we need some conceptual clarity as to what it is and 5 paragraph about leadership how it relates to the broader problem of assignment good government. About? 2.1 Corruption as a modern phenomenon. Corruption can exist in many contexts, from bribery in a sports organisation to a secretary stealing from the office pool. I am here going to focus on political corruption, which concerns the abuse of public office for private gain (see Johnston 2005, p. 11). The first point to note is that corruption is assignment of responsibility, a modern phenomenon.

The very terms ‘public’ and about ‘private’ did not always exist. In the European medieval era, virtually all regimes were what Max Weber labelled ‘patrimonial’ – that is, political authority was regarded as a species of private property which could be handed down to descendants as part of their patrimony. In dynastic times, a king could give away an entire province with all of its inhabitants to bombings and Nagasaki his son or daughter as a wedding present, since he regarded his domain as a private possession. Under these circumstances, it made no sense to talk about public corruption 1 . The concept that rulers did not simply own their domains but were custodians of a broader public interest was one that emerged gradually in the 16th and 17th centuries. Theorists such as Hugo Grotius, Jean Bodin, Thomas Hobbes and Samuel von Pufendorf began to argue that a ruler could be legitimately sovereign not by right of 5 paragraph essay leadership ownership, but out of a kind of social contract by which he protected public interest – above all, the common interest in peace and security. The very notion that there was a potential conflict between public and private interest emerged with the rise of modern European states. In this respect, China beat Europe to the punch by nearly 1,800 years, having been one of the earliest civilisations to develop a concept of an homeschool, impersonal state that was the about guardian of of related a collective public interest. 5 Paragraph Leadership? Today no rulers dare assert publicly that they ‘own’ the territories over which they exercise authority; even traditional monarchs such as those in the Arab world claim to binding be serving a broader public interest. Hence we have the 5 paragraph essay leadership phenomenon that political scientists label ‘neo-patrimonialism’ – in which political leaders pretend to be modern servants of the common good in political systems with modern trappings like parliaments, ministers and bureaucracies. But the homeschool writing reality is that elites enter politics to essay extract rents or resources and enrich themselves and their families at essay, the expense of everyone else.

A modern state which seeks to promote public welfare and about leadership treats its citizens impersonally is not just a recent phenomenon, but also one that is difficult to achieve and inherently fragile. The reason for this has to Was the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki ethical? do with human nature. Human beings are social creatures, but their sociability takes the very specific forms of favouritism towards family and friends. 5 Paragraph? The demand that we treat people on an impersonal basis, or hire a stranger who is qualified rather than a relative or a friend, is not something that comes naturally to human beings. Modern political systems set up incentives and try to socialise people into different forms of behaviour. But because favouritism towards friends and family is a natural instinct, there is a constant danger of relapse – something I have elsewhere labelled ‘repatrimonialisation’ (Fukuyama 2011). People who live in rich developed countries often look down on countries pervaded by systemic corruption as if they are somehow deviant cases. But the truth of the matter is that, up until a few centuries ago, there were virtually no modern uncorrupt states. Making the transition from a patrimonial or neo-patrimonial state to a modern impersonal one is a difficult and historically fraught process, much more difficult in most respects than making the transition from an authoritarian political system to thesis oxford a democratic one. But if most countries throughout most of human history were patrimonial or neo-patrimonial, there were still large differences between them with regard to the quality of government.

So we need to make some finer distinctions between types and levels of corruption. There are two separate phenomena related to corruption that are not identical to it. The first is the creation and extraction of rents, and essay about the second is patronage or clientelism. Was The Atomic Bombings? In economics, a rent is technically defined as the 5 paragraph essay difference between the cost of keeping a good or service in binding oxford, production and its price. One of the most important sources of 5 paragraph essay leadership rents is scarcity: natural resource rents exist because the homeschool selling price of oil far exceeds the cost of pumping it out of the ground. Rents can also be artificially generated by governments. 5 Paragraph? Many of the most common forms of corruption revolve around a government’s ability to create artificial scarcities through licensing or regulation. Placing tariffs on homeschool essay, imports restricts imports and generates rents for the government; one of the most widespread forms of corruption around the world lies in customs agencies, where the customs agent will take a bribe to reduce the duties charged or expedites the clearance process so that the importer will have their goods on time. The ease with which governments can create rents through their taxation or regulatory powers has led many economists to denounce rents in 5 paragraph leadership, general as distortions of efficient resource allocation by markets and to see rent creation and distribution as virtually synonymous with corruption. The ability of governments to generate rents means that many ambitious people will choose politics rather than entrepreneurship or the private sector as a route to wealth. But while rents can be and are abused in the fashion described, they also have perfectly legitimate uses, which complicate any blanket denunciation.

The most obvious type of is review of related literature a ‘good’ rent is essay, a patent or copyright – by which the government gives the creator of an idea or creative work the exclusive right to any resulting revenues for some defined period of time. Essay? Economists Mushtaq Khan and Jomo Kwame Sundaram (2000) point out 5 paragraph essay leadership, that many Asian governments have promoted industrialisation by allowing favoured firms to generate excess profits, provided they were ploughed back into new investment. While this opened the door to considerable corruption and abuse, it also worked as a means of stimulating rapid growth at essay my motherland, a rate possibly higher than market forces on their own would have produced. All government regulatory functions create artificial scarcities and therefore rents. But while we can argue about the 5 paragraph leadership appropriate extent of regulation, few people would like to assignment of responsibility see these functions simply abandoned. The creation and distribution of rents by 5 paragraph about, governments have a high degree of overlap with corruption, but are not simply the same phenomenon. The second phenomenon that is often identified with corruption is that of of responsibility patronage or clientelism.

A patronage relationship is a reciprocal exchange of about leadership favours between two individuals of different status and power, usually involving favours given by the patron to the client in lawrence writing tuition, exchange for the client’s loyalty and political support. Essay About Leadership? The favour given to the client must be a good that can be individually appropriated, such as a job in the post office, a Christmas turkey or a get-out-of-jail card for a relative, rather than a public good or policy that applies to a broad class of people (Eisenstadt and sarah writing tuition Roniger 1984). Patronage is sometimes distinguished from clientelism by scale; patronage relationships are typically face-to-face ones between patrons and clients and exist in essay leadership, all regimes whether authoritarian or democratic, while clientelism involves larger-scale exchanges of favours between patrons and clients, often requiring a hierarchy of intermediaries (see Scott 1972). Clientelism thus exists primarily in homeschool writing, democratic countries where large numbers of essay about voters need to be mobilised (Piattoni 2001, pp. 4–7). Clientelism is considered a bad thing and sarah lawrence writing tuition a deviation from good democratic practice in several respects. In a modern democracy, citizens are supposed to vote based on the politician’s promises of broad public policies or a ‘programmatic’ agenda. Such choices are supposed to reflect general views of essay what is good for the political community as a whole and not just what is good for one individual voter.

Of course, voters in what of related literature, advanced democracies cast their ballots according to their self-interest; programmes targeted at essay about leadership, one group of citizens are nonetheless justified in essay about, terms of broad concepts of leadership justice or the general good. Atomic Of Hiroshima And Nagasaki Ethical?? Moreover, targeted programmes must apply impartially not to individuals but to broad classes of people. Targeted benefits to individuals are bad from the standpoint of social justice. Essay About? In clientelistic systems, redistributive programmes that are supposed to help all poor people, for example, end up benefiting only those poor people who support a particular politician. This weakens support for effective universal policies and preserves existing social inequalities. Sarah Lawrence Tuition? Nevertheless, there is reason to think that clientelism is actually an early form of democratic participation. In the United States and other countries, it was a way of leadership mobilising poor voters and therefore encouraging them to participate in Was the atomic bombings of Hiroshima, a democratic political system. It was suboptimal when compared to about programmatic voting, yet provided a degree of accountability insofar as the essay about my motherland politician still felt obligated to provide some benefits in return for political support. In that respect, clientelism is quite different from a more destructive form of corruption in which a politician simply steals from the public treasury for about leadership, the benefit of his or her family, without any obligation to provide a public service in return. The problem with clientelism is that it usually does not remain confined to my motherland a mechanism for essay about, getting out the vote, but morphs into misappropriation. A final conceptual distinction that needs to be made is between corruption and low state capacity. ‘Anti-corruption and good governance’ has become an often-repeated slogan in the development community and some people treat good governance and the absence of essay corruption as equivalents.

Yet they are very different: a squeaky-clean bureaucracy can still be incompetent or ineffective in doing its job, while corrupt ones can provide good services 2 . Beyond low levels of corruption, good governance requires state capacity – that is, the human, material and leadership organisational resources necessary for governments to carry out bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, their mandates effectively and efficiently. It is linked to the skills and knowledge of public officials and whether they are given sufficient autonomy and authority to carry out their tasks. Corruption, of course, tends to undermine state capacity (for example, by replacing qualified officials with political patronage appointees); conversely, highly professional bureaucracies tend to be less subject to bribery and theft. Low levels of corruption and high state capacity therefore tend to be correlated around the world. But getting to good governance is about leadership, a much larger task than simply fighting corruption. The distinction between corruption and low state capacity allows us to better understand differences between the effects of corruption in countries around the world. In the World Bank Institute’s Worldwide Governance Indicators for 2014, China ranks in the 47th percentile with respect to control of corruption, behind Ghana and just ahead of Romania (World Bank 2014). On the other hand, China has a great deal of of responsibility state capacity. In the government effectiveness category, it is in the 66th percentile, while Romania is in the 55th and Ghana is in the 44th (World Bank 2014). This validates the common perception that the Chinese Government has a great deal of capacity to achieve the 5 paragraph essay leadership ends it sets, despite strong perceptions of pervasive corruption. The predictability and scale of corruption are also important; if a business owner expects to pay 10% of the transaction value in bribes, they can regard that as a kind of tax, which is binding, less damaging to investment than a bribery level of about leadership 75% or one that varies arbitrarily from year to year.

The first generation of anti-corruption measures taken in the mid-1990s by development finance institutions involved ambitious efforts to overhaul civil service systems along Weberian lines: incentivising officials by increasing wage dispersion and about my motherland setting formal recruitment and promotion criteria. Essay About Leadership? These measures had very little effect; the problem lay in sarah lawrence mfa creative, the fact that corrupt governments were expected to police themselves and to implement bureaucratic systems developed over long periods in rich countries with very different histories. More recent efforts have focused on fighting corruption through transparency and accountability measures – that is, increasing the monitoring of agent behaviour and creating positive and negative incentives for better compliance with the institution’s goals. This has taken a variety of forms: cameras placed in classrooms to ensure that teachers show up for work; participatory budgeting where citizens are given a direct voice in budgeting decisions; and websites where citizens can report government officials taking bribes. Since governments cannot be trusted to police themselves, civil society has often been enlisted in a watchdog role and mobilised to demand accountability. Mechanisms like anti-corruption commissions and special prosecutors have, if given enough autonomy, also shown some success in countries such as Indonesia and 5 paragraph about leadership Romania. These later efforts, however, have also had uneven success (see, for example, Kolstad and Wiig 2009; Mauro 2002). Is Review? In particular, transparency initiatives by themselves do not guarantee changes in government behaviour.

For example, in countries where clientelism is organised along ethnic lines, co-ethnics are frequently tolerant of 5 paragraph essay leadership leaders who steal. Elsewhere, citizens may be outraged by news of corruption, but then have no clear way of thesis binding holding individual politicians or bureaucrats accountable. In other cases, successes in punishing individual politicians are not sufficient to shift the normative framework in which virtually everyone in the political class expects to profit from about, office. Finally, anti-corruption campaigns may disrupt informal understandings and what is review literature personal relationships that underpin investment and trade: without formal property rights and essay leadership contract enforcement under a system of assignment independent courts, the paradoxical short-term effect of prosecuting corrupt officials may be to 5 paragraph leadership deter new investment and thereby lower growth. There is a single truth underlying the indifferent success of existing transparency and accountability measures to control corruption. The sources of corruption are deeply political. Without a political strategy for overcoming this problem, any given solution will fail. Corruption in writing, its various forms – patronage, clientelism, rent-seeking and outright theft – all benefit existing stakeholders in the political system, who are generally very powerful players. Lecturing them about good government or setting up formal systems designed to work in modern political systems will not affect their incentives and therefore will have little transformative effect. That is why transparency initiatives on their own often fail.

Citizens may be outraged by news about corruption, but nothing will happen without collective-action mechanisms to bring about change. The mere existence of a democratic political system is no guarantee that citizens’ anger will be translated into action; they need leadership and a strategy for leadership, displacing entrenched stakeholders from power. Outside pressure in the form of loan conditionality, technical assistance or moral pressure is almost never sufficient to do the job. Anti- corruption commissions and special prosecutors who have had success in jailing corrupt officials have done so only because they receive strong grassroots political backing from of responsibility, citizens. The political nature of essay corruption and the necessarily political nature of the reform process can be illustrated by the experience of the Was the atomic of Hiroshima and Nagasaki United States in about leadership, the 19th century (as I describe in Fukuyama 2014, chapters 9–11). American politics in that period was not too different from politics in lawrence mfa creative writing, contemporary developing democratic countries such as India, Brazil or Indonesia. Beginning in the 1820s, American states began extending the 5 paragraph about franchise to include all white males, vastly expanding the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki voter base and presenting politicians with the challenge of essay about mobilising relatively poor and poorly educated voters. The solution, which appeared particularly after the 1828 presidential election that brought Andrew Jackson to power, was the creation of is review literature a vast clientelistic system.

Elected politicians appointed their supporters to positions in the bureaucracy or rewarded them with individual payoffs like Christmas turkeys or bottles of bourbon. 5 Paragraph About Leadership? This system, known as the spoils or patronage system, characterised American government for the next century, from the highest federal offices down to thesis binding oxford local postmasters in every American town or city. As with other clientelistic systems, patronage led to astonishing levels of 5 paragraph about leadership corruption, particularly in essay, cities such as New York, Boston and Chicago where machine politicians ruled for generations. 5 Paragraph About? This system began to change only in the 1880s as a consequence of binding economic development. New technologies like the railroads were transforming the country from a primarily agrarian society into leadership, an urban industrial one. There were increasing demands from business leaders and from a newly emerging civil society for a different, more modern form of government that would prioritise merit and homeschool writing knowledge over political connections. Following the assassination of the newly elected President James A. Garfield in 1881 by a would-be office seeker, Congress was embarrassed into 5 paragraph essay, passing the Pendleton Act. About? It established a US Civil Service Commission for the first time and the principle that public officials should be chosen on about leadership, the basis of merit.

Even so, expanding the number of binding classified (i.e. merit- based) officials met strong resistance and did not become widespread until after the First World War. Individual municipal political machines such as Tammany Hall in New York were not dismantled completely until the 5 paragraph essay leadership middle of the 20th century. The American experience highlights a number of features of lawrence tuition both corruption and the reform of corrupt systems. First, the incentives that led to the creation of the 5 paragraph leadership clientelistic system were deeply political. Politicians got into office via their ability to distribute patronage; they had no incentive to vote in homeschool essay, favour of something like the Pendleton Act that would take away those privileges. The only reason it passed was a tragic exogenous event – the Garfield assassination – which mobilised public opinion in favour of a more modern governmental system. Second, reform of the system was similarly political. The Progressive Era saw the emergence of a vast reform coalition made up of about business leaders, urban reformers, farmers and ordinary citizens who were fed up with the existing patronage system. Assignment Of Responsibility? It required strong leadership from politicians like Theodore Roosevelt who was himself head of the US Civil Service Commission.

It also required a clear reform agenda pointing towards modern government, formulated by intellectuals such as Frank Goodnow, Dorman Eaton and Woodrow Wilson. Finally, reform was helped along by economic development. Industrialisation in the US produced new social groups such as business leaders who needed efficient government services, a broad and better-educated middle class who could mobilise for reform, and a grassroots organisation of civil society groups. The American experience is suggestive of essay how progress in the fight against essay about my motherland, corruption may be waged in contemporary societies suffering from it. Reform is always a political matter that will require formation of a broad coalition of groups opposed to an existing system of 5 paragraph about corrupt politicians. Grassroots activism in favour of reform may emerge spontaneously, but such sentiments will not be translated into real change until it receives good leadership and organisation. Reform also has a socio-economic basis: economic growth often produces new classes and groups that want a different, more modern politics. America points to another feature of anti-corruption efforts. Literature? Control of essay about corruption was very much bound up with efforts to essay writing increase state capacity. The period that saw the emergence of an industrial economy was also characterised by huge increases in levels of education – particularly higher education, which produced an entirely new class of essay professionals who worked for both private businesses and the government.

One of the first government agencies to be modernised in the late 19th century was the US Department of Agriculture, which benefited from a generation of professional agronomists trained in assignment of responsibility, the numerous land-grant universities that sprang up around the United States. The latter, in about leadership, turn, were the assignment product of the far-sighted Morrill Act of 1862 that sought to increase agricultural productivity (among other things) through higher education. It would not have been possible to reform the old patronage-based bureaucracy without access to the human capital represented by about leadership, this entire generation of essay about university- educated officials. Every important reform effort undertaken to create modern state bureaucracies – in Germany, Britain, France, Japan and 5 paragraph essay leadership elsewhere – was accompanied by parallel efforts to modernise the higher education system in about, ways that would benefit public administration. Today development finance institutions focus on helping to provide universal primary and secondary education to poor countries and have largely given up on supporting elite education.

The reasons for this are understandable, but do not correspond to the historical experience of state modernisation in countries that became rich in earlier eras. These general observations about historical efforts to build modern uncorrupt administrations suggest that the process will be an extended one, characterised by prolonged political struggle. 5 Paragraph Essay Leadership? Fortunately, having a modern bureaucracy is essay my motherland, not a sine qua non of essay about leadership economic development. Lawrence Mfa Creative Writing Tuition? No existing rich country had a squeaky-clean government in its early stages of economic growth – neither Britain, nor the United States in 5 paragraph, the 19th century, nor China today. Corruption and weak governance are obstacles to economic growth, but economic growth can happen also in poorly governed societies and essay about my motherland will produce, over time, social conditions and essay leadership resources that will make government reform more feasible. This is perhaps a pessimistic conclusion, given the fact that rentier states and kleptocratic governments are the source of homeschool international conflict and 5 paragraph about instability in today’s world. But it is also a realistic assessment derived from the historical record. Atomic Bombings And Nagasaki Ethical?? Eisenstadt, S. N. and Roniger, L. 1984. Patrons, Clients and Friends: Interpersonal Relations and 5 paragraph leadership the Structure of Trust in Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Fukuyama, F. 2011. The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Fukuyama, F. 2014. Political Order and Political Decay: From the essay writing Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of Democracy. New York: Farrar, Straus and 5 paragraph about leadership Giroux.

Johnston, M. 2005. About? Syndromes of Corruption. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Khan, M. H. and Jomo, K. S. 2000. Rents, Rent-Seeking and Economic Development: Theory and Evidence in Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kolstad, I. and Wiig, A. 2009. Is Transparency the leadership Key to Reducing Corruption in Resource-Rich Countries? World Development, 37(3), pp. 521–32.

Mauro, P. 2002. The Persistence of sarah mfa creative writing Corruption and Slow Economic Growth. Washington DC: International Monetary Fund. Working Paper No. 02/213. 5 Paragraph Essay About Leadership? Piattoni, S. 2001.

Clientelism, Interests and Democratic Representation: The European Experience in Historical and essay Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Scott, J. 1972. Comparative Political Corruption. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. World Bank. 2014. Worldwide Governance Indicators.

Available online. Francis Fukuyama is a Senior Fellow at Stanford University and Director of its Center on Democracy, Development and the Rule of 5 paragraph about leadership Law. His book, The End of essay my motherland History and the Last Man (Free Press 1992), has appeared in more than 20 foreign editions. More recently, he is the 5 paragraph essay about author of Political Order and Political Decay: From the essay Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of essay about Democracy (Profile Books 2014). 3. Paul Collier: How to change cultures of of responsibility corruption. Corruption does not happen everywhere, it is concentrated in 5 paragraph about, pockets: in particular industries, in particular societies and in particular times.

Among industries, natural resource extraction and construction have long been seen as exceptionally prone to corruption. Tuition? This is partly because projects in these sectors are idiosyncratic and difficult to 5 paragraph essay leadership scrutinise. Some European countries such as Italy and writing Greece perform markedly worse than some African and essay about leadership Asian countries, according to Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). Places where grand corruption is perceived to be flourishing are rare, but Afghanistan and Angola are examples of homeschool these extreme conditions. As to periods, Britain in the 18th century exemplified the behaviours that would now lead to a miserable ranking in corruption indices. 5 Paragraph? More pertinently, there is good reason to think that, globally, there has been an upsurge in corruption in recent decades.

Reversing this upsurge calls for concerted effort. Alongside these pockets of high corruption, other industries, other societies and other times are virtually corruption-free. Denmark is currently seen as the least corrupt place in the world and many non-Western countries such as Botswana are also viewed as relatively untainted (Transparency International 2015). In most societies, corruption is not normal: it is homeschool writing, therefore potentially avoidable everywhere. Corruption is concentrated in essay about leadership, pockets because it depends upon common expectations of behaviour. Where corruption is the norm, getting rid of it poses a co-ordination problem: if I expect those around me to continue to be corrupt, why should I change my behaviour? Because of this, pockets of corruption have proved to be highly persistent: the same industries and the same societies remain corrupt for many years.

Similarly, honesty is persistent. Thesis Binding? In the first TI survey conducted in 1995, Denmark was rated second globally. This persistence is not a matter of chance. Danes are born into an honest society and so inherit the expectation that they themselves will be trustworthy. Being trusted is a valuable asset: it makes many aspects of life much easier. About Leadership? In consequence, individual Danes have a strong incentive not to squander this valuable asset through behaving opportunistically. Assignment Of Responsibility? Because people have rationally chosen to protect their reputation for honesty, the entire society has stayed honest. But change is possible. Until well into the 19th century, the 5 paragraph British public sector was very corrupt.

Positions were bought and sold and contracts were awarded in return for homeschool writing, bribes. Crises such as military humiliation in the Crimean War helped to shock governments into change. Opportunities for 5 paragraph essay about, corruption were curtailed: recruitment and promotion were opened to competitive examinations. A new purposive ethic was promoted and serving the nation became the pinnacle of social prestige and self-worth. Atomic Ethical?? By the late 19th century, the British Civil Service had become honest and competent. This transformation was largely fortuitous rather than the result of 5 paragraph about leadership a properly thought-through strategy. Thesis Binding Oxford? But its success reveals the key components of how change can be brought about. Societies do not have to wait for essay leadership, military humiliation and a moral revival: corruption can be tackled effectively. In Britain, two key things – closing off the major opportunities for corruption and making working for the public good more prestigious and satisfying than abusing office for private gain – happened together.

These two approaches are jointly critical in breaking cultures of corruption. Just as 19th-century Britain implemented both of them without international help, there is much that societies currently beset by corruption can do for themselves. However, the globalisation of thesis oxford business and social networks has created an important role for international action. Countries such as Britain can contribute to encouraging both internal and international initiatives. There is enormous scope for international actions that close off opportunities for corruption.

Equally, there is much that can be done to make behaviours that promote the 5 paragraph essay public good more prestigious and satisfying than those that sacrifice the public interest for private gain. This is because corruption, like honesty, tends to persist. Corrupt behaviour is self-reinforcing, and breaking out of it is not easy. A co-ordinated push for international action thus makes national initiatives more likely to my motherland succeed and more worthwhile to attempt. It can help those societies that are still struggling with the 5 paragraph about problems that Britain faced in the 19th century. Is Review Literature? Britain has already done much to make global corruption more difficult. 5 Paragraph? One contribution has been to ‘follow the money’. In recent decades, international lawyers and bankers created walls of secrecy that enabled corrupt officials to hide money away in ‘shell’ companies and offshore bank accounts. The Government has led the way in dismantling this labyrinth of deceit: the true ownership of British companies must now be revealed in homeschool, a public register, and British Overseas Territories and about Crown Dependencies are also taking action to improve company transparency.

Britain has rapidly changed from being part of the sarah lawrence mfa creative problem to being a pioneer of the solution, but quite evidently following the money is subject to a weakest-link problem. Corrupt money will hide wherever it can, so it is 5 paragraph essay about leadership, vital that all the major legal and financial centres close the loopholes. There is scope to extend transparency beyond bank deposits to other major assets such as property. There is also considerable scope for those governments that adopt effective measures for following the money to require all companies that wish to do business with them to comply with these standards, providing global reach for national efforts. A second contribution has been to increase transparency in atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki ethical?, key sectors. 5 Paragraph About? In 2013, Britain and four other G7 countries signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), helping to bring daylight to a corrupt sector. In North America and Europe, what began as voluntary revenue transparency is now evolving into a legal requirement. Meanwhile the EITI is becoming the established international standard-setting entity for the sector, extending voluntarism beyond simple revenue reporting to of responsibility matters such as contracts.

There is now an equivalent voluntary initiative for the construction sector and it warrants similar co-ordinated propulsion. A third contribution has been to 5 paragraph about increase accountability: the Bribery Act 2010 greatly tightened the legal liability of companies and of Hiroshima and Nagasaki ethical? their employees for bribing their way into contracts. Clamping down on bribery is a classic instance of the free-rider problem: no government wants its own companies to essay leadership be disadvantaged. This is why the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has been encouraging a co-ordinated international approach. The alternative to such co-operation is a race to the bottom that the businesses of what is review of related literature no decently governed country can win. There is, equally, plenty of scope for contributing to the complementary approach of making public good more prestigious and satisfying than the private gains generated by abuse of office. Take, for example, tax administration, which is 5 paragraph about leadership, fundamental to effective government. In many poor countries, tax administration is an oxford, epicentre of corruption.

As a specific example, consider the administration of leadership Value-Added Tax (VAT), which is a means of tuition revenue-raising encouraged globally by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) because it is essay about leadership, less distorting than most other taxes. Essay My Motherland? But in several poor societies that followed IMF advice, such as the Democratic Republic of the Congo, VAT is actually reducing revenue rather than raising it. Even before VAT, many tax inspectors were corrupt, using their power to tax firms as a means of extorting money for themselves: ‘pay me or pay tax’ (Collier 2016). VAT has reduced revenue, because it expanded the options available to essay about corrupt tax officials. It works by essay about, firms initially paying tax on their gross sales, but then getting a rebate on the inputs they have purchased, so that they end up only paying tax on the value they have added to those inputs. Essay About? But in a country that introduces a VAT, a corrupt tax official can now sell a firm phoney tax receipts on inputs, in what of related literature, addition to the standard extortion racket. As a result, the rebate system ends up paying out 5 paragraph essay, more than the sales tax component of VAT is Was the atomic of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, paying in. Clearly at the core of this phenomenon are norms of behaviour among tax officials, such that seizing opportunities for private gain is seen as both more prestigious and essay about leadership more satisfying than contributing to oxford the public good of essay generating tax revenue and of responsibility the public services it can finance. How might Britain, and other countries in which VAT collection does not face such problems, help to change this perception? Social prestige and personal satisfaction are largely set within peer groups: most people want to be respected by those they see as their peers and they find satisfaction in 5 paragraph leadership, adhering to group norms. Hence a practical way of changing the behaviour of corrupt officials is to alter the group of people they regard as their peers.

Currently, a corrupt tax official is likely to have two key networks in which they seek prestige: their extended family and fellow tax inspectors. Their family will honour them for about, helping relatives who lack opportunities to earn a large income: he or she becomes the 5 paragraph leadership patron of the family. Their fellow tax inspectors, subject to the same family pressures, may see corruption as reasonable. They may even regard honest behaviour as a threat to their own conduct and therefore disloyal. A useful way of changing this state of affairs is to what is review twin those tax administrations in which corruption is endemic with administrations in countries that are not corrupt. Twinning could involve regular secondments of staff in both directions and the potential for accreditation to international professional associations at various ranks. The purpose would not primarily be a transfer of technical skills, although that could clearly be a component, but rather a gradual transfer of attitudes and behaviours. The new network exposes the official to the potential of a new identity as a member of a prestigious international peer group of modern tax officials, working to global, not local, standards.

It exposes the official to a new narrative circulating in the network: that tax officials are vital for the provision of core public services. And it exposes the official to a new norm of ‘good’ conduct. A ‘good’ tax inspector is 5 paragraph leadership, no longer one who raises a lot of of responsibility money for their family, but one who rigorously implements the tax code to 5 paragraph essay leadership make the rest of government feasible. Exposure to what is review literature these new attitudes creates a tension between the behaviour that would generate prestige and self-worth in the old networks and the behaviour that would generate prestige and self-worth in 5 paragraph about leadership, the new network. Creating this tension is not the end of the story, but it is an essential step. The other key step is to tackle the is review of related literature co-ordination problem: why should I change my behaviour, if nobody else is going to change theirs?

Social psychologists have shown that successful co-ordination depends upon generating ‘common knowledge’ (Thomas et al. 2014). A new fact becomes ‘common’ if it is not only widely shared, but also crucially if everybody knows that everybody else knows it. One way to 5 paragraph about create the common knowledge that yesterday’s behaviour is unlikely to persist tomorrow is to close an entire organisation and rehire those staff judged to have reasonable integrity into a new one under different management and higher standards. For example, many governments have closed corrupt tax departments within their ministries of essay about finance and replaced them with independent revenue authorities, a change that has usually been reasonably successful. An analogous way for international twinning to overcome the co-ordination problem is for all the staff in an entire unit to be exposed to the international network at 5 paragraph about leadership, the same time. Each official in the unit would then realise that their colleagues were facing the same tension between old and new networks and hence the same choice. Sarah Lawrence Mfa Creative? There are already a few examples of institutional twinning.

For example, in Britain, the Department for International Development (DFID) financially supports Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs (HMRC), the British tax authority, to work with tax authorities in some low-income countries. About? Also, until a decade ago, governors of the Bank of England used to host an annual meeting for governors of African central banks. But the scope for homeschool essay writing, twinning is vast, relative to 5 paragraph about leadership what is, as yet, happening both in governments and in the wider society. Around the world, governments have similar structures. For example, virtually all governments in low-income countries have a ministry of transport, a ministry of and Nagasaki ethical? health and a ministry of finance. About Leadership? OECD governments have been liaising with these ministries for essay about my motherland, half a century, but the entities that are linked to them are their aid agencies not their counterpart ministries.

Direct links with counterpart ministries have the potential for a very different form of 5 paragraph essay relationship based on peer-group networks, rather than on money with conditions. Often ministries in low-income countries try to keep donor agencies ‘out of their hair’, whereas they would value direct links with their peers. An important example is the regulation of utilities such as electricity. Many governments of low-income countries are now establishing regulatory agencies, which is a vital step in attracting private finance for infrastructure. But the regulation of writing tuition utilities faces intense pressures for essay, corruption: the sarah lawrence decisions of regulators affect both the profitability of companies and voter support for politicians. In the OECD, regulatory agencies have been operating for two or three decades. The OECD has also built peer group networks that have evolved peer standards of 5 paragraph essay independence, transparency and impartiality.

New regulatory agencies would benefit from becoming part of this distinctive culture. Such specialised inter-government peer groups are indeed the core activity of the OECD. But membership of the OECD is confined to the governments of high-income countries. Admirably, the organisation is now trying to broaden its engagement with the homeschool governments of poor countries, for example, by the new initiative ‘Tax Inspectors Without Borders’ (OECD 2015). This is 5 paragraph, designed to embed tax inspectors for OECD governments in the tax authorities of poor countries on secondment for several months: not to train but to work on thesis oxford, the job. An obvious extension would be to make this a two-way exchange of staff. The branding of ‘Tax Inspectors Without Borders’ neatly taps into the potential for such secondments to be glamorous: a survey of about young French singles found that the is review literature ‘ideal spouse’ was a doctor with Medecins Sans Frontieres! More seriously, while the OECD initiative is excellent it is a drop in the ocean. The restricted membership of the about leadership OECD limits its scope to forge global links and there is homeschool essay, no other international institution with the essay about leadership remit to build peer- group links across government departments between rich countries and poor ones.

Perhaps this role should become a core function of national aid agencies such as DFID, but it would benefit from a co-ordinated kick-start by several heads of government. Essay? Twinning has the potential to essay be extended well beyond government: part of the ‘big society’ can be direct links between the Was the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki civil society organisations and their counterparts in poor countries. Again, historically such links have largely been confined to development non-governmental organisations (NGOs) such as Oxfam, which channel donations to needs. But an important part of tackling corruption is resetting the cultures of professions, including accountancy, law, medicine and teaching. For example, in leadership, many poor countries, it is socially acceptable for thesis binding oxford, teachers not to show up for lessons. Twinning involving things like teacher exchanges between schools could help to shift these dysfunctional values.

The global explosion of social media has made this far more feasible. 5 Paragraph About Leadership? The two approaches of closing off opportunities for corruption and reducing the prestige and satisfaction generated by corrupt behaviour reinforce each other. As the difficulties and risks of corrupt behaviour rise, fewer people will behave corruptly. This directly reduces the esteem from being corrupt because it is no longer so normal. Similarly, as more people start to get their esteem from being honest, those who remain corrupt are easier to spot and so find themselves running bigger risks. National actions against corruption complement international actions. One major way of squeezing out corruption is to remove obvious sources of assignment of responsibility rent-seeking such as rationed access to essay foreign exchange and the award of government contracts through secret negotiation rather than open bidding. Competition within rule-based markets is an important part of the system of checks and balances that constrain public officials from the homeschool essay abuse of office. Another is to prosecute some prominent senior officials. For example, in Ghana, 20 judges were sacked in late 2015 for accepting bribes based on video evidence gathered by an investigative journalist (BBC News 2015). Being based on 5 paragraph essay, independent evidence, such sackings cannot be misinterpreted as government attempts to crush political opposition.

Further, as high-profile events, they generate common knowledge among officials that all other officials are reflecting on whether they should change their behaviour. Not all corruption is directly financial. Electoral corruption is highly damaging. New research finds that, under normal conditions, governments that deliver good economic performance enhance their prospects of retaining office, but that the discipline of accountability breaks down when elections are not free and fair (Collier and Hoeffler 2015). Twinning national electoral commissions with their international peers, along with twinning local and international election monitors, can help to raise standards of electoral conduct. An international initiative against of responsibility, corruption provides an opportunity for 5 paragraph essay, national actions and international actions to lawrence mfa creative writing cohere.

As people recognise that the calculus of risks and rewards and the sources of 5 paragraph essay about leadership prestige and satisfaction are changing both for themselves and their colleagues, previously entrenched patterns of behaviour could become unstable. Assignment? Mass shifts in cultures of corruption do happen and it is 5 paragraph about, possible to make them happen. Paul Collier is Professor of Economics and what of related literature Public Policy at about, the Blavatnik School of Government and one of the world’s leading and award-winning development experts. His latest book is Exodus: How Migration is Changing our World (Oxford University Press 2013). 4. John Githongo: An African perspective on corruption. Sebolu is the Sotho word for a ‘spoilt thing’. It is a derogatory word used in Lesotho’s national language and vernacular to mean, among other things, corruption. Someone who is corrupt is described as being bobolu and bombings people have deep disdain for such a person.

3. In most of Africa though, there are few similar words of 5 paragraph essay about such powerful home-grown cultural resonance. Indeed, the homeschool essay word ‘corruption’ doesn’t exist in 5 paragraph about, many indigenous African languages. It never has – it wasn’t needed. The idea of stealing communal goods was literally taboo. The concept of about shuffling papers in a government office in a far-off capital, ‘making good’ and then coming home rich and about leadership wearing the ‘corrupt’ tag is, however, more obscure. Indeed, the local son or daughter ‘made good’ who demonstrates generosity back in the village is often lionised. Generosity of heart, even to strangers, but especially to relatives (no matter how distant), is a quality much admired by Africans generally. East Africa’s lingua franca, Kiswahili, gives us ufisadi (meaning corruption) or mfisadi (corrupt one); terms cleverly engineered post-independence. Ufisadi brings to mind ‘hyena-like’ derived from the reputation of the hyena; fisi for what of related literature, being unscrupulous, greedy and ruthless. However, it does not have the same resonance for citizens of the about leadership region as sebolu does in Lesotho, which is one of the of responsibility least corrupt African countries according to Transparency International’s (TI) annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). That said, ‘perceptions of corruption’, or better put ‘perceptions of 5 paragraph essay leaders involved in theft’, is one of the essay writing most resented attributes of officialdom to Africans at large.

Recent research on about leadership, the experiences and essay about my motherland perceptions of 5 paragraph Africans in 28 countries regarding corruption indicates that a majority (58%) felt that corruption had increased over the last 12 months. And in 18 of the 28 countries, the feeling was that their governments were doing badly in the fight against corruption. The report said that, despite these disappointing findings, the bright spots across the continent were in Botswana, Burkina Faso, Lesotho and Senegal. Citizens in these countries were some of the most positive in the region when discussing corruption (Transparency International and Afrobarometer 2015). In environments where corruption is systemic but lacks cultural resonance, creating a climate where social sanction can be applied against corrupt practices has been challenging. Sarah Lawrence Tuition? People understand the terms ‘theft’ and ‘thief’, but corruption is a modern and ambiguous concept to many Africans. As a Nuer elder once told me, “My daughter cannot be married into essay about leadership, a family of thieves.” The task therefore is essay writing, two-fold: we need to 5 paragraph about embed a clear legal framework to deter and punish corruption, and we need to actually change the culture, so that the concept of corruption is both understood and recognised as anathema. The war against graft (political corruption) has reached the point where the shame and social sanctions directed against this kind of theft and my motherland thief need to be given greater prominence in the arsenal used to fight corruption. This applies especially in 5 paragraph essay about leadership, developing countries where its consequences can be – and often are – deadly. In its culturally most compelling form, the social sanction is about ensuring, for example, that the thief is too embarrassed to go to church on Sunday because of the looks they’ll get. As such, the whole approach to corruption needs to be re-examined: from local cultural assumptions and preconceptions to the legal conventions, constitutions, statutes and, especially, the prosecution-related instruments brought to bear on it at thesis oxford, the national and global levels.

Integral to this are the principles of legal authority and equality before the law. The equality component is essential: the rule of about law must be seen to apply equally to all citizens without fear or favour, regardless of race, creed or class. The following complementary but separate factors in a society are critical: culture, ethos, ethics and traditions, and homeschool writing legal processes and practices. Each derives its legitimacy from history and 5 paragraph essay about the traditional ways in which meaning is made. Thesis Binding? By their very nature, they are far more negotiable – existing as they do in leadership, a constant state of flux in a dynamic world. Our success depends on how effectively we bring and use them together in the fight against corruption. We do this cognisant of the fact that grand corruption, when compared to atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki the drug trade, human trafficking, terrorism finance and other global evils, is the most easily rationalisable major felonious activity on the planet. 4.1 The global anti-corruption agenda. During the years 1993 to 2003, corruption was at the centre of the global development agenda. In 1993, Transparency International was founded.

In the mid-to-late 1990s, corruption was adopted as a key development issue by the multilateral and bilateral development institutions. This culminated, in about, 2003, in the drafting and binding oxford ratification by a host of countries of the United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015). The following decade saw the essay about rise of the BRIC nations2 and rapid economic growth across much of the developing world, as well as globalisation and its associated technologies assisting the expansion of trade and commerce. Essay About My Motherland? At the same time, the struggle against Islamic extremism captured the attention of policy makers in essay about leadership, the international community. Alongside it, unfortunately, has also come a rapid growth in the scale and complexity of corruption. So much so, that anti-corruption work needs to be returned urgently to thesis the heart of the global development agenda. It needs to be part of the DNA of modern nation-states, multinational corporations, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and even religious organisations and how they interact on the global stage. This urgency comes from the fact that graft has served to hollow out key governance institutions in some countries. This includes the defence and security sector and areas of social policy such as health and about leadership education, with dire consequences for the public services they are supposed to offer the poor, in particular.

The crippling impact of corruption on the delivery of these essential services has deepened economic inequalities, undermining faith in political processes, parties and assignment politicians. 5 Paragraph Essay Leadership? In turn, this increases political volatility as politicians retreat to identity and personality politics with its complex web of non-negotiable irrationalities. It also feeds fundamentalism of all kinds – for example, ethnic, religious and sectarian. 4.2 BRIC nations – Brazil, Russia, India and essay my motherland China. The impunity that accompanies crony capitalism results in what I might call both a private sector and a ‘pirate’ sector, causing citizens – especially younger people who increasingly view elections as a pointless game of musical chairs among crooks – to begin to question capitalism in essay about, its current form and democracy itself. This also does serious damage to the independence, legitimacy and integrity of the thesis binding oxford service sector – in essay leadership, particular, banks, law firms and auditing firms – and deepens the challenges corruption poses. Is Review Of Related? 4.3 The ‘pirate’ and leadership private sectors. The traditional private sector, comprising ‘makers of things’, has increasingly been supplanted in the 21st century by the service sector.

The growth of the latter has been buoyed by the dramatic expansion and essay sophistication of the internet and an increasing variety of communication platforms. 5 Paragraph? This has energised traders, who remain vital to the ‘old economy’ where the atomic and Nagasaki ethical? world’s products are created, built, sold and moved. At the same time, however, we’ve seen a distinct ‘pirate’ sector gaining in influence, particularly over the last two decades. By design, the ‘pirate’ sector is as virtual as possible, unencumbered by the traditional obligations and processes of rents, payrolls, medical schemes, pensions and so on. Although it can involve an individual or group of individuals, this sector forms itself into sophisticated entities. These can operate with the same ‘apparent’ legitimacy in multiple countries, even if it means they must use vexatious litigation – such as injunctions, court orders and delayed hearings – to about leadership allow them to atomic bombings and Nagasaki act outside the 5 paragraph essay law for the duration of their business in a country. The ‘pirate’ sector often chooses to corporatise itself in tuition, offshore tax havens, using the skills of professionals, especially lawyers, bankers and auditors. Essay About Leadership? As a result, it has become apparent that even seemingly reputable companies and professional firms sometimes contain ‘pirate units’. The units are able to what move unhindered across borders and traverse the legal world like ghosts who disappear as quickly as these so-called ‘special purpose vehicles’ can be shut down.

Theirs is the essay about leadership euphemistic language of ‘commissions’; ‘conclusion’ and ‘success bonuses’; ‘consultancy’ fees; ‘facilitation payments’; ‘philanthropic’ contributions to the relations of ‘politically exposed persons’ (PEPS); and of related the use of complex financial instruments to move resources around the world at the touch of essay a button. Atomic Of Hiroshima? As I pointed out previously, businesses find corruption the easiest felonious activity to 5 paragraph about rationalise, especially in cross-cultural contexts. They are the entities that ‘get things done’ in a complex world. For them, relationships are tradable products that can be leveraged for about my motherland, a profit and not a social currency that helps make trade and commerce flow more smoothly within the law. Leadership? 4.4 Renewing and reinvigorating international action. So how do we fight these piratical shadows? Corruption is defined as the abuse of vested authority for private gain.

In 2011, developing countries lost nearly $1 trillion to corruption, trade misinvoicing and tax avoidance (Kar and Le Blanc 2013). Leading global advocacy organisations such as ONE have even made efforts to quantify the cost of graft in lives (McNair et al. 2014). Estimates show that the cost of corruption equals more than 5% of global gross domestic product (GDP) (OECD 2016). As the recent FIFA scandal has demonstrated, unconstrained corruption also threatens valued cultural institutions and traditions that we all hold dear. At the same time, the complexity of the assignment of responsibility legal compliance environment – vis-a-vis anti-corruption, anti-money laundering and other illicit activities – that the genuine private sector has to contend with has increased exponentially. About Leadership? Indeed there is almost an unspoken ‘compliance paralysis’ as large numbers of lawyers, risk advisors and auditors apply expensive time to scrutinising transactions complicated by lawrence tuition, the web of demands that compliance has placed upon business. As a result, the temptation for some businesses to rely on 5 paragraph essay, the ‘pirate’ sector and/or aggressively ignore or cover up compliance risks has risen. A recent Risk Advisory Group (2015) research report revealed 83% of compliance professionals believe compliance has become more complex in the past two years, with bigger businesses feeling this more acutely. Atomic Of Hiroshima Ethical?? The Risk Advisory Group CEO Bill Waite said, “Worryingly, compliance has become so elaborate that 78% of compliance professionals say that it now represents a risk in itself” (Cassin 2015). This means we are at a critical juncture.

It calls for a renewed global partnership against corruption to match, and even exceed, the concentrated and successful advocacy that followed the essay about fall of the Berlin Wall. Corruption’s resurgence and complexity threatens not only global security and equitable development but also international trade and commerce, and essay writing people’s confidence in freedoms and systems of governance taken for granted since the Second World War. For example, there has been a debate about creating an International Anti-Corruption Court (IACC). It’s proposed this could have the kind of powers granted to international weapons inspectors to target specific transactions and 5 paragraph institutions that, when riddled with corruption, escape investigation and prosecution and cause citizens to lose confidence in public institutions and the rule of law and democracy. The new push needs to identify, disrupt and delegitimise the global networks of corruption in money laundering; terrorism finance; drug, people and environmental trafficking; and other illicit activities. This requires new global partnerships that target the information-era entities and domiciles that these networks rely on. They may be offshore tax havens or low-compliance jurisdictions where the thesis ever-expanding raft of international regulations aimed at dealing with graft and illicit flows have limited currency. At the same time, the new regime should robustly incentivise self-reporting vis-a-vis corporate compliance, allowing for a ‘cleaning out of the stables’. 4.5 Culture, tradition and social sanction. To be fully effective, however, this reinvigoration of the rule of about leadership law must go hand in hand with action to create a cultural climate in which the corrupt – the thieves – are shamed for binding, what they do.

Indeed, effecting change in the culture and traditions – which inform what is acceptable behaviour – is perhaps even more important in societies where legal institutions based on the Western model are nascent, or where their existence is being energetically contested, as it is in important parts of the developing world. The release by WikiLeaks of US diplomatic cables in 2010 was a controversial episode of unofficial transparency and a powerful interrupter to the global status quo regarding corruption in relations between nation-states. It revealed the corrupt practices that ruling elites are capable of to the growing youth populations of regions such as the 5 paragraph Middle East. The reverberations of this are still being felt. Across Latin America and in the developed world, revelations of inappropriate, corrupt and bombings and Nagasaki ethical? unethical behaviour by leaders – in both the private and corporate sectors – have created a level of criticism from the public that is unprecedented in some countries. This is 5 paragraph about, especially the case for the ‘millennial’ generation who appear to mistrust politicians and political parties the most. Presidents have been forced to of responsibility step down and others turned into lame ducks while still in office by dramatic mass expressions of discontent boosted by social media. In this sense the change has already begun – untidily, noisily, chaotically and even bloodily – in many places. The outcome is uncertain. But, in the long term, it will be dramatically different from the status quo.

This is, in part, because political leaders and ruling elites increasingly recognise the public’s lack of trust and confidence in them, especially that of their younger citizens. They also now appreciate that, in this networked world, a spotlight can be shone on corrupt and unethical relationships with the ‘pirate’ and private sectors. In addition to institutions such as an International Anti- Corruption Court as a further step towards increasing transparency, strengthening enforcement and securing restitution, the tools of visa revocations, personalised financial sanctions and more harmonised extradition mechanisms could actually be cheaper and more effective in tackling corruption than prosecutions – which are always tortuous. However, for these measures to enjoy legitimacy around the world, they must be applied, and be seen to apply, with equal force across the different regions of both the developed and developing world. To conclude, a successful international anti-corruption campaign requires co-operation on a global scale and essay about specific legal measures that help transform attitudes towards corruption and the ability to prosecute the corrupt. Although it may take longer, embedding a culture of binding social sanction and censure for anyone found guilty of engaging in, facilitating or condoning corrupt activity, even to the extent that those holding office lose public trust, would support these measures. Essay? They need to be seen as bobolu.

They need to feel the social stigma when they attend family gatherings, visit the golf club or step into the supermarket – as much to set an example to my motherland others as to punish the individual, impressing on the whole community that corruption will not be tolerated. John Githongo is the CEO of Inuka Kenya Ni Sisi Ltd, a non-governmental organisation focused on promoting good governance. Previously he served as Vice-President of Policy and Advocacy at World Vision International. John has been involved in anti-corruption research, advisory work and activism in 5 paragraph essay, Kenya, Africa and lawrence tuition the wider international community for 19 years. This includes work in about, civil society, media, government and the private sector.

Cassin, R. L. 25 November 2015. Risk Advisory Group Report: Compliance is so complex, it’s now its own risk. FCPA Blog. Essay? Available online. Kar, D. and Le Blanc, B. 2013. Illicit Financial Flows from Developing Countries: 2002–2011. Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Available online. McNair, D., Kraus, J., McKiernan K. and McKay, S. 2014.

The Trillion Dollar Scandal Study. London: ONE. OECD. January 2016. The CleanGovBiz Initiative. Available online. The Risk Advisory Group. 2015. The Compliance Horizon Survey. About Leadership? Available online. Transparency International.

2015. Corruption Perceptions Index – Lesotho. Available online. Transparency International and writing Afrobarometer. 2015. People and Corruption: Africa Survey 2015 – Global Corruption Barometer. Berlin: Transparency International. Available online. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC).

2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available online. 5. Paul Radu: Follow the money: how open data and investigative journalism can beat corruption. The early spring of 2015 saw thousands of angry people on the streets of Chisinau, capital of the tiny Republic of Moldova. While calling loudly for the resignation of the Government and leadership the Parliament, they were shouting, “We want our billion back!” (Calugareanu and Schwartz 2015). The demonstrators believed the politicians were to blame for the theft of almost $1 billion from what of related literature, Moldovan banks, which had left this poor country’s financial affairs in disarray. Investigations are ongoing.

But the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project’s (OCCRP) research indicates that this $1 billion was the tip of the iceberg, in a country where many more billions of dollars in ‘black’ money appear to have flowed through a flawed banking system – with the help of 5 paragraph about corrupt politicians and organised crime as well as untrustworthy judges and law enforcement officers (Radu, Munteanu and Ostanin 2015). We believe that the citizens of Moldova were victims of a transnational web of corruption, benefiting politicians and criminals who used complex multi-layered company structures to conceal both their identities and their activities. Regrettably, this story is not unique. At the of related OCCRP, we have identified a number of cross- border money laundering schemes in Eastern Europe, serving criminal groups as diverse as Mexican drug cartels and Vietnamese and Russian organised crime gangs (OCCRP 2011). The power of these crime groups stems primarily from their ability to operate with ease across national frontiers. They complete a detailed risk assessment at the country level and then choose the least vulnerable approach to conduct their illicit activities, whether in narcotics, refugee trafficking or the essay about massive money laundering exercises that follow such crimes. The problem for literature, national law enforcement is that, by definition, it cannot follow this type of crime easily or quickly across borders.

Data exchanges between states and law enforcement agencies take time. 5 Paragraph Leadership? Modern crime schemes are designed to have very short lives to avoid detection, lasting sometimes just months before the associated companies and bank accounts are wound up and replaced by new ones. Yet alongside the advantages available for criminals of what is review operating on this global scale, making it inherently harder to 5 paragraph track them down, there are also disadvantages that the clever journalist or law enforcement official can exploit to expose them. So how do we do this? How do we stop criminal gangs and the corrupt politicians they rely on – conducting business as usual? Firstly, I will argue, through data: more data means more transparency, provided the quality of information is there and supported by tools that allow proper analysis. Secondly, by journalists using advanced investigative techniques, including the emerging discipline of data journalism, to identify the patterns and practices inherent in corrupt activity. Criminals can’t predict the future of open data Transparency is the natural enemy of atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki international organised crime gangs and corrupt officials. Opaque systems allow them to 5 paragraph essay thrive. And some of them go to great lengths to disguise their wrongdoing, using financial and Was the atomic bombings of Hiroshima company structures that span the world. At OCCRP, we’ve found and exposed networks of companies based in New Zealand, with bank accounts in essay about leadership, Riga, Latvia, that were transferring money to companies set up in the US state of Delaware, Cyprus or the United Kingdom.

In turn, these companies owned bank accounts in yet other jurisdictions (OCCRP 2011). Such criminal schemes are designed by creative and intelligent, if misguided, people. Some of them could have been the next Steve Jobs, but found crime more appealing. They often work for what we call the about ‘criminal services industry’ – the lawyers, registration agents, business intelligence firms and other legitimate businesses that earn lucrative income from servicing the needs of 5 paragraph criminal clients. But no matter how clever they are, they can’t predict the future; transparency rules change. For years, from the early 1990s, Russian, Ukrainian, Romanian and many other Eastern European mobsters and politicians were using Cyprus as a place to hide their activities behind labyrinthine corporate structures. It reached the point where Cyprus, with a population of assignment of responsibility little more than one million, became one of the main investors in Eastern and Central Europe. Not all of these investors were criminal enterprises as many used Cyprus for tax optimisation purposes.

But there is hardly a country in the region – from the former Yugoslavia to Russia and beyond – where Cyprus-based companies were not involved in huge, rigged privatisation scandals. 4. In 2004, when Cyprus joined the European Union (EU) and started opening databases, including a registry of locally based companies, things began to change. Investigative reporters began combing through millions of records and, in many instances, came across the leadership names of beneficial owners the real owners of the company – who thought they were sheltered from public scrutiny. Politicians and criminals were caught off guard and is review literature exposed in leadership, press articles that led to arrests and resignations. Their past misdemeanours made future involvement in essay, business problematic. However, they started fighting back almost immediately, substituting their names in company documents with those of professional proxies – usually Cypriot lawyers who would lend their name to just about anyone who wanted to conceal their identity.

In addition to this, the Cyprus registry is relatively expensive to use and searchable only by company name. This poses a serious problem for investigators, who often embark on an enquiry with only an individual’s name, be it a member of the local parliament or a controversial business owner. As a result, Cyprus still offers only partial transparency. Yet even in 5 paragraph essay about leadership, countries with a stronger record, you can hit barriers. For example, New Zealand – ranked fourth in Transparency International’s (TI) anti-corruption index – has a well-organised register of companies that is free of charge and thesis oxford allows for name-based searches (Transparency International 2015). But, as with the UK’s Companies House database, it’s more difficult for investigative researchers to essay about identify nominee shareholders and directors, especially in cases where they are proxies – not beneficial owners – acting for criminal groups and corrupt politicians. And in the past few years, OCCRP investigations have revealed the involvement of an Auckland-based company (that was run by a nominee) in obscuring the ownership of companies across Eastern Europe. One such example was a Moldovan TV station (Preasca, Munteanu and Sarnecki 2013). Secretive media ownership is a huge problem across the region where, in many instances, the general public has no idea who is delivering the news.

Once OCCRP exposed this non-transparent structure, its ownership was just moved to British companies that were again meant to obscure the identity of the real owners of the television station (Media Ownership Project 2015). In a global economy, this isn’t just an issue for New Zealand. In 2016, the UK Government is implementing a new central registry of homeschool company beneficial ownership to enable researchers and other interested parties to access information on individuals with an interest in essay about leadership, more than 25% of a company’s shares or voting rights, or who otherwise control the way it is run. It matters because well-structured and accessible databases can be goldmines for investigators and members of the Was the atomic public. In 2008, British computer programmer Dan O’Huiginn reshaped the Panama registry of about leadership companies and built a simple interface that, for the first time, allowed name-based searches (Government of Panama 2015). This was the catalyst for of responsibility, investigative articles that exposed corrupt dictators, criminals and their close associates all over the world. 5 Paragraph About? This simple technical adjustment opened their activities up to what is review of related literature public scrutiny, costing them untold millions of dollars.

5 : The same principle applies to other official databases. For example, court records, government spending and 5 paragraph leadership tenders databases vary greatly in their organisation, accessibility and quality of data. In many jurisdictions, it takes investigators a lot of navigating, mining and shopping for data to find the evidence they are looking for. The opening up of company information and databases has to be accompanied by effective policies that ensure their accessibility, integrity, security and usefulness. Civic hacker collectives, journalists and civil society groups should be consulted to help determine the most useful access to data that also mitigates any privacy concerns. Governments requiring offshore companies operating in a country to assignment identify their true beneficial ownership would also greatly reduce the space in which criminals can work and increase the costs they incur. Law enforcement must also jump on board the about leadership open data train and assignment take advantage of advances in technology in 5 paragraph leadership, order to keep pace with the and Nagasaki ethical? criminals.

Just like journalists, police officers and intelligence analysts need to master cross-border, multi-language, open-source intelligence to fight sophisticated serious crime. While it is true that data obtained in informal ways cannot always be used to build strong court cases, it can greatly shorten the time required for the investigative process. Obtaining documents sequentially through official channels from other countries can take months or even years. Say, for example, that the police in the UK need information on a company based in Russia. They have to 5 paragraph essay file requests and wait, sometimes for a year, only to find out what literature, that the Russian company is owned by a Cyprus limited firm.

It might take another year to identify the next owner in a nested structure. Finally, the leadership trail might end with bearer shares: where the owner of the stocks is not registered or is lawrence mfa creative writing, a proxy who doesn’t know the 5 paragraph about leadership real owner (Funk 2014, p. Tuition? 14). Compare this with the adaptability of organised crime, which – albeit operating under no formal constraint – broke free from the nation-state mindset long ago. In the international space governed by weak international protocols and bilateral agreements, organised crime at present has no natural enemy. While criminals recognise no borders and are not bound by strict local rules, national and legal boundaries, a lack of essay resources continues to Was the bombings hamper law enforcement. Geopolitics can also deter cross-border collaborative initiatives between nation-states, which may find themselves at odds with their neighbours or dealing with governments that are themselves riddled with corruption. There are, to be sure, examples of essay about criminal networks being disbanded in a number of countries as a result of co- operation between law enforcement agencies. This did not necessarily prevent the mobsters from re-forming elsewhere outside those jurisdictions. Nevertheless, increased access to open data could help to boost cross-border co-operation and journalists can play an increasingly important role in it. 5.2 It takes a network to fight a network. Thesis Oxford? Investigative reporting is – and can be even more – the natural enemy of criminal networks and, when practised collaboratively, it acts as an 5 paragraph essay about, effective watchdog.

It can change the status quo in innovative ways that are not immediately obvious. Journalists and the public alike expect prosecutors to act after each journalistic expose, with the desired result being arrests, convictions, repatriation of lost assets and other positive outcomes. Owing to assignment limited human resources and a lack of skills, interest or even competence, this expectation is not always realised. However, regardless of 5 paragraph essay about law enforcement action or inaction, public exposure can adversely affect, and assignment of responsibility even stop, criminal businesses operating in other jurisdictions. Such exposure can also influence long-term changes in public attitudes, which can lead, in turn, to protests against, and even election defeats for, discredited parties or politicians. With the stakes so high, it is 5 paragraph essay about, essential that the journalism itself is rigorous, credible and transparent. Of Related? Investigative articles must be linked to evidence, well- designed databases and ‘how we did it’ guidance, so that readers can recreate the investigative process if they want to. Governments, banks and financial institutions in general rely on open source information when deciding whether to give loans, enter business deals or accept money transactions. Effective data journalism can also help expose financial irregularity or illegality and prevent crime figures or oligarchs securing loans, opening accounts or making other transactions. Using advanced investigative techniques, journalism can degrade international organised crime and corrupt networks even before they are firmly established within a jurisdiction. Corrupt politicians, officials and criminals view the proceeds of 5 paragraph about leadership their illicit schemes as commodities to be repeatedly imported and ethical? exported and are always looking for new territories in which to generate profit.

When journalists work collaboratively across frontiers, sharing data, this practice can be identified and leadership compromised. It takes a network to monitor a network. International reporting groups such as the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, Arab Reporters for Investigative Journalism (ARIJ), OCCRP and Was the atomic of Hiroshima others already co-operate on individual stories or sporadically share datasets. 5 Paragraph Essay Leadership? However, such is the assignment of responsibility scale of the problem and the ubiquity of organised crime that these efforts can seem to be only scratching the surface. What journalists can do is share with colleagues in other countries details of the patterns of crime they have already detected in their own. This would enable wider cross-border investigations to determine whether the same criminal groups are setting up shop in other jurisdictions. For example, a criminal group sets up Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) that are all owned by a set of companies with their headquarters on a particular street in Belize City, Belize. Replications of this simple pattern can be searched for in the company registries of other countries or in related datasets, potentially revealing the 5 paragraph group’s activities in lawrence mfa creative writing tuition, those territories too.

In future, with the proper resources, this kind of pattern recognition could be facilitated and automated through the development of specific algorithms. Crime groups will inevitably react by altering their activities to avoid detection. But, crucially, this will hamper their operations and cost them more in money and time. Automated searches of 5 paragraph about ever-larger, global, transparent datasets can feed real-time alerts to journalists all over the world. Homeschool? The result could be that the public has earlier and reliable information about who the real corrupt beneficiaries of crimes are, such as the 5 paragraph essay leadership $1 billion bank theft that left the Republic of Moldova with an uncertain future. To conclude, a key component to assignment of responsibility fighting future crime is increased cross-border co-operation between journalists and 5 paragraph about programmers, who need to employ and homeschool create new advanced investigative techniques on top of 5 paragraph essay massive amounts of data. At the same time, activists and governments need to push for more transparency, quality and common standards in open data. Paul Radu is the Executive Director of the what Organized Crime and leadership Corruption Reporting Project (www.reportingproject.net), which investigates transnational crime and corruption in Eastern Europe.

He is also a board member of the Global Investigative Journalism Network (http://gijn.org) and has received many international awards for his journalism. Calugareanu, V. and Schwartz, R. 4 May 2015. Spring again in the Republic of Moldova – mass protest against corruption. Deutsche Welle. Available online.

Funk, T. M. 2014. Essay About My Motherland? Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties and Letters Rogatory: A Guide for Judges. 5 Paragraph Essay? US: Federal Judicial Center. Available online. Government of Panama. January 2015. Panama Registry of Companies. Available online. OCCRP. 22 November 2011. The Proxy Platform.

The Reporting Project. Available online. Media Ownership Project. January 2015. Media Ownership Project: Moldova. Available online. Preasca, I., Munteanu, M. and binding oxford Sarnecki, M. 26 March 2013.

Taylor Network Back in Business. Leadership? Rise Project. Sarah Lawrence Mfa Creative Writing Tuition? Available online. Radu, P., Munteanu M. and Ostanin, I. 24 July 2015. Grand Theft Moldova. Organized Crime and 5 paragraph essay leadership Corruption Reporting Project (OCCRP). Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index.

Available online. Oxford? 6. Essay About? Sarah Chayes: Corruption and terrorism: the causal link. It’s February 2015 and I am in Kano, northern Nigeria. Not three months back, in the midst of Friday prayers, Boko Haram struck the of related literature Grand Mosque in the old fortress-like centre of essay about town. The dead and the bloodied lay strewn in their hundreds across the Was the of Hiroshima public square. I’m sitting with some lawyers – a prosecutor, the 5 paragraph leadership chairman of the state bar association and a court administrator – trying to work out the mechanics of corruption in the justice sector, in this most corrupt of countries. Essay? We’re talking details: how judges rarely demand bribes directly, their clerks collect the 5 paragraph essay about leadership money; and how lawyers collude, blaming judicial corruption for the extra fees they pocket. “Sarah,” the prosecutor interjects, “we’ve been talking about money all this time. But this isn’t just about thesis, money …” “The saying goes,” he resumes awkwardly, “if you want to win your case, go to the judge with a beautiful girl.” 6. I’m stopped cold. 5 Paragraph Essay About? I imagine the girl.

She may be 14 or 15. She returns home from school each day with her friends, the white veils of their school uniforms fluttering like matched plumage. I picture the glistening eyes of some overfed judge as he reaches for her. My stomach turns. Abruptly another image comes to mind: the girl’s brother, a lanky young Nigerian man. Already disillusioned, he is pushed right over the edge. He would kill that judge if he could. And Boko Haram, all around this town, would like nothing more than to help him do it. I could suddenly understand how it happens.

I could see how the corruption perpetrated by officials of the then Nigerian administration – like that of many governments around the world – was itself helping to generate the terrorist threat. The problem, I realised, is far more severe than white elephants or poor service delivery. Corruption entails a violation of a person’s basic humanity that can spur an enraged response. It is these connections – between government corruption and terrorism or other violence – that this essay explores. Corruption is one of those consensual topics. No one would argue it’s a good thing. International charities and assignment multilateral organisations have worked hard to combat it, racking up impressive achievements in recent years.

Anti- bribery laws, once unheard of, have spread well beyond their initial US–UK beachhead. 5 Paragraph About Leadership? Major arrests and asset seizures are increasingly common, as are citizen-led anti-corruption protests. Such protests have resulted in the resignation of senior officials or their ousting through the ballot box. That’s what happened in Nigeria, where a hard-nosed reformer – who has penned an essay in this volume – gained an upset victory in homeschool, March 2015 elections over the administration those Kano legal practitioners were criticising. And yet, when push comes to shove in bilateral relations, Western governments, businesses and essay about charities are still most likely to atomic bombings and Nagasaki prioritise other imperatives ahead of 5 paragraph essay corruption. If an international aid agency or philanthropic organisation has set its sights on delivering health programming to rural villages, its government may be reticent to act against corruption in the host country for fear the precious permissions to operate will be cancelled.

If the objective is atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a major extension of electrical power across a whole region or a trade foray into an emerging market, corruption may be seen as a ‘cost of doing business’. Corruption helps facilitate economic activity and about leadership growth, some maintain. Others cite culture: “It’s just the way people do things over there. Who are we to of responsibility impose our norms?” These and other excuses are proffered to about leadership rationalise looking the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki other way or outright collusion. Upon closer inspection, it thus appears that corruption is not so consensual after all. A remarkable number of Westerners actually argue in favour of it. Of all the competing priorities, the one that most swiftly trumps anti-corruption is security.

Co-operating with this or that corrupt leader is 5 paragraph leadership, seen as critical, because he is our partner in the war against terrorism. About? His is the essay only military worth its salt in the region, troops that actually go on the attack against militants. He provides us with intelligence or bases or overflight rights. Of Responsibility? And so the kleptocratic practices of his network of cronies are overlooked. The way they have bent state functions, wired the whole economy to their own benefit, given free rein to about low-level officials to rake in extorted bribes and blocked off every avenue of recourse – none of that matters, so long as they are ‘with us’ in the fight against terrorists. This common framing is particularly ironic given the growing evidence that corruption is helping to atomic of Hiroshima ethical? drive many people into the folds of extremist movements and indeed lies at the root of many of today’s security crises (Chayes 2015; Sky 2015).

The purported trade-off between security and corruption is a false dichotomy. Take southern Afghanistan, the former Taliban heartland, where I lived for nearly a decade. In the spring of 5 paragraph 2009, a delegation of thesis binding oxford elders came to visit from 5 paragraph about leadership, Shah Wali Kot district, just north of Kandahar. This happened often. I was one of the only foreigners in Kandahar with no guards at my gate. When I asked why, with the homeschool writing Taliban killing people, the leadership villagers don’t fight back, a man retorted, “How can they work with this Government? The Government doesn’t hear them. The Government doesn’t do anything for them.

It’s just there to fill its pockets, nothing else. If the Government isn’t fixed, no matter how many soldiers the foreigners bring, the sarah mfa creative writing tuition situation won’t improve.” 7. A few days later in the border town of Spin Boldak, community leader Hajji Manan Khan concurred, “This Government … no one likes it. Ministers have huge palaces in Kabul, while the people have nothing. The foreigners should announce that the current Government is thieves. They should put the 5 paragraph essay about screws in them, call them on writing, the carpet and demand accounts.” 8. I heard this refrain again and again.

Out of a hundred Taliban, elders would tell me, fewer than a quarter were ‘real’. The rest had taken up arms in disgust with the 5 paragraph about Government. Was The Atomic Of Hiroshima And Nagasaki? This assessment was corroborated by interviews with Taliban detainees in international military custody. Explaining their motivations for joining the about leadership insurgency, they cited government corruption more often than any strictly religious rationale. Was The Of Hiroshima? A similar picture emerges from Nigeria. When Boko Haram launched its first large-scale violent attacks in July 2009, police stations were the first targets. By all accounts, the essay about leadership Nigerian police is one of the most venal and abusive in the world (Human Rights Watch 2010).

9 And, during a November 2015 conversation in Maiduguri, where Boko Haram first emerged, local residents voiced a sentiment I had heard often: “People were very happy [with those first attacks]. Boko Haram was saying the truth about the violations by government agencies against the people. Finally they could stand up and challenge. They were claiming their rights.” 10. Extremism isn’t the thesis oxford only form that backlash against corruption takes. Across the about Arab world in 2011, populations took to the streets demanding an end to atomic bombings autocratic governments, the prosecution and imprisonment of corrupt officials, and the return of stolen assets. As the catastrophic situation in today’s Middle East demonstrates, revolutions rarely end peacefully. Some analysts see the expansion of extremism, from Daesh in Syria to a tenacious insurgency in Egypt, as a reaction to the failure of those initially non- violent efforts to break the grip of 5 paragraph essay kleptocratic governing elites (Muasher 2015).

Ukraine seems as culturally and historically different from the Middle East as a country can be, yet its 2014 revolution was fuelled by of responsibility, similar motivations. While anti-Russian sentiment and a cultural affinity with Western Europe were important drivers of the Maidan protests, so was disgust at the corrupt Yanukovich Government. Photos of the deposed president’s pleasure palace went viral after his fall. The sequel to that revolution has been the essay leadership first major East–West stand-off since the end of the Was the bombings ethical? Cold War, complete with the forcible annexation of territory and the displacement of more than a million people. 5 Paragraph Essay About Leadership? In these cases and others, corruption has helped generate some of today’s most dire security crises. The difficult question, especially regarding religious violence, is why? What is Was the and Nagasaki ethical?, it about corruption that should drive people to such extremes?

Four elements of corruption in its current form help to provide an explanation: the humiliation inflicted on victims; their lack of recourse; the structure and sophistication of corrupt networks; and the truly colossal sums being stolen. Firstly, what we in the West often underestimate in thinking about corruption is the assault on victims’ human dignity that accompanies it. Recall the example of the judge’s ‘sextortion’, when the only way of gaining a hearing may be to allow a daughter or a sister to essay about leadership be violated. Abuses of this nature can spark a burning need for retribution. In studies of violence ranging from Palestinian uprisings to gang shootings in the United States, insult or humiliation is found to be a key factor (Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin 2014; Black 2011).

11. Given the oxford obvious connections between religion and morality, the moral depravity underlying the abuse is frequently understood in religious terms. Essay About? “Our leaders are bound by religious duty to do the right thing,” Kano’s then Bar Association Chairman Ibrahim Nassarawa told me, “so when they don’t, people hate them.” 12 At that point, a religious argument may be persuasive: “If our government were based on the Islamic system,” said Maiduguri residents, summarising Boko Haram’s preaching, “all these things wouldn’t be happening. We would have a fair and just society.” 13. Homeschool Essay Writing? Secondly, with government perpetrating the crimes, there is no earthly hope of recourse. As Sardar Muhammad – who cultivates grapes and essay leadership pomegranates west of atomic Kandahar – put it in defining the word ‘corruption’, “If the district governor takes all the development budget and only gives the people a tiny bit, and I want to 5 paragraph about leadership complain, and his gunmen keep me from complaining because they are his kept dogs, that’s corruption.” 14. Deprived of any peaceful means of redress against an abusive government, even the founders of our own Western democracies rebelled. The 16th-century Dutch Revolt, the English Civil War and the American and French revolutions were all bloody affairs.

Period documents from these milestones in democratic development indicate that in none of them did protagonists and ordinary citizens turn to violence gladly, but felt compelled to sarah lawrence mfa creative writing tuition it after exhausting every other avenue and obtaining not the slightest concession (Robertson 2006). About? 15. The unassailable impunity that Sardar Muhammad was lamenting derives from the third important feature of corruption as it currently exists in dozens of countries – how deeply it is embedded in state machinery. It’s not the work of a few venal officials, who might be rooted out or challenged in court. About My Motherland? The kind of severe corruption that is common today is systemic. It is the practice of sophisticated networks armed with all the instruments of state function. They use those instruments to essay about serve their aims – which largely boil down to personal enrichment. In many cases, these entities should not be thought of as governments at all, much less fragile or failing ones, but rather as savvy and successful criminal organisations. Weaknesses in state function examined in this light may prove to be deliberate, especially in agencies with autonomous power.

Judges or specialised prosecutors are underpaid. Armies are hollowed out to essay reduce the likelihood of a coup and because defence budgets and military assistance are juicy revenue streams. The results of this latter trend were on vivid display in 2014 as the about cannibalised militaries of Iraq and Nigeria collapsed at the first sign of binding oxford a challenge. In other cases, apparently innocuous state agencies such as tax authorities or water departments are fashioned into bludgeons to force compliance. A Tunisian tax collector explained to me how, under the regime of Zine El-Abidine Ben Ali, certain people were accorded a tax holiday as long as they cut members of the ruling clique into their action. But “assessors would rarely make someone’s file go away completely. The permissiveness could always be revoked.” Taxes, he said, could be used “to punish someone who was too independent.” 16.

A trade union representative in Uzbekistan described a similar system to me in 2014: “There are so many taxes it is impossible to pay them all. So people make a connection in the tax office to pay less. But then you’ve broken the law and they know it, and you are afraid of the Government. The whole Government is set up that way, to make you do wrong, so then they have you on 5 paragraph about leadership, the hook.” 17. These kleptocratic networks are horizontally integrated. They comprise government officials, businesses such as banks or construction companies, and so-called non- governmental organisations (NGOs) and implementers of aid – which may in what is review of related, fact be owned by relatives of government officials. But they also include outright criminals such as smugglers, drug-traffickers and even terrorists. Some within the government service in Algeria in essay about, the 1990s, and also officials in Pakistan today, are believed to have maintained operational links with extremists (Waldman 2010; Garcon 2003).

18. For foreign governments, charities or businesses seeking to operate in such environments, this horizontal integration makes for particularly difficult navigating. Binding Oxford? The familiar distinctions between public and private sectors, licit and illicit actors, simply do not apply. Finally, the essay about leadership amounts of money in play are truly obscene. Former FBI special agent Debra Laprevotte, who worked kleptocracy cases for years, says that the increase has been palpable: “For the longest time, we had a single billion-dollar case. Now there are at least five billion-dollar investigations underway.” 19. Atomic Of Hiroshima And Nagasaki? According to 5 paragraph two separate biannual surveys, ‘petty bribery’ in Afghanistan rakes in between ?1.3 billion and ?2.6 billion per year (UNODC 2012; Integrity Watch Afghanistan 2014). This is in essay writing, a country whose licit government revenue is barely estimated to top ?1 billion (SIGAR 2015). The development implications of such sums are obvious. Imagine if even a fraction were devoted to a country’s healthcare or water and sewage system, or to building a reliable and affordable public transport network in 5 paragraph about, a burgeoning megacity, or to paying teachers a living wage. Imagine the impact on sustainable economic growth.

But when obtained through practices this corrupt, vast wealth in a sea of poverty also has a moral component – hence the easy link to religion. In the midst of the 16th- century Protestant revolt against the Habsburg ‘Divine Right’ monarchy, an anonymous Dutch pamphleteer complained, “They put robes of silk on mfa creative writing, their idols made of old wood, leaving us brethren of Christ naked and starving” (Arnade 2008, p. 99). Then, as now, militant puritanical religion, imposed if necessary by force, was seen by some as the only remedy. The picture painted here is a sobering one, particularly for governments, investors and humanitarian organisations that cannot avoid working in essay leadership, such countries. And especially when security concerns are so severe as to trump other considerations. Still, even in a world in binding oxford, which trade-offs are real and cannot simply be wished away, there are some important lessons to be considered.

Governments that ostensibly fight against terror may actually be generating more terrorism than they curb. 5 Paragraph About? The international community must do a better job of weighing up the pluses and is review of related minuses of partnering with acutely corrupt governments, and 5 paragraph about leadership thus reinforcing them and facilitating their practices. If alliances are too close, or pay too little attention to the corruption of is review host governments, the abused populations may come to associate the international community with the misdeeds of their own rulers. As 14th-century churchman William of Pagula admonished King Edward III, “He takes on the guilt of the perpetrator who neglects to fix what he can correct” (Nederman 2002, p. 82). A more precise understanding of network structures and real dynamics of power must inform planning processes ahead of engagement. It is costly in human and other resources, not to mention politically uncomfortable, to draw up network diagrams – like the ones intelligence or police agencies regularly develop in their study of terrorists or criminals – that map members of ostensibly friendly governments and their cut-outs in about leadership, business or the criminal world. Sarah Mfa Creative Tuition? But these costs should be weighed against the proven and often disastrous price of blind engagement in such complex environments.

A new, broader understanding of ‘corporate social responsibility’ is required. 5 Paragraph? Across sectors, companies whose business models actually depend on servicing kleptocratic officials – such as some banks, lawyers, estate agents, registered agents, various extractive and homeschool essay other resource- based businesses, and international construction contractors – are contributing to significant security threats in 5 paragraph, their own countries. It is in this light that they should consider their ‘corporate social responsibility’ – rather than as a synonym for donations to localised humanitarian work. Should their public-spiritedness remain wanting, then sanctions applied to them for colluding with illegal corrupt practices should be stiffened, commensurate with the harm they are doing. Western citizens should begin pressurising such businesses. And above all, Western governments should cease viewing corrupt money flows, or good trade deals extracted from about my motherland, kleptocrats at the expense of their populations, as a necessary component of their nations’ economies. Arnade, P. 2008. Beggars, Iconoclasts and Civic Patriots: The Political Culture of the Dutch Revolt. Ithica: Cornell University Press. Black, D. 2011.

Moral Time. New York: Oxford University Press, p.73. Chayes, S. 2015. Thieves of State: Why Corruption Threatens Global Security. New York: W.W. Norton. Garcon, J. 15 November 2003. Les GIA sont une creation des services de securite algeriens. Liberation.

Available online. Human Rights Watch. 17 August 2010. Everyone’s in on the Game: corruption and human rights abuses by the Nigeria Police Force. Available online. Integrity Watch. 28 May 2014. Afghanistan, National Corruption Survey. Available online.

Longo, M., Canetti, D. and Hite-Rubin N. 2014. A Checkpoint Effect? Evidence from a natural experiment on travel restrictions in the West Bank. American Journal of Political Science, 58(4), pp. 1006–1023. Muasher, M. 2015. Thalatha Safarat Indhar Lam Yasma’ha Ahad. Alghad (Afkar wa Mawaqaf). Available online. Nederman, C. 5 Paragraph Essay Leadership? ed. and trans.

2002. Political Thought in Early Fourteenth Century England: Treatises by Walter of Milemete, William of Pagula and William of Ockham. Of Pagula, W., The Mirror of Edward III. Tempe: Arizona Center for of responsibility, Medieval and essay leadership Renaissance Studies, p. 82. Robertson, G. 2006. The Tyrannicide Brief: The Story of the Man Who Sent Charles I to the Scaffold. Homeschool Writing? New York: Pantheon.

Sky, E. 2015. About? The Unravelling: High Hopes and assignment of responsibility Missed Opportunities in Iraq. London: Atlantic Books. Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR). 5 March 2015.

Letter to Generals Lloyd Austin, John Campbell and essay leadership Todd Semonite. Available online. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). December 2012. Corruption in Afghanistan: Recent Patterns and Trends. Vienna: UNODC. Available online.

Waldman, M. Essay My Motherland? 2010. The Sun in the Sky: The Relationship Between Pakistan’s ISI and Afghan Insurgents. Essay? London School of Economics, Crisis States Working Group Paper, 2(18). 7. David Walsh: The irresponsibility of not knowing – corruption in sport. Oxford? Being a sports writer was all I wanted.

Thirty-eight years, the only job I’ve ever had. Good times mostly. Not what I thought they would be. When I glance in the rear-view mirror, there is more cynicism, more corruption, more of sport’s dark side. It seems hard to believe now that the journey began with the expectation of standards higher than would ever be found in civilian life. There is, of course, much to recall that was glorious, exciting and uplifting, sporting stuff that makes you think anything is possible. Hard to imagine that a boy who grew up on the potholed roads of about Kenya could become a Tour de France champion, but that’s what Chris Froome did. Or that a boy from of related literature, Rosario in Argentina who was diagnosed with a growth hormone deficiency at 5 paragraph essay leadership, age ten should become the greatest footballer we’ve ever seen. Well that’s Lionel Andres Messi’s story. How many winter evenings has he brightened? But even in the beautiful game, bad things were happening.

Our obsession with football created a global popularity that would lead to extraordinary riches pouring into the game. That money needed to be managed and those in control needed to be accountable. We are speaking of binding oxford systems of good governance, but greed got a head start and governance never caught up. With great wealth comes power and that attracts the corruptible. 5 Paragraph Essay About? Over the last 15 years, there has been the essay about International Olympic Committee (IOC) scandal behind the awarding of the Winter Olympics to essay about leadership Salt Lake City in 2001, the FIFA scandal that simmered for more than ten years before boiling over in 2015 and, most recently, the essay International Association of 5 paragraph essay about Athletics Federations (IAAF) scandal involving high-up officials in the international federation. Sometimes you find yourself taking a step back and wondering, “Could it have really happened?” Could custodians of the sport really have blackmailed an athlete in assignment of responsibility, a €450,000-deal, covering up a doping violation so that the athlete could compete in essay about, the Olympics? That’s the allegation and the French police are on the case (World Anti-Doping Agency 2016). I’d been a sports reporter for ten years when attending my first Olympics. That was Seoul 1988. A run along a busy promenade in South Korea’s capital city on the final Sunday of those Games remains a cherished memory. I never saw such an outpouring of national pride.

Every expression seemed to say, “You thought we couldn’t do it, even we weren’t sure we could, but we did.” Before those Games started, there had been student protests in Seoul and the world’s media highlighted the potential for the Olympics to is review of related literature be overshadowed by 5 paragraph about, unrest. That never happened. The trouble came from inside the stadium, down there on the track or, more accurately, in the room where the Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson peed into what is review of related, what anti-doping personnel call ‘the collection vessel’. The thing about watching something live is that it leaves a deeper, more lasting impression. Inside your living room, you see the story unfold. 5 Paragraph Essay About Leadership? Inside the stadium, you feel it. It’s the difference between having your face painted and having your forehead tattooed. That September in Seoul, Florence Griffith-Joyner, an American athlete, set new world records in the 100 metres and 200 metres. They will stand for a long time yet, those records.

They called her ‘Flo-Jo’. With her long and exotically painted nails and Rolls-Royce stride, she was one of Seoul’s greatest stars. I saw her get the 200-metre record, decelerating in the home straight. It was a heart-sinking moment. There were allegations of doping, unproven. Florence Griffith-Joyner died at 38, far too soon (Walsh 2013). Ben Johnson was a different story. He got caught.

Can you imagine being awoken by sarah mfa creative, a loud knock on your apartment door at essay, 3.30 in bombings, the morning and being pleased about it? Doug Gillon, from The Glasgow Herald, stood there. About Leadership? “Johnson’s tested positive,” he said. The words landed like ice-cold water on a sleepy face. Thesis? Other than tell our offices back home that we were up and on the case, I don’t know what we could have done to advance the story at 5 paragraph about leadership, that hour, but it was a watershed moment. Ben Johnson changed the landscape. Some of the things that had drawn us as kids to sport were being crushed by a will to win that recognised no boundaries. What Is Review Literature? How bad was it?

How bad is it? It was bad. 5 Paragraph? It’s gotten worse. Part of that summer of ’88 was spent following the world’s greatest bike race, the Tour de France. Assignment Of Responsibility? A few days from the end, there was another drug controversy when Pedro Delgado, the Spanish-born race leader, provided a urine sample that contained the drug probenecid, used by athletes to 5 paragraph essay about mask their use of proscribed substances. A strange case for sure. Probenecid was banned by the International Olympic Committee, but wasn’t yet banned by lawrence, the body that governed world cycling. 5 Paragraph About? Delgado, it was initially speculated, would be docked ten minutes but not thrown off the race. The Dutch rider, Steven Rooks, would then be the new leader and, with the race almost complete, the certain winner. 20.

I met Rooks before the start, on the morning after Delgado’s bad news. “How do you feel about taking the yellow jersey?” “I don’t want it in these circumstances,” he said. “But if he’s been cheating, and why would anyone use probenecid, you will be the deserving leader.” “He has been the strongest rider in the race and deserves the victory.” Rooks saw my righteousness for what it was. Innocence. What I believe he was telling me, in what of related, code, of course, was that athletes in the Tour de France do what they have to do, and no one is guiltier or more innocent than another. Strange how crushing that moment seemed.

Over the years that followed, I became a different kind of sports writer – less gullible, even aggressively sceptical. 5 Paragraph Essay About Leadership? Something Albert Camus wrote strikes a chord: “Every act of essay my motherland rebellion expresses a nostalgia for innocence” (Camus 1956, p. 54). We want sport to be believable. In the world of our imagination, sport doesn’t just mirror life but offers something more principled, more idealistic, more inspiring than the world of business. Alas, the leadership reality is far from that and there is a rebellion. Folk are tired of the corruption.

We want our innocence back. You can bet that when the assignment news emerged that FIFA executive committee members were arrested on corruption charges, football fans around the world were silently cheering. At last. Same reaction from athletics fans when news that high-ranking members of the IAAF suffered the same fate. Whether police investigations in both sports lead to charges doesn’t matter as much as knowing that men who once saw themselves as untouchable were mistaken.

With so much cheating on the field and so much corruption off it, you may think this is a bleak time for sport. On the contrary, this is what sport has needed: scrutiny, exposure of wrongdoing, punishment for those who have done wrong. No longer in the dark, we now have the opportunity for 5 paragraph, change. It would be a crime not to seize it. From where did the malaise come?

Do we blame the athlete because it is their body and what they put into it is ultimately their responsibility? Or the trusted coach who says that, without doping, victory is unattainable? Or the tuition governing body that publicly says doping is a scourge, but privately accepts its existence as an irrepressible evil? From where does the corruption come? What of the institutional corruption? Why did we get the IOC scandal, the FIFA scandal and the IAAF scandal? Perhaps there isn’t one failing that explains everything, but it is now clear that sports officials were granted too much autonomy and subjected to too little scrutiny. Members of the IOC and FIFA were treated like royalty and many of them embraced the world of privilege before abusing it. Now US federal officers and the Swiss and essay French police are pursuing cases of suspected fraud in sport, and they do so with fans worldwide urging them on. Let’s turn the clock back to the genesis of one of sport’s most notorious cases of wrongdoing. It was July 1999.

We were all at Le Puy du Fou, a theme park set among the trees and beauty of the Vendee in western France. It was the start of the Tour de France. The race began with a short individual race against the clock, each rider hurtling round a 4-mile circuit in pursuit of the first yellow jersey. That race launched Lance Armstrong as an embryonic global icon. He won that short test by a staggering eight seconds and had done this after recovering from life-threatening testicular cancer. His domination of that year’s Tour was absolute and his performance seemed to is review of related many the most life-affirming story that sport had ever delivered. Surviving cancer is one thing, but to follow recovery with victory in perhaps the essay about toughest athletic challenge of all is quite another.

Armstrong cheated because he believed others were cheating and that it was the only way he could win. Homeschool? On both counts, he was almost certainly correct. But that merely explains his rationale – it cannot excuse it. A great number of his competitors in that race were not using drugs and so were put at an insurmountable disadvantage by those who did cheat. The fact that Armstrong had been so seriously ill made it hard for people to believe that he would then use drugs that could be dangerous to his health. He never saw it like that. Many of the drugs used in restoring him to health, after he’d undergone four rounds of chemotherapy, were the same drugs that would give him greater endurance in the Tour de France.

And they weren’t that dangerous. But he couldn’t have gotten away with it unless so many had been willing to embrace the irresponsibility of not knowing. The truth is that the truth was there, an inch or so beneath the surface. “If a misdeed arises in the search for truth, it is better to exhume it rather than conceal the 5 paragraph about truth,” Saint Jerome wrote in the fifth century (cited in Ballester and Walsh 2004, p.1). That’s not bad advice. In the essay surge of the feel-good factor that came with Armstrong’s first victory in leadership, the Tour de France, everyone had their reasons for clinging to the irresponsibility of sarah lawrence not knowing and leaving the essay about leadership truth resting beneath the surface. His sponsors would sell bikes and clothing – and homeschool essay dreams – off the miracle of his comeback. Those entrusted with the duty to protect the sport, the world-governing cycling body (the Union Cycliste Internationale [UCI]) saw in him a saviour bearing the gifts of increased popularity and, of course, revenue. As fans, we want our heroes to be angels on wheels, simon- pure, somehow immune to the uppers and downers of our own pill-popping society. In the 5 paragraph leadership maelstrom of Armstrong’s wondrous victory, we engaged in what the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge called ‘the willing suspension of disbelief’. All the reasons why this story had to be questioned were suppressed. Those who tried to protest were shouted down.

Let us try to explain how easy it would have been for atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the fraud of Armstrong to have been stopped before it had begun. The drug of choice in 1999 was erythropoietin (EPO), which promotes the production of red cells and allowed those using it an almost endless supply of oxygen. With it, a rider could fly up mountains. Angels on wheels indeed. Essay? At that time, there was no anti-doping test to identify it in urine.

So EPO was a godsend for Was the of Hiroshima ethical?, those who wished to cheat, and there were plenty. From blood tests taken before that 1999 Tour, the authorities more or less knew who was using the drug but just could not prove it. About Leadership? They also knew that an EPO test was imminent. All they had to do was freeze the urine samples from ’99 and re-examine them when the EPO test was approved, which happened in 2000. It would have been simple and Was the atomic bombings and Nagasaki it would have exposed those who were cheating. Essay? But those who should have been protecting the sport were the same people who were promoting it, and Lance Armstrong was good for business. It was not co-incidental that when Armstrong the Legend became Armstrong the Cheat, US federal investigators had gotten involved. The Feds have powers that allow them to dig deeper than journalists, and Armstrong’s former teammates quickly learned that while they could tell little white lies to journalists, they couldn’t lie under oath. Only when the essay my motherland police got interested in the minutiae of football’s governing body, FIFA, and the athletics federation, IAAF, did we discover the extent of the corruption in both organisations.

Without subpoena powers, without the right to bank accounts, but with the threat of costly legal cases, there is only so far journalists can go. We came to know how rotten things were in leadership, the state of the Tour de France when French customs pulled over a team car on the Franco–Belge border at 6 am on a July morning in thesis binding oxford, 1998. With FIFA, it was the leadership Federal Bureau of Investigation’s (FBI) arrest of about US delegate Chuck Blazer that proved to be the turning point. Blazer spilt the beans and plenty of barons were in about leadership, trouble. French police are now doing the same for the IAAF, showing the most powerful that they’re not as untouchable as they might have thought. How did it get to this?

Good people stayed quiet when they should have spoken up. Anyone who pushed for good governance in these organisations was putting themselves in an uncomfortable position. Few were prepared to do that. It was easier to look the other way, to travel on the gravy train and not pull the emergency cord. This longing to what of related indulge the irresponsibility of not knowing has been the rock upon which the 5 paragraph essay corruption was built. Those who said nothing – they and their sports have paid a high price. Paul Simon wrote about this a long time ago in ‘The Sound of Silence’: “Fool, said I, you do not know. Silence, like a cancer grows” (Simon 1964).

How we have needed courageous people. Assignment? Take the IOC and the privileges of its members. Forget the courtesy cars and five-star hotels, the access to the best tickets and the lavish banquets. Instead, consider the daily allowance. Board members on IOC duty receive a daily $900 allowance, $450 for common or garden members (IOC Ethics Commission 2015). It adds up when you spend maybe two and a half weeks at the Olympics, which even an IOC member wouldn’t dare to call hard work. As much as there is an urge to say that these allowances are far too much, it is worth pointing out that, among the major sports bodies, the essay about IOC is the only one that publicly discloses information such as per of responsibility, diem allowances to its members. This level of compensation does beg the 5 paragraph essay leadership question, ‘Who is serving whom?’ Is it the IOC members who serve the Olympics or the Olympics that serves its committee members? There is a culture of entitlement that needs to sarah mfa creative writing end, because excessive privilege can often be the precursor to corruption: “If I am entitled to this, perhaps I can also get that.” Somewhere along the essay about way, a lot of sarah lawrence mfa creative writing tuition FIFA administrators came to see not much difference between privilege and wrongdoing – like one was the logical extension of the other. Let me tell you about Vitaly Stepanov, the 5 paragraph essay about leadership courageous whistle-blower who did so much to bring to light the doping secrets in Russian sport.

He was recently asked to meet IAAF officials in a major city. To get there, he had to take a six-hour flight. IAAF booked the ticket and is review of related when it landed in Stepanov’s email, he realised it was a first-class flight (Walsh 2014). Surprised and unimpressed to have found himself immediately drawn into this world of privilege, Stepanov rang his IAAF contact and said he had no wish to travel first- class. He considered the essay excessive cost could be far better spent on fighting the doping culture that he had exposed. Will sports officials ever get the is review literature message? (Walsh 2014). For inspiration, they might care to turn their eyes to the example being set by essay about, Pope Francis, leader of the Catholic Church. When he turned up in Washington to meet President Obama, it was easy to pick out his car in the motorcade of more than 20 SUVs and police cars.

He was inside the essay charcoal grey Fiat 500L, which was maybe a tiny step up, or down, from the Ford Focus he drives around the Vatican. “I’m visible to people and I lead a normal life,” Pope Francis has said. “Public Mass in essay about leadership, the morning, I eat in the refectory with everyone else, etc. All this is good for me and essay prevents me from being isolated. I’m trying to stay and essay about leadership act the same as I did in Buenos Aires because, if you change at my age, you just look ridiculous” (Pope Francis 2013, paraphrased). How many high-ranking sports officials have thought that if that little Fiat is good for the Pope, it is good enough for me? How many believe they should have lives somewhat akin to Was the ethical? the lives of fans upon whose loyalty their games are built?

The IOC needs to lower those allowances and FIFA’s new president, whoever they are, needs to embrace a more modest lifestyle. Transparency must become the norm and proper governance needs to be at the top of 5 paragraph essay about every agenda. My Motherland? For too long, good governance has been nothing but a PR sound bite. Trust will be regained when they show us they have changed, not when they tell us. We need governments to lead as well, to say to 5 paragraph essay leadership sport’s wrongdoers that you are not part of some separate untouchable state. Do wrong and you will be held accountable. The Wild West is no more. Writing? To the athletes, we need to say that winning is not the most important thing. How you try to win is what matters. Would you rather be top of the medal table with cheats or bottom with a group of totally honest athletes?

Governments need to stop seeing the prowess of their athletes as a sign of essay about national strength. Of Responsibility? For that too is 5 paragraph essay, another road leading to corruption. Better in my view for a government to understand that what truly matters is how many of its citizens are active. Thesis Binding Oxford? We need to 5 paragraph essay leadership stop wearing our country’s success in sport like a badge of honour, for it matters not a whit whether we’re first or second in homeschool writing, the medals table. It is Vitaly Stepanov, the Russian whistle-blower, to 5 paragraph about whom we should listen. He reminds us of what matters, and what doesn’t. “Personally, I don’t like this whole idea of countries and nationalism and Was the atomic ethical? all of 5 paragraph essay about leadership that. Things must be done that serve the of related planet not for the country. Same in sport, I don’t care that a Russian wins or an American wins. If the 5 paragraph essay leadership competition is fair, if the Was the atomic and Nagasaki ethical? best one wins, that’s good. If a person is honest, talented, has a good coach and he is raised properly and he becomes an 5 paragraph essay about, Olympic champion then he will be a hero.

And it really will not matter what country he is from. Jesse Owens became a hero for the whole world. “I went to the Olympic museum in Lausanne. There is a saying on a wall there from Pierre de Coubertin, the father of the Olympic movement. Let me just say it. What Is Review Of Related? ‘The important thing in life is not the triumph but the fight. The essential thing is not to have won but to have fought well.’ This is my view of what sport should be” (Walsh 2015). Ballester, P. and Walsh, D. 2004. L.A. Confidentiel: Les Secrets de Lance Armstrong.

France: La Martiniere. 5 Paragraph Leadership? Camus, A. 1956. The Rebel: An Essay on a Man in Revolt. New York: First Vintage International, p. Lawrence Mfa Creative Writing Tuition? 54. International Olympic Committee (IOC) Ethics Commission. 2015. Agenda 2020: Indemnity Policy. Switzerland: IOC.

Available from: http://www.olympic.org/Documents/Agenda2020/Ethics_ Commission_to_IOC_Members_IOC_Indemnity_Policy. pdf. Pope Francis. 2013. Letter to Father Enrique Rodriguez. Available online. Simon, P. 1964. 5 Paragraph Leadership? The Sound of oxford Silence. New York: Columbia Records. Walsh, D. 2013. Seven Deadly Sins: My Pursuit of Lance Armstrong. UK: Simon Schuster.

Walsh, D. 14 December 2014. Russian doping whistleblower fears for his safety. The Sunday Times. Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1495850.ece. Walsh, D. 29 November 2015. Husband and wife who brought down Russia. The Sunday Times. Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1638611.ece. World Anti-Doping Agency. 2016. Independent Commission Report – Part 2. Available online.

8. President Muhammadu Buhari: My plan to 5 paragraph leadership fight corruption in Nigeria. In the what is review of related literature run-up to the general elections in March 2015, I campaigned on the platform of addressing the challenges of security, the economy, power, infrastructure and fighting corruption. Leadership? Of these, removing the mfa creative writing cancer of corruption from the system is the 5 paragraph about key not only to restoring the moral health of the nation, but also to freeing our enormous resources for urgent socio-economic development. Nigerians never cease to ask, for example, why it is that, at essay about, independence in 1960, Nigeria’s gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was higher at $559 than that of Singapore’s at 5 paragraph essay about leadership, $476, but today Singapore’s GDP has grown to $55,182 and Nigeria’s has increased to just $3,005 (World Bank 2016). For sure, there are many variables to explain this paradox of a city-state with a small population outperforming Nigeria so dramatically. But the most important single factor, to my mind, is our two countries’ contrasting leadership visions and attitudes to corruption. As Alan Greenspan (2007) has observed, “Corruption, embezzlement, fraud, these are all characteristics which exist everywhere. It is regrettably the way human nature functions, whether we like it or not.

What successful economies do is to keep it to a minimum.” Unfortunately, successive Nigerian governments have simply been unable to contain the monster. Oil and sarah lawrence writing tuition gas are the second largest contributors to 5 paragraph about our GDP and account for homeschool writing, more than 80% of our foreign exchange earnings. Yet this is the most corruption-ridden sector of our economy. 5 Paragraph Essay Leadership? By some industry estimates, 232,000 barrels of crude oil worth on average $6.7 billion per annum are lost by the Nigerian state to oil thieves (Kar and Cartwright-Smith 2010). This illicit trade thrives as a result of collaboration among politicians, security agencies, criminal gangs and even multinational oil company employees. As the sarah Financial Times reported, the enormity of the problem is captured in satellite imageries showing the illicit oil trade “expanding exponentially between 2008 and 2013, at the same time as artisanal [illegal] refining was mushrooming across the Niger Delta on an industrial scale” (Wallis 2015). The abuse and misuse of public office for private gain has been a constant feature of governance in Nigeria for the past 30 years.

In the last two decades especially, corruption – with its corresponding devastating socio-economic consequences on national development and the well-being of our people – escalated rapidly and with even greater intensity. Our recent history has been one of predatory and rapacious political, military, public and 5 paragraph essay private sector elites competing and alternating as the drivers of corruption. Paradoxically, corruption flourished and eventually became a way of life under the supposedly accountable democratic governments of the past 16 years during which, by one calculation, the nation earned more revenue than in all the literature previous 80 years combined. Even as far back as the 1980s, procurement and contract costs in Nigeria were three times higher than those in essay about, East and North Africa, and four times higher than those in Asia. Thesis Binding Oxford? Studies suggest that public funds of between $300 billion and $400 billion have been lost to corruption since Nigeria became independent in 1960 (Ezekwesili 2012).

According to the African Union’s high-level panel on illicit flows, Nigeria alone accounted for $217 billion of the African continent’s total $850 billion loss to illicit flows between 1970 and 2008 (UNECA 2015). Despite anti-corruption agencies and 5 paragraph essay about laws introduced in recent years, there was a complete lack of political will to binding oxford strengthen these agencies and to faithfully enforce the laws. About? As one commentator observed, across the homeschool entire spectrum of 5 paragraph essay about leadership government, rules and essay writing regulations were ignored with impunity. Procurements were made with a total disregard for due process, inflated by billions of dollars and poorly executed, and payments were made for 5 paragraph essay leadership, jobs not even done. No wonder then that Nigeria consistently scored below the African average in virtually all the categories considered by essay about my motherland, various transparency and good governance agencies: safety and the rule of essay about law, ease of doing business, participation and human rights, sustainable economic opportunities and human development (Transparency International 2016).

The United Nations Office on sarah lawrence, Drugs and Crime (UNODC) (2016) has correctly identified that pervasive corruption undermines democratic institutions, slows economic development and essay about leadership contributes to governmental instability. Corruption erodes the assignment moral fabric of society and violates the social and economic rights of citizens, particularly the poor and the vulnerable. Actually it creates poverty and hurts the poor disproportionately, because resources are diverted away from those who need government protection and services the most. Indeed corrupt politicians, in 5 paragraph essay, collusion with electoral officials, have consistently distorted our electoral processes and perverted the rule of homeschool law, thereby undermining our democracy. Corrupt practices such as illegal duty and tax waivers lead to loss of revenue. Corruption drives away foreign direct investment with its consequential loss of opportunities for about, increased government revenue, job creation and sarah mfa creative writing tuition skills acquisition.

It erodes efficiency, effectiveness and productivity, while promoting waste and mismanagement. The resultant inequality in society – with extreme mass poverty living side by side with islands of stupendous unearned riches – has led to frustration, hopelessness and despair, and laid the foundation for militancy and insurgency. Corruption in Nigeria has resulted in the decay of leadership infrastructure, a lack of social services and the collapse of the institutions to fix them. The question then arises as to what of related literature why and how Nigeria descended to essay about leadership become such a sorry example of sarah mfa creative writing tuition a rich yet poor country. 5 Paragraph Essay About Leadership? There are many predisposing factors to corruption in what, Nigeria. First, there is the 5 paragraph essay distortion of values and what of related the cultural context. In many communities, as indeed everywhere else in the world, material success is celebrated and emulated. In Nigeria, however, a further weakening of values occurred somewhere down the line, eroding the essay about traditional mechanism of checks on what is review of related, the illegal, primitive and ostentatious accumulation and display of wealth. Dislocation of communities and urbanisation partly account for essay, this.

Second, a strong culture of ethnicity and nepotism encourages corruption because it influences the irrational allocation of resources and Was the atomic bombings ethical? the protection of culprits. Third, there is a culture of elite exceptionalism whereby high public-office holders and the wealthy feel that, by virtue of essay about their status, stature or position, they are exempted from the laws and rules regulating society. Fourth, and most insidious, is the pervasive culture of my motherland impunity across the social strata, which is, in turn, fuelled by a legal system bedevilled by delays. The egregious culture of impunity has itself sabotaged and stultified the growth of the rule of essay leadership law. Finally, the single biggest contributor to corruption in Nigeria is the lack of political will among the leadership of the country in the past to about tackle it. There are sufficient laws in 5 paragraph leadership, the statute books, and robust rules, regulations and clearly set out procedures throughout the public service. Writing? But the institutions established to about leadership fight corruption either lacked the desire, the capacity and drive to tackle it or were deliberately subverted or circumvented.

8.3 Proposals to curb corruption in Nigeria. To confront this challenge, we must start by showing that we have the exemplary leadership, personal integrity and demonstrable political will to do so. Democratic governance based on individual liberties, human rights, a free press and the rule of law requires us to homeschool be fair and just in dealing with all cases of corruption. There must be transparency and a strict adherence to due process – however painstaking the effort and however slowly the wheel of justice turns under this setting. At the essay same time, we must be accountable and remain faithful to our oath of office whereby we swore to do justice to all manner of essay people without fear or favour. We must, like Caesar’s wife, be seen at all times to 5 paragraph essay be beyond reproach in order to cast the lawrence tuition first of 5 paragraph leadership any stones. Thus, though not required by law, my vice-president and I began my tenure by what, publicly declaring our assets, to be compared with our net worth on leaving office. As I noted earlier, there exists a plethora of laws, rules and essay about regulations to ensure good governance in Nigeria. What Of Related Literature? There also exist several commissions and agencies to investigate and prosecute corrupt practices.

We need not create any new ones unless absolutely necessary. We only need to strengthen, adequately fund and motivate the existing ones to do their jobs. We shall also encourage independence of action and avoidance of self-censorship by anti-corruption agencies. No one will be presented as a ‘sacred cow’ beyond the reach of the law. In the fight against corruption, citizen involvement and 5 paragraph about leadership demand side activism are key components. Most of our people, especially those in the rural areas who are poor, ignorant and is review illiterate, do not make the 5 paragraph essay leadership link between corruption and their lack of assignment of responsibility access to leadership healthcare, education and other facilities, even where they exist. They are too poor, too dependent and too powerless to demand accountability from their State or local governments.

We shall therefore encourage the civil society, faith-based groups and essay community associations to challenge corruption within their communities. Essay Leadership? In this regard, we shall review our communication strategy towards a more open and what is review of related transparent government by sharing information, encouraging citizen empowerment and supporting social actions to challenge corrupt practices by public officials at the federal state and essay about leadership local government levels. In our model of democracy, there is assignment of responsibility, a clear separation of powers between the Executive, the Legislature and the Judiciary. To tackle corruption, there is a need for 5 paragraph, all three to my motherland work together for a common purpose. Towards this end, we are ready to engage with the essay about Legislature and homeschool the Judiciary, state governments and all organs of government to ensure the necessary synergy towards effectively combating corruption. Early in the life of about this administration, I constituted a Presidential Advisory Committee on Anti-Corruption – made up of experts and persons of integrity – to oversee our anti-corruption effort, promote the reform agenda of the Government and co-ordinate the implementation plan for anti-corruption legislation and other interventions.

Among other things, the Committee will also articulate and homeschool essay writing report on essay, strategies towards repositioning and strengthening our agencies. These include the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC), the Code of Conduct Bureau (CCB) and the Code of Conduct Tribunal (CCT), and the ways in which our criminal justice administration may be improved. Given the transnational operations of criminals and the multi-jurisdictional effect of corruption, we will also intensify our collaboration with the international community. This includes international anti-corruption agencies and institutions such as the Was the atomic of Hiroshima ethical? United Nations Office on essay about leadership, Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and other development partners. We also commit ourselves to compliance with the country’s international obligations under international treaties and conventions such as the United Nations Convention on Anti- Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015). 8.4 The Economic and Financial Crimes Commission and the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission. Two anti-corruption institutions are key to essay about my motherland Nigeria’s anti-corruption efforts. 5 Paragraph Essay About Leadership? These are the EFCC and the ICPC. My Motherland? We are aware that both are presently not working at maximum potential owing to a myriad of challenges, which include overlaps in mandate, gaps in operational legislation and funding, a human capital deficiency, leadership inadequacy and internal corruption. I believe a review of essay about legislation is Was the of Hiroshima and Nagasaki ethical?, essential to essay about leadership reposition these institutions. For example, currently the ICPC can only begin anti-corruption investigations in response to petitions from the public.

We want to change that, revising the ICPC Act to increase the my motherland Commission’s powers to initiate investigations into cases of corruption (ICPC 2016). This would include: Granting the ICPC the power to commence assets forfeiture proceedings, as is the case in the US, UK and South Africa. 5 Paragraph Essay About? Illegally acquired properties may then be seized where the suspected owner is a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts. Atomic Bombings Of Hiroshima Ethical?? Streamlining the jurisdiction of the ICPC by reducing areas of overlap with the EFCC, thus giving each agency areas of primary jurisdictional responsibility. Giving the ICPC power to accept material assistance from international institutions and development partners, as well as to access funds from global anti-corruption agencies, which the present ICPC Act prohibits. Similarly, as part of the EFCC legislative review, we will focus on: Empowering the Commission to presume that a person has illegally enriched themselves where such a person owns, possesses or controls an interest in any property that cannot be justified by present or past emoluments or circumstances. Streamlining the jurisdiction of the EFCC to reduce overlap with the 5 paragraph ICPC mandate. Securing the forfeiture of illegally acquired properties where the suspected owner is a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts.

Separating the agency for financial intelligence gathering from the EFCC. The Nigerian Financial Intelligence Unit, which operates as an arm of the EFCC, needs to about my motherland be independent in order to enhance its operational autonomy. We intend to work with the Legislature to implement all these necessary reforms. It’s also critical that these two agencies charged with fighting corruption and financial crimes collaborate closely with development partners for technical assistance, staff training and data sharing. As international co-operation continues to reduce the number of havens for 5 paragraph about leadership, hiding the proceeds of crime, new havens are emerging. We need therefore to enhance the scope of writing our mutual legal assistance agreements to widen the essay leadership net we cast to recover illicit funds and secure the forfeiture of unexplainable assets. In this regard, the assignment of responsibility agencies will also need to be more proactive in leveraging the essay about legislations of foreign jurisdictions such as the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (US Department of Justice 2015).

Indeed, there have been two recent cases involving high-profile Nigerians that show how foreign jurisdictions (to whom we are grateful) can effectively complement our national efforts to is review of related literature tackle corruption cases. Pursuant to action taken by the US under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, Kellogg, Brown Root pleaded guilty to paying named Nigerian officials a $180 million bribe to secure a $6 billion contract (US Department of Justice 2009). In another notorious case, all numerous counts of corruption filed against a former governor of 5 paragraph essay a state were dismissed by a court in Nigeria only for the same politician to be convicted in the UK – based on the same evidence! These kinds of is review prosecution lapses in major corruption cases arise because of the slow nature of trials, especially of corruption cases, in our system. Typically, corruption trials involving high-profile public officers last an average of 8 to essay about 10 years or, if they go to appeal, 15 years. In such a situation, prosecution and judicial fatigue set in. It’s standard practice for senior defence lawyers to use legal technicalities such as preliminary objections to challenge the jurisdiction of the essay about court, requesting stay of proceedings and appealing interlocutory or preliminary matters, or for 5 paragraph, courts to oblige the accused with injunctions (sometimes perpetual), restraining anti-corruption agencies from investigating, arresting or prosecuting the suspected persons!

However, with the assignment passage of the Administration of 5 paragraph essay leadership Criminal Justice Act (ACJA) 2015, which seeks to oxford limit such abuses, we hope to see significant progress (Federal Ministry of Justice 2015). The ACJA contains several innovations with the essay leadership potential to significantly improve criminal justice administration in Nigeria. My Motherland? For example, it states that an application for a stay of proceedings shall not be entertained, that all preliminary objections shall be considered along with the substantive issues and that a ruling shall be made thereon at the time of delivery of judgment. The CCB was created 36 years ago to ensure probity and accountability. This includes setting out a comprehensive code of conduct for public officers such as declaring their assets and liabilities, and those of members of their families, when they assume and subsequently leave public office.

It has powers to apprehend offending public officers and arraign them before the CCT. Yet in about leadership, spite of the glaring and widespread corruption by essay, political appointees and other public servants, the Bureau has hardly used its powers and, where it has, only low-level public officers have been apprehended and brought before the CCT. Lee Kuan Yew (2000), writing on corruption in his book, From Third World To First, The Singapore Story: 1965– 2000, stated that: “The most effective change we made in 1960 was to allow the courts to treat proof that an accused was living beyond his or her means or had property or income they could not explain as corroborating evidence of corruption.” Nigeria has had a similar provision at paragraph 11(3) of the leadership Fifth Schedule to the Constitution, which provides that any property acquired by a public officer that is not fairly attributable to his income shall be deemed to have been acquired in breach of the Code (International Centre of Nigerian Law [ICNL] 1999). In its 36 years of assignment of responsibility existence, the CCB has never invoked this provision. The ICPC has a similar provision within section 44(2) of its enabling Act, which it has also never invoked since its creation 15 years ago. The CCB is fundamentally hampered by the fact that there is leadership, no requirement for public officers’ asset declarations to be published. So to lead by example, my vice-president and I voluntarily submitted our assets declaration, hoping that other members of my Government would do the same. But beyond this, the CCB simply lacks the capacity to verify the claims made in the thousands of assets forms submitted. There simply has not been the political will to fully fund or adequately staff and equip the CCB for the task. In co-operation with the National Assembly, we shall look for ways and means to make the required appropriation.

We shall also seek co-operation and assistance from our development partners in homeschool writing, the areas of computerisation of the operations of the CCB and Land Registries, with links to the operations of the Nigerian Stock Exchange, the Securities and Exchange Commission and the Corporate Affairs Commission (our Companies Registry) to enhance and facilitate assets tracing. Already our Central Bank has implemented a biometric verification system in all banks, facilitating the verification of the essay about identity of every account holder. Like the CCB, the CCT was established more than three decades ago. Its purpose was to homeschool adjudicate on breaches of the Code of Conduct by public officers, which were referred to it by the CCB. In the absence of a functioning CCB, the CCT too has been doomed to failure, applying its powers to impose sanctions – such as removal from essay about, office, bans from about, holding public office and the forfeiture of corruptly acquired property – only to minor cases. Essay? The Nigeria Police, like the police everywhere, are primarily tasked with maintaining law and order. Its involvement with corruption cases and financial crimes is peripheral except in cases like theft. Oxford? But the 5 paragraph essay potential for Was the atomic and Nagasaki ethical?, compromised anti- corruption operatives remains a problem across our public sector. And the 5 paragraph essay leadership police are no exception.

Indeed, Transparency International, citing the 2013 Global Corruption Barometer, stated that 92% of respondents in Nigeria felt that the police were corrupt. We are aware of this general perception of the Nigeria Police and Was the bombings of Hiroshima we shall take steps for its reform. 5 Paragraph About Leadership? The other institution that is critical to what is review of related our ability to successfully combat corruption is the adjudicating agency or the Judiciary. Yet our Judiciary itself is perceived to be corrupt. As in other areas, it’s a difficult allegation to prove. From their pronouncements, it’s clear that the leadership of the Judiciary is aware of this general perception. It cannot be swept under the carpet, especially given the 5 paragraph odious nature of many decisions from the Bench.

These include granting perpetual injunctions, restraining the police and what is review anti-corruption agencies from investigating, arresting or prosecuting high-profile politicians and the other examples I have already cited. Essay About? Indeed, the leadership is undertaking internal measures to identify judges of unimpeachable integrity, and to have corruption cases assigned to them administratively. They are similarly making efforts to cleanse the system by identifying compromised judges for disciplinary measures, including retirement. The discipline of judges, however, is the responsibility of the National Judicial Council established by the Constitution. There have been observations about the homeschool writing Council’s composition, the 5 paragraph about leadership mode of lawrence appointment to it and 5 paragraph essay about how to oxford make it broader-based in representation. These are matters for 5 paragraph essay about, the Judiciary to oxford consider. Finally, we are undertaking administrative measures in about, the following areas to strengthen our anti-corruption crusade more generally: Addressing poor remuneration in the public service. Alongside our wider reforms of the public sector, we need to look into about, appropriate remuneration for some categories of civil servants. 5 Paragraph About Leadership? A fresh university graduate in the public service earns about homeschool writing, $300 a month.

Unfortunately, inflationary pressures and increases in leadership, the cost of living make corrupt ways of supplementing legitimate income more attractive. Sarah Lawrence Mfa Creative Writing? Again, Lee Kuan Yew (2000) said that one of the ways he dealt with corruption in the public service was to drastically increase the salaries of the accounting officers, putting them almost on a par with similar heads of private sector organisations. While this isn’t an immediate possibility for us, given our current economic circumstances, we do propose to finance some increases in critical functions related to public service wages, using part of the 5 paragraph leadership freed-up funds gained from recovered looted assets, reductions in waste and the plugging of leaks. However, there may also be need for a downward review of the emoluments, allowances and what literature entitlements of certain public officers. We shall also reform our oil sector – which is the lifeblood but also the 5 paragraph leadership most corruption-ridden sector of thesis binding our economy. To that end, we will: Publish quarterly audits of the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation. End the opacity in the swapping of crude oil for refined products, which has created avenues for essay, corruption.

Improve internal refining capacity with a view to ending, in 2016, the clearly unsustainable 1 trillion Naira (N) subsidy on and Nagasaki ethical?, imported petroleum products. Essay? Engender transparency in the purchase of all refined products by publishing purchases and reconciling the Was the of Hiroshima and Nagasaki ethical? amounts against consumption figures. Develop partnerships to deploy advanced technology to share data and track oil theft. Increase the participation of Nigeria in the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). After corruption, waste and mismanagement of public funds are the biggest drains on the economy. Even before the essay about present economic downturn, reducing them had become imperative. For years, recurrent expenditure had been at binding, 70 - 80% of the national budget with emoluments of senior public officers being the major expenditure heads. So there will be a significant reduction in international travel by public officers. We will ensure that public officers travel only when absolutely necessary and, when they do, there will be a restriction placed on classes of travel. In addition, the Federal Ministry of Finance has now established an Efficiency Unit to monitor all ministries, departments and agencies.

The Unit’s aim is to review all government overhead expenditures, reduce waste and promote efficiency. We shall also vigorously enforce the Public Procurement Act to ensure that due process is followed in government procurements (Bureau of essay about Public Procurement 2012). Following decades of a lack of oversight over government revenues, receipts and Was the atomic and Nagasaki ethical? income flow, we have recently reverted to constitutionalism and consolidated all government accounts into a Treasury Single Account maintained by the Central Bank of Nigeria. As a result, we are now in a position to monitor all receipts, expenditures and block leakages, thereby enhancing transparency and accountability in the management of essay about leadership government revenues, receipts and payments. We will run a leaner Government, reducing the number of ministries and reviewing the proliferation of parastatals and agencies. Some of these are moribund, such as the Public Complaints Commission, the 2014 budgetary allocation for which was N2.927 billion – all of it was spent on salaries. Many others are either no longer required or they perform the same or similar functions. These include the National Office for Technology Acquisition and Promotion, with its 2014 budget allocation of N466 million to boost locally generated technology. In the same vein, the binding oxford Nigeria Information Technology Development Agency had a 2014 budget allocation of N339.01 million to develop information technology. Such agencies, with ambiguous or overlapping functions, will be progressively streamlined and merged with their main ministries or scrapped.

I will conclude by reiterating that the essay about immediate and long- term benefits of thesis binding oxford curbing corruption in Nigeria are pretty obvious to us. In this essay, I have put forward what some may consider over-ambitious goals. 5 Paragraph? I believe in the adage that the journey of what is review a thousand miles begins with the 5 paragraph essay about leadership first step. I have the will to take this first step. And with sustained effort, we shall reach our target of freeing-up sufficient funds to accelerate the development of critical infrastructure such as railways, roads and power; invest in health and education consistent with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals; pursue our social programmes such as skills acquisition and poverty alleviation; and create an enabling environment for the diversification of our economy, with investments in agriculture, solid minerals, petrochemicals and allied industries. These outcomes will encourage local and binding oxford foreign direct investments, job creation, and reductions in poverty, crime and insecurity. As Sarah Chayes has observed, “Corruption has helped fuel most of the serious crises the world has witnessed in the past decade. About Leadership? It swells the ranks of terrorist movements, weakens local opposition to them, facilitates their activities and hollows out militaries tasked with combating them.

It sparks angry protests that can turn into homeschool, revolutions with unknown second and third order effects such as those in the Arab world in 2011” (Kirkpatrick 2015). It is therefore in our national interest, and that of the international community, to fight corruption not only within national boundaries but also globally, through concerted international action. Bureau of Public Procurement. About Leadership? 2012. Bureau of Public Procurement. Available online.

Ezekwesili, O. 28 August 2012. Corruption, National Development, the thesis binding oxford Bar and the Judiciary. Abula: 52nd Annual General Meeting (AGM) of the Nigerian Bar Association. Federal Ministry of Justice. 2015. Administration of Criminal Justice Act 2015. Available online. Greenspan, A. 24 September 2007. Alan Greenspan vs. Naomi Klein. 5 Paragraph Essay? Democracy Now!

Available [online] (http://www.democracynow.org/2007/9/24/alan_greenspan_ vs_naomi_klein_on). Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC). 2016. The Establishment Act. Available [online] (http://icpc.gov.ng/the-establishment-act/). International Centre of Nigerian Law (ICNL). 1999. Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999. Available online. Kar, D. and Cartwright-Smith, D. Of Responsibility? 2010. Illicit Financial Flows From Africa: Hidden Resource for Development.

Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Available [online] (http://www.gfintegrity.org/storage/gfip/documents/reports/ gfi_africareport_web.pdf). Essay Leadership? Kirkpatrick, J. 30 September 2015. Interview – Sarah Chayes. E-International Relations. Sarah Lawrence Mfa Creative Writing? Available [online] (http://www.e-ir.info/2015/09/30/interview-sarah-chayes/). Transparency International. 2013. Global Corruption Barometer. Available [online] (http://www.transparency.org/gcb2013).

Transparency International. 2016. Corruption by Country – Nigeria. Available [online] (https://www.transparency.org/country/#NGA). United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA). February 2015. Track it. Stop it. Get it: Report of the essay High Level Pane on Illicit Finance Flows from Africa.

Africa: UNECA. Available [online] (http://www.uneca.org/sites/default/files/PublicationFiles/ iff_main_report_26feb_en.pdf). United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available [online] (https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories. html). United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2016. Was The Of Hiroshima And Nagasaki? UNODC’s Action against about, Corruption and Economic Crime. Available online.

US Department of Justice. 11 February 2009. Kellogg Brown Root LLC Pleads Guilty to sarah writing tuition Foreign Bribery Charges and leadership Agrees to Pay $402 Million Criminal Fine. Available online. US Department of essay Justice. 23 September 2015. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Available [online] (http://www.justice.gov/criminal-fraud/foreign-corrupt- practices-act). Wallis, W. 26 May 2015.

Nigeria: The big oil fix. Financial Times. Essay? Available [online] (http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/be2a72de-f30f-11e4-a979- 00144feab7de.html#axzz3yeg9x1Nz) World Bank. 12 January 2016. Thesis Binding? GDP per Capita: Nigeria and Singapore (1960–2014). Available [online] (https://goo.gl/LNl6ez). Yew, L. K. 2000.

From Third World to First, The Singapore Story: 1965–2000. UK: Harper Collins. 9. Leadership? President Ashraf Ghani: Driving corruption out of procurement. The moral outrage that many feel about essay about, corruption and the devastation it wreaks blinds us to its pervasive nature. But it is imperative we recognise that, in a number of countries, corruption is leadership, not an aberration within an otherwise well- functioning system of public governance.

It is part and parcel of the system itself – reinforced by the fragmented nature of these countries’ governments, producing predictable, self- perpetuating costs for sarah lawrence, national development. If we’re to tackle corruption effectively, we must identify and understand the systemic drivers that enable corrupt practices to thrive and reproduce. This essay argues that corruption is, at its core, a failure of individual and institutional accountability that allows officials to divert public resources from their intended uses. But if the problem to solve in a country like Afghanistan is a lack of accountability, the actions needed to 5 paragraph essay about leadership change it must overcome the fact that the government institutions, which are expected to carry out the reforms, are themselves highly fragmented. Essay? Reforms from outside the system can make some progress, but fragmentation means that these reforms will always be partial and temporary. In fragmented systems, only strong, national political leadership can tackle corruption at its roots. This is because only the top political leadership can look across the different arenas and ministries where corruption happens, in order to provide an effective agenda for reform. By demonstrating top commitment through positive action, even fragmented systems can build coalitions with internal and external reformers. But somebody must open the 5 paragraph essay door.

The countries that occupy the bottom reaches of world anti- corruption standards are frequently characterised by deeply fragmented systems of state accountability. In such countries, the government systems that should prevent corruption are the literature very systems used to enable it (Fund for Peace 2013). This includes core operations such as procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and justice. If the systemic character of corruption in these fragmented administrations is not understood, reforms become a game. 5 Paragraph Essay About? Donors provide technical assistance to write anti-corruption action plans that ministries don’t implement. What Is Review Of Related? Anti-corruption commissions are launched and quietly dissolved; study tours to reformist countries bring a flurry of essay excitement before being forgotten. None of these exercises make a serious dent in the fundamental problem of institutionalised corruption, because they assume that corruption can be tackled by suppressing its symptoms and they thus fail to address its structural drivers. Although some sections of the government may indeed be committed to reform, frequently they are kept there for appearances only, not to achieve any actual progress in the fight against corruption. To consider how we might change that, we now turn to the anti-corruption strategy being implemented in Afghanistan. 9.3 Reforming corruption in writing tuition, fragmented accountability systems: the case of Afghanistan.

By any measure, Afghanistan is one of the most corrupt countries on 5 paragraph, earth. Fifty years of near constant conflict have destroyed both social and institutional controls. The flood of money that poured into the country for reconstruction after the overthrow of the Taliban in late 2001 further fragmented and reduced its systems of accountability. When the Government of the Islamic Republic of what of related literature Afghanistan took office in October 2014, we were united in our commitment to bring an end to 5 paragraph essay leadership corruption and Was the and Nagasaki the impunity that surrounded it. The costs of the corruption that we inherited were more than just moral revulsion. 5 Paragraph Essay? They had significant effects on national development. The challenge we faced was introducing reforms that would work in our post-conflict environment.

The departure of the international forces between 2012 and 2014 meant that the large volumes of financial support that accompanied the troops came to a sudden end. Government and donors agreed that the apparatus of corruption that had formed around the allocation of aid funding meant that, without reform, it would be impossible to switch into a private sector led growth strategy. Endless bribery would keep Afghanistan uncompetitive and poor. As a country threatened by mfa creative writing tuition, both internal violence and external attacks, establishing the government’s legitimacy is 5 paragraph about, vital to maintain social order. But a history of state corruption has undermined the citizenry’s belief that government courts could credibly dispense justice; that government police would provide order; and that government agencies would represent the binding public’s interests fairly, rather than just hand out licences to rich bidders (Asia Foundation 2014). 5 Paragraph Essay About Leadership? 9.4 Diagnosing where corruption happens. Just as long-distance travellers benefit from having a well-defined roadmap to reach their destination, our anti-corruption strategy began by of responsibility, mapping out the landscape of about leadership corruption in Afghanistan. Homeschool Essay Writing? This meant a systematic review of government operations to identify where corruption occurred.

We found that state-sponsored corruption was everywhere. Particular areas of concern were: Land grabbing Whereas in traditional Afghan society and under Islamic law, clear property rights provide strong social protections, land grabbing in about leadership, Afghanistan had turned property into a source of discord, distrust and exclusion. As a result of land grabs, the private sector was denied access to property for investment, while the poor were driven into substandard and insecure housing. Government appointments People widely believe that appointments to the government are secured through patronage and assignment payment. The Ministry of Finance informed the Cabinet that national revenue could be doubled if civil servants were not paying back the costs of 5 paragraph about leadership their appointments.

Banking The Kabul Bank became the emblem for the looting of assignment of responsibility public resources. Starting in 2012, forensic audits revealed that virtually all its large accounts were systematically falsified. Money was put in during audit periods and then immediately withdrawn afterwards. The cost of the Kabul Bank scandal was $850 million (the Government has recovered more than a third of this). Customs Afghanistan has always relied on customs fees. But deliberately weakened customs management has been a major driver of corruption. Afghanistan’s Central Statistics Office records approximately $1.1 billion in imports from Pakistan – but statistics from Pakistan report $2.32 billion in exports to Afghanistan (Observatory of Economic Complexity 2015). Nor does the bribery stop at the border. Studies of transport routes reveal that over 5 paragraph about leadership, a 100-mile stretch there can be as many as 12 posts, each demanding bribes.

Natural resource exploitation Afghanistan is assignment of responsibility, developing the early symptoms of the 5 paragraph about leadership resource curse, the syndrome whereby rich natural resources, which could in assignment, principle make a poor country well off, instead end up becoming a locus for corruption and the capture of that natural wealth by small elites. The worst manifestation is in mining, where corrupt licensing and procurement produce rapacious and destructive mining practices. Smuggling and narcotics As with the drug trade everywhere, regional and global networks make the illicit economy a significant driver of leadership corruption. More recently, violent and dangerous narcotics smugglers have expanded their field of activity to cover human trafficking and control over irregular migration from atomic, Afghanistan to Eurasia. 9.5 Corruption, procurement and reform. There is no quick fix to end this type of systemic corruption.

However, we can see some ways forward if we look beneath the surface of where corruption happens to the processes by which government can abet or control corruption. Essay About Leadership? In Afghanistan, instead of being the systems for government accountability, procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and the administration of justice have become the essay drivers that explain how corruption persists. Within a fragmented system like this, a reformist government can only turn its commitment to reform into practical action if it rebuilds those systems from the inside out. To demonstrate how that can work in practice, the remainder of this paper will explore the Afghan Government’s efforts to reform the procurement process. At its most basic, public procurement is how the government uses competition to get the public the best value at the lowest cost. Reforming how governments go about buying goods and services may not seem an especially exciting place to start systems reform, especially when compared with high-profile prosecutions or investigative reporting and publication.

But procurement lies at 5 paragraph about leadership, the heart of what governments ‘do’. Global estimates suggest that government procurement can account for between 10% and 30% of gross domestic product (GDP) (SELA 2015). Bombings Of Hiroshima And Nagasaki Ethical?? And when public procurement is infected by corruption, the effect on government performance and value to the taxpayer is catastrophic. Procurement in Afghanistan has traditionally exhibited all the symptoms of a fragmented and corrupt system of government accountability. Forensic reviews repeatedly show a systematic rigging of competitive bidding, usually through the inclusion of non-existent companies to give the appearance of competition when there is in fact none. For a fee, cost estimates are shared between corrupt officials and essay about corrupt bidders. Rules to block conflicts of interest are routinely subverted by companies owned by the relatives of high-ranking officials whose only bombings and Nagasaki ‘business’ is to provide access. Essay About? Not all corruption in homeschool writing, procurement takes place behind the scenes. Threats of 5 paragraph about violence, kidnapping and assignment bribery are used to force legitimate competitors to withdraw or alter their bids. Officials collude with favoured companies to set technical standards that only they can fulfil.

Corrupt practices do not end at contract negotiations. Manipulating procurement so that low-quality goods are delivered rather than the 5 paragraph about higher-quality supplies that were procured and invoiced is a pervasive practice that leads to collapsed infrastructure, massive overcharging and poor-quality services. Procurement therefore provides an acid test of whether the new Government’s commitments to bring about systemic change will really be backed by political will and structural change. The two key reforms in essay about, the first stage of the Afghan Government’s strategy are the 5 paragraph essay leadership formation of a National Procurement Council (NPC) to review all high-value contracts and of responsibility the consolidation of construction contracts through two specialised agencies. Centralising procurement was not the only route to reform open to us, but it enabled us to tackle the 5 paragraph essay structural issues that allowed corruption to thrive. Reforming corruption ministry by ministry was not only far beyond the limited capacities of the is review of related Government, but it would also have left untouched the underlying incentives that drove this corruption in the first place. Only through sustained top- level oversight to 5 paragraph create the accountability needed, combined with technical expertise, could we ever hope to binding oxford change the bureaucratic culture. 5 Paragraph? 9.6 Building the about my motherland machinery of reform. To underscore the top-level commitment of the national leadership to 5 paragraph essay about leadership bring corruption to an end, the NPC is chaired by what literature, me, the President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan.

Afghanistan’s chief executive officer, the second vice- president and the ministers for 5 paragraph, finance, economy and justice also attend the weekly council meeting. Such high-levelparticipation is needed not just to send a symbolic message to the country at large, but also to thesis binding present a unified front to the entrenched interests within the 5 paragraph essay leadership government itself that will resist reforms. We are supported by an Office of Procurement staffed by Afghans who have been trained in professional procurement and who have the specialised expertise needed to understand the details of essay my motherland bids. Because such a large share of the essay about leadership Afghan budget is spent on security, the Government also gets technical support from the NATO military command to help review military contracts. Public transparency is built into the process.

Our weekly procurement review meetings include a representative of Integrity Watch (an international non-governmental organisation [NGO]), the US’s special oversight expenditure review body (SIGAR) and a rotating member of the Afghan Parliament’s Caucus on Integrity. Minutes of our meetings and all decisions are placed on an updated, publicly accessible website (Government of Afghanistan 2016), and our team provides regular briefings for sarah mfa creative writing tuition, journalists, donors and the Afghan media. Transparency has enabled us to begin to build trust in government. The first major test of 5 paragraph essay leadership our work came in the security sector. Civil society and whistle-blowers had made serious allegations over a $400 million fuel contract awarded by the outgoing Government’s Ministry of Defence. In response to about these allegations, the bid was reopened. A preliminary review found credible evidence of malfeasance. We suspended the contract and appointed a high-level commission of essay about leadership inquiry to review this and an additional nine major fuel contracts. The commission’s report revealed widespread subversion of the about my motherland law. Unfortunately, a response was not going to 5 paragraph essay leadership be as simple as suspending the contract and starting over.

Continuing the contract would have meant accepting the corruption. But stopping it cold would have meant leaving soldiers and police without ammunition and supplies in the middle of an essay about, intense war. Leadership? This is a strong example of how corruption in procurement can have detrimental consequences for national security and the safety of our people. Thesis Oxford? Given this dilemma, what were we to do? To cut through the knot, we developed a framework whereby each contract was cancelled, then renegotiated on a sole-source basis.

The results were reviewed and certified by specialists, including experts from NATO. The NPC then re-examined each case to confirm that the results met procedural and value-for-money standards, and the results were placed on its public website. The same framework is now being applied to the Ministry of Interior. 5 Paragraph About? Our case-by-case examination of some 900 contracts has revealed that compliance with national law and good procurement practices is the rare exception rather than the rule. NPC oversight is restructuring these bids to squeeze out the corruption and ensure that the Government receives what it pays for. Tuition? Our best estimates are that this system has saved the Government at least $350 million in its first year of operation. 5 Paragraph Essay Leadership? Presidential hands-on management of the assignment national procurement authority is meant to about leadership send the message to our people of the Government’s commitment to reform. But it is also a temporary measure, triggered by assignment, the need to 5 paragraph restore credibility. We have climbed the foothills of reform, but the full mountain range lies ahead. A great many technical changes are needed to binding oxford ensure that, in the future, honest procurement is the rule not the exception.

Now that the political door has been opened to reform, internal and external reformers can embed a great many more changes across other government operations such as publishing contracts, benchmarking bids against known unit costs and reviewing procurement rules. Better oversight and detailed reviews of essay about processes can address corruption when and homeschool essay where it occurs, but it will not change the underlying structures that enable it. For that to happen, we must make the essay entire government system invulnerable to exploitation and manipulation. This is a significant challenge for us. Tackling the reform of Was the bombings of Hiroshima ethical? large-scale procurement is technically complex.

It requires strong leadership but also professional expertise and experience. 5 Paragraph Essay? Furthermore, the structure of aid partnerships in Afghanistan has meant that each ministry has built up its own project- financed wing for procurement and construction – another example of how fragmentation allows corruption to essay about emerge. Large development agencies such as the World Bank address this issue by deploying dozens of highly trained, highly paid specialists to review the procurement decisions of their counterpart ministries. Afghanistan will never be able to afford an equivalent level of expertise. 5 Paragraph Essay? We need an entirely different model of what is review of related literature how procurement happens. To build this model, the Government has started to concentrate physical construction in just two ministries, one for national public works and one a state-owned enterprise that manages government contracting. This will not only allow these two ministries to develop procurement expertise and provide proper oversight, but it will also free up other ministries to concentrate on their core functions and add real value, rather than skew them towards the activities that make money.

This is how we plan to tackle a public culture that has been built around making money instead of providing service. For example, the education ministry can improve the 5 paragraph essay quality of essay about teachers and student learning instead of lobbying for more school construction. The health ministry can focus on reducing Afghanistan’s appalling maternal mortality rates rather than dreaming about building ever more clinics that lack trained staff and 5 paragraph about proper supplies. The Government is thesis oxford, not so naive as to leadership think that reviewing contracts and concentrating construction in two central agencies alone can end corruption. Each system that increases government accountability must be rebuilt. But the progress we have made on procurement reform shows that it can be done. What comes next?

Even with improved planning, clearer rules and heightened oversight, corruption will keep occurring until the sarah tuition likelihood of punishment reaches a level that makes officials decide that it is no longer worth the risk. Until recently, the punishment for corruption rarely extended beyond a verbal admonition. Fiduciary oversight was in any case largely left to the donor agencies. Our next task then is to make sure that punishments fit the crimes: reform must move to the courts, the judges, the police and the prosecutors. Here we can frankly admit that progress is slower than we expected. The Government has not been able to move as quickly on essay about leadership, justice sector reform as it would have liked. Justice reform is particularly difficult, because a balance must be struck between maintaining the independence of the thesis oxford judiciary and finding ways to 5 paragraph leadership reform what itself has become a core driver of institutionalised corruption. But while much remains for us to do, we are seeing improvements to the administration of justice. Government’s actions are beginning to end the regime of impunity that protected high-level culprits.

In the procurement cases discussed earlier, officials who colluded with bidders were suspended and the cases for their prosecution are being prepared. Personnel actions are similarly being used to transfer officials away from essay my motherland, positions susceptible to bribery. Those culprits who find judges to essay about leadership release them can count on having their cases reviewed by the Attorney General’s office. But accelerating the pace of justice sector reform is what of related, clearly the Government’s next frontier. The other urgent next step is to deepen and strengthen our partnership with civil society’s anti-corruption activists. Our experience shows that, to have any real chance of essay about success fighting corruption in thesis binding oxford, a post-conflict society, top- level engagement and strong accountability are needed to signal that the necessary local and national will to fight corruption exists. The more that Afghanistan’s people believe that the Government is taking reform seriously, the more the Government can count on whistle-blowers and an investigative media to end the atmosphere of impunity on leadership, which a culture of corruption thrives. Over time, more and more ministry decisions and actions on budgets, contracts and Was the atomic and Nagasaki expenditures will be made public and actively disseminated through traditional and modern media. Accepting citizen feedback and monitoring must become a core part of how the government conducts its business.

As with procurement, top-level leadership is needed to crack open bureaucratic resistance, after which internal and external reformers can push forward a corruption reform programme of 5 paragraph essay about leadership actions. But that first step remains critical. This paper has argued an approach for sarah mfa creative tuition, how states can achieve transformational change in the fight against corruption, using procurement in 5 paragraph, Afghanistan as an example. Firstly, it shows how top-level political commitment, an electoral mandate to end corruption and government actions can together enable a series of essay writing practical actions to bring about national level reform. That model combines political signalling, managerial reforms, technical oversight and increasing engagement with an aware citizenry to fundamentally change a culture and systems that are facilitating corruption. Secondly, it details how successful high-level reform strategies need to begin with the understanding that corruption is not a phenomenon in and of itself, but the result of fragmented regimes that lack accountability. About Leadership? During the war in Afghanistan, responsibility for unprecedentedly large amounts of money fell to diverse control systems, none of which had the capacity or reach to compensate for the lack of state-managed oversight.

Overcoming fragmentation could only thesis begin from the top. This is 5 paragraph essay about, not the only route that countries can follow. But the Afghan Government’s procurement reforms offer many valuable lessons for thesis binding oxford, how to bring an end to corruption in development. Procurement everywhere accounts for a very large share of government expenditure, but in post- conflict or post-disaster countries there will always be a sudden surge of new procurement into systems without the experience to essay leadership manage it. Fragmentation is built into the reconstruction process. Properly managed reform, with high- level oversight, closes down opportunities for essay my motherland, corruption and aligns procurement designs with the institutional capacities needed to control corruption. Procurement is especially interesting, because it is an area where governments must have the political acumen and will to navigate the trade-offs that reform will entail. Governments cannot just stop procurement while they fix the system. Leadership? As the Afghan case study shows, simply stopping the procurement of homeschool essay obviously flawed fuel contracts in the middle of a war would have meant losing the war. Essay? But, because the governance structures were in place to allow for a sufficiently senior level of decision making, an alternative arrangement could be developed.

Afghanistan has only just started implementing the fully fledged reform needed to root out corruption. It took decades to build up a system that systematised corruption at every level. It will be many years before the Government can claim success. Atomic Bombings And Nagasaki Ethical?? But the strategy and essay leadership roadmap for assignment of responsibility, reform are clear, and the first round of hurdles has already been passed. Government corruption has driven a three-decades-old conflict. Corruption has blocked Afghanistan from being self-reliant and free. And corruption has wasted a vast amount of essay precious resources that could otherwise have been spent reducing Afghanistan’s crushing levels of poverty. Afghanistan’s citizens voted for a Government that would have the Was the of Hiroshima ethical? courage and commitment to break the cycle of corruption. We will continue to essay about earn their trust and build a virtuous partnership for national development. Asia Foundation.

2014. A Survey of the Afghan People. San Francisco: Asia Foundation. Available online. Fund for Peace. 2013. Fragile States Index. Washington DC: FFP Publications. Available online. Government of Afghanistan.

2016. Administrative Office of the President – National Procurement Authority. Available online. Observatory of Economic Complexity. December 2015. Sarah Lawrence? Country profile: Afghanistan. Available online. SELA.

2015. Public Procurement as a Tool for Development in Latin America and about leadership the Caribbean. Caracas: SELA. 10. Prime Minister John Key: New Zealand: a culture of fair play. It says a lot about the homeschool New Zealand psyche that one of the most notorious acts in our sporting history involved an underarm cricket delivery. New Zealand needed six from the last ball to 5 paragraph about tie a 1981 one-day match against Australia when Trevor Chappell strode to the crease and rolled the ball down the pitch. An orthodox delivery would have given batsman Brian McKechnie a fair chance. The underarm version did not.

There was an uproar, which, as you can probably tell, still smarts to this day. The reaction might have been outsized, and I have no doubt Chappell is sick of hearing about it, but it was telling. The ploy went against one of the most intrinsic aspects of our national character – a sense that we all deserve a fair crack and that we must do what is right. It is ingrained in thesis oxford, our psyche – we are a fundamentally honest people. It is an attitude that flows through our home lives, our working lives and our public institutions, and it has helped us be recognised consistently as one of the world’s least corrupt countries. As we know, corruption undermines trust in democratic institutions, businesses and markets. It is a corrosive force, which – at its worst – diminishes faith in the rule of law. All of this impacts on economic and social development, distorting the playing field, making it harder for fair-minded people to about leadership prosper and for a country to support its most vulnerable. Homeschool? New Zealand is uniquely placed to protect itself from corruption and to work with its neighbours to combat it in their countries.

We are a multicultural, outward-looking trading nation of just 4.5 million people, a long way from the markets where we sell our goods and services, and 5 paragraph about leadership reliant on the rule of law in thesis binding, the places we sell them to. Essay About? In order to oxford prosper, we have always needed not just to about be good at what we do but also to be honest in how we do it. 10.1 Our constitutional arrangements. We have built our legal and constitutional settings around our sense of essay fair play, enshrining it through more than 170 years of case law and political practice. So, while it is essay about leadership, based on the Westminster system, our unwritten constitution has evolved in a pragmatic way.

We tend to fix things when they need fixing, ‘without necessarily relating them to any grand philosophical scheme’ (Constitution Arrangements Committee 2005). And there is essay writing, a strong sense that it operates effectively because of our sense of fairness. A good example of that is 5 paragraph about, our ongoing recognition of the historical injustices perpetrated on Maori by the Crown through land seizures, Treaty of sarah lawrence writing tuition Waitangi breaches and other injustices (Ministry of Justice 2016a). The Treaty of Waitangi is a founding document of essay New Zealand. It was intended to ensure peaceful progress in New Zealand where all parties’ rights and interests are respected (Ministry of Justice 2016b). But the Treaty was not always honoured by the Crown. Successive governments have endeavoured to acknowledge those injustices through the return of mfa creative writing land and resources, and through the delivery of apologies on behalf of the Crown. Today this process takes place largely with near-universal public and political support, because it is the right thing to do. It is this same embedded sense of fair play that makes it difficult for corruption to take hold in New Zealand.

New Zealand’s public institutions have grown and evolved in an environment that does not tolerate underarm deliveries from its politicians, public servants or private sector. As Prime Minister, I am particularly well aware of that. I am regularly held to 5 paragraph leadership account not just in Parliament and in the media, but by everyday New Zealanders who are never shy to Was the and Nagasaki ethical? tell me of any issue that they have with my Government’s performance. That is how it should be. As elected officials and as public servants, we are beholden to the public and are expected to regularly account for our actions. New Zealand’s highly professional public service is expected to act in accordance with the law, to be imbued with the essay spirit of service to the community and to give free and frank advice to ministers. The public service is politically neutral. Assignment? That neutrality means that the about leadership Government, Parliament and the public can trust advice given by officials. Merit-based appointments, made on the recommendation of the State Services Commissioner, help ensure that senior public servants do not owe their jobs and their loyalty to any politician or political party.

This culture, which has been enshrined in Was the bombings of Hiroshima ethical?, law, ensures that even as governments and ministers change, a professional body of experts is always on hand to deliver on the agenda of the elected government. 10.2 Scrutiny of government action. As is often said, the best disinfectant is sunlight. 5 Paragraph Essay? As part of the gradual improvement of our institutions, successive governments have taken steps to increase and atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki ethical? entrench the transparency of the public sector. In 1982, the then National Government passed the Official Information Act, dramatically changing assumptions about government information. The law means that ministers and officials have to provide any official information requested unless there is a compelling reason not to (Ministry of Justice 2015a). While there is always a degree of tension about where the line should be drawn, the oversight of the Office of the Ombudsman ensures that openness is maintained. (New Zealand was the first country outside Scandinavia to establish this role.) Recognising that there were significant weaknesses in the way information on essay about, the state of the government’s finances were reported, the what of related literature then Labour Government passed the 5 paragraph about Public Finance Act in 1989. This requires government to operate transparently and provide regular public reporting of its accounts (Ministry of Justice 2015b).

For the past 25 years, this legislation has ensured that governments present an accurate picture of the public finances and the fiscal consequences of their policies. As Prime Minister, I have taken steps to ensure greater transparency by, for example, proactively publishing details of spending on ministerial credit cards. Ministers and departments are also giving greater thought to proactively releasing more information for public scrutiny. New Zealand has a range of independent bodies set up to is review literature audit and deal with allegations of corruption and misconduct. The Independent Police Complaints Authority (IPCA), the Judicial Conduct Commissioner (JCC) and the Office of the Ombudsman all have broad powers to investigate and essay about report on the conduct of public officials. These bodies are well known and well used with 2,515 complaints to the IPCA alone last year (IPCA 2015).

This independent oversight helps maintain public trust in our institutions, with 78% of New Zealanders surveyed reporting that they have trust and confidence in the police (Gravitas 2015). Serious and complex allegations of corruption in the public or private sector are investigated by a specialist group called the Serious Fraud Office (SFO). The Director of the SFO has complete independence when it comes to operational decisions, while the SFO and New Zealand Police work closely together in of responsibility, the fight against fraud and about leadership corruption, and ensure that specialist knowledge and expertise can be used and what of related literature information shared. The police and SFO are further enabled by legislation, which ensures that all of New Zealand’s bribery and corruption offences apply both domestically and extra- territorially (Ministry of Justice 2013). This means that the about leadership SFO can bring a case against New Zealand citizens, residents and bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki companies for acts of bribery and corruption that occur wholly outside of New Zealand. Another important aspect is a free and independent press. As Prime Minister, I front the media almost every day, sometimes several times, on issues of the day.

Questions will range from the performance of my Executive and MPs, to New Zealand’s position on international affairs and domestic policy, to what I had for breakfast. My Government is well aware of the importance of fronting up, and of the fact that our media and the public would expect nothing less. They demand accountability and answers. The upshot is that I, along with other ministers, am forced to defend every decision and essay leadership mistake we make and every dollar we choose to spend or save. Colleagues and staff are aware of what is expected of me and I have no doubt that they have no interest in seeing the essay Prime Minister having to defend an essay, issue that they have caused. There is an assumption across all levels of assignment of responsibility government that a mistake or any level of dishonesty will always be found out. While mistakes happen and will usually be forgiven by essay leadership, reasonable people, corruption and cover-ups are never tolerated. 10.3 New Zealand’s support for oxford, anti-corruption in the Pacific region.

Given the about leadership clear benefits that a low-corruption environment can have on economic growth and quality of governance, fighting corruption has been a key plank of New Zealand’s international development policies. As the of responsibility only country outside northern Europe to regularly feature at the top of Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI), we are well placed to assist other countries in fighting corruption (Transparency InternationaI 2015). We are particularly focused on making progress in our own neighbourhood. New Zealand has especially close historical and cultural links with Pacific Island countries and we have a strong commitment to working with them to build stronger governance frameworks and to essay about leadership promote sustainable economic and essay writing social development. While auditing doesn’t sound like a glamorous nation- building activity, it is a critical part of ensuring that governments are spending public money responsibly and effectively. New Zealand is working with Pacific Island countries to ensure that they complete regular and timely financial audits of 5 paragraph about leadership public accounts to help improve transparency and accountability. The number of of responsibility audits completed in Pacific Island countries over the past five years has more than doubled (PASAI 2015).

Promoting the importance of accountability in the eyes of the public has led to growing awareness of the role of 5 paragraph essay leadership auditing in holding government institutions to account. More public office holders are being held to binding account for their misconduct and misuse of public funds (PASAI 2015). A high standard of public accountability is a critical element in 5 paragraph about leadership, preventing a culture of corruption from developing or taking hold. As we know from our own experience, when the public won’t tolerate corruption and have an expectation that their officials will be held to account, those in positions of binding oxford power are less likely to abuse it. So the higher the standard of probity and 5 paragraph accountability that figures in authority are held to, the lawrence mfa creative writing more likely we are to prevent corruption and to 5 paragraph about detect and prosecute it when it occurs.

Corruption is far more easily prevented and detected when a country has modern and transparent financial management systems. The New Zealand Aid Programme supports a series of initiatives in co-operation with our Pacific partners, designed to enhance economic governance (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015a). That work is helping to thesis binding strengthen border management systems and levels of 5 paragraph essay about accountability in essay about my motherland, a key area of revenue collection (Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat 2016). New Zealand also provides support to Samoa, Kiribati and the Cook Islands, linked to reforms including improvements to public finance systems, better public procurement, stronger and more independent audit, and 5 paragraph leadership greater accountability and oversight of state-owned enterprises. Further support has assisted Samoa and essay the Solomon Islands to reform and modernise their revenue systems (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015b). Together with Australia, we have also provided joint funding for the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance to boost the effectiveness of Pacific Island Ombudsman offices.

This has increased their ability to investigate complaints of essay about maladministration by those in the public sector (Walter and Gordon 2013). Pacific leaders also recognise the crucial role that civil society has to play in sarah, fighting corruption with advocacy, education and community-focused outreach. For close to a decade, the New Zealand Aid Programme has provided support to TI chapters in essay leadership, Fiji, Papua New Guinea, the writing Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. Our support has focused on efforts to improve the about culture of what is review transparency through initiatives such as ethics training for essay about leadership, law enforcement agencies (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015a). Sustainable economic and social development is almost impossible without capable and independent courts and bombings of Hiroshima ethical? law- enforcement agencies. These give people confidence that the about leadership law is enforced fairly and free from political influence. Homeschool Essay? Accordingly, we are assisting our Pacific Island neighbours to strengthen their courts and police services. Five years ago, we began supporting the Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP) with Australia.

This is 5 paragraph essay about leadership, focused on strengthening the essay my motherland professional competence of Pacific Island judicial officers and the court systems they use (PJDP 2015). This work has contributed to essay more transparent decision making and enhanced judicial leadership. As a result of New Zealand’s support, 12 Pacific Island countries are now producing publicly available annual court reports. Homeschool Essay? It has also helped to 5 paragraph about improve judicial knowledge and skills to address family violence and youth justice issues. New Zealand provides ongoing mentoring for Pacific judges, and funding to attend judicial conferences and other training opportunities through the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund (JPPF) activity (JPPF 2016). New Zealand also sends a number of its own judges on request to preside in homeschool essay writing, courts across the Pacific – for instance, in Vanuatu (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2016). The integrity and capability of police services are critical to maintaining the rule of law. The overwhelming majority of New Zealanders have tremendous respect for our police because we know they can be trusted to treat us fairly and in accordance with the law. New Zealand Police have been invited by a number of Pacific police services to provide technical services to their Pacific counterparts (New Zealand Police 2015). New Zealand Police provide training and mentoring across the Pacific in 5 paragraph essay, prosecutions, community policing, human rights, ethics, leadership and road policing. These kinds of interventions build public trust in the police and add to a culture of service, which is the front line against is review of related, corruption (New Zealand Police 2015).

New Zealand’s reputation for fairness colours the interactions with our police deployed overseas. They carry their professionalism into foreign operations and we find they are welcomed and respected. This ensures that the work they are deployed to do is undertaken to a very high standard. As a country with solid anti-corruption foundations and about leadership a long history of assisting our neighbours in essay, building their own anti-corruption capacity, the most significant risk we face is 5 paragraph about leadership, complacency. While we currently suffer low levels of corruption, we need to proactively seek out and address potential vulnerabilities before corrupt practices can take hold. Of Responsibility? With that in mind, in 2014, the Government moved to address a weakness in our companies’ registration laws.

These changes will prevent overseas criminals from using New Zealand’s registration systems to create shell companies (Parliamentary Counsel Office 2015). We also draw on the expertise of civil society and the private sector in the fight against 5 paragraph essay leadership, corruption. The Serious Fraud Office (2014) worked with TI New Zealand and Business New Zealand to deliver free anti-corruption training, which teaches participants how to prevent bribery in their businesses and comply with anti-bribery laws. Was The? Recognising the importance of sport in our culture and the huge scope for corrupt sporting practices, we passed a law in 2014 to specifically criminalise match-fixing (New Zealand Parliament 2014). The new law provides that manipulation of sporting activities with intent to influence a betting outcome is 5 paragraph about leadership, a criminal activity. Vigilance and lawrence mfa creative writing enforcement by the authorities have also increased in 5 paragraph essay leadership, recognition of the growing nature of this threat. Preventing the damaging effects of corruption should be a critical priority and responsibility for any government.

Politicians and public servants have to atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki focus on 5 paragraph about leadership, building and maintaining strong, independent institutions to guard against corruption, as well as promoting a culture that makes it close to impossible for corrupt individuals to prosper or escape detection. As a country, we take great pride in sarah mfa creative writing, our track record. But we know we must remain committed to ensuring that corruption does not gain a foothold, and open to views on how to prevent it. As a small part of an increasingly connected international community, we must be open to sharing our successes and our failures in order to essay leadership stamp out corruption for good. Constitutional Arrangements Committee. 2005. Inquiry to Review New Zealand’s Existing Constitutional Arrangements: Report of the writing Constitutional Arrangements Committee.

Wellington: New Zealand House of Representatives, p.12. Gravitas Research and Strategy Ltd. 2015 (updated 2016). New Zealand Police Citizens’ Satisfaction Survey. New Zealand: Gravitas, p.4. 5 Paragraph About Leadership? Available online.

Independent Police Conduct Authority (IPCA). 2015. Assignment? Annual Report 2014–2015. Wellington: IPCA, p.4. Available online. Judicial Pacific Participation Fund. 2016. Welcome to the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund. Available [online] (http://jppf.org.nz/welcome/). Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade.

2015a. Essay About Leadership? New Zealand Aid Programme Strategic Plan 2015–19. Available online. Ministry of is review of related literature Foreign Affairs and Trade. 5 Paragraph About Leadership? 2015b. New Zealand Foreign Affairs and Trade – Annual Report 2014–15. Available online. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2016. Aid Partnership with Vanuatu. Atomic Bombings Of Hiroshima? Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our- work-in-the-pacific/vanuatu/).

Ministry of 5 paragraph about Justice. 2013. Relevant Anti-corruption Legislation. Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/publications/global- publications/s/saying-no-to-bribery-and-corruption- 2013-a-guide-for-new-zealand-businesses/relevant-anti- corruption-legislation). Ministry of Justice. 2015a. Official Information Act 1982. Available online.

Ministry of Justice. 2015b. Public Finance Act 1989. Available online. Essay About My Motherland? Ministry of Justice. 2016a. Waitangi Tribunal. Available online. Ministry of Justice. 2016b. The Treaty of Waitangi.

Waitangi Tribunal. Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/tribunals/waitangi-tribunal/ treaty-of-waitangi). New Zealand Parliament. 2014. Crimes (Match-fixing) Amendment Bill. Available online. New Zealand Police. 2015.

International Service Group. Available online. Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. 5 Paragraph About Leadership? 2016. Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. Available [online] (http://www.ocosec.org/). Pacific Association of Supreme Audit Institutions (PASAI). 2015. Annual Report for Year Ended 30 June 2015.

Available online. Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP). 2015. The Programme. Essay My Motherland? Available online. Parliamentary Counsel Office. 2015. Companies Amendment Act 2014. Available [online] (http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/2014/0046/latest/ DLM4094913.html). Serious Fraud Office.

10 June 2014. Helping New Zealand’s Fight Against Corruption. Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Available online. 5 Paragraph Essay? Walter, G. and sarah tuition Gordon, J. 2013.

Independent Review of the 5 paragraph essay about Pacific Ombudsman Alliance. Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our-approach-to-aid/evaluation-and-research/evaluation- reports-2013). 11. Binding? Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong: Success in combating corruption – views on essay about leadership, the Singaporean experience. Corruption is a scourge that can never be tolerated. Countries have tried all ways to combat it. They create anti-corruption agencies. They pass strong laws. They promulgate codes of conduct for public officials.

Companies pledge to homeschool conduct business cleanly. Yet often corruption remains endemic, a cancer in the society. How then has Singapore achieved some measure of success in eradicating corruption? I put it down to four factors. First, we inherited a clean and working system from the British colonial government. We had many compelling reasons to want to end colonial rule and to be masters of our own destiny.

But to their credit, the British left Singapore with a working system and sound institutions – English laws, a working Civil Service, and an efficient and honest judiciary. Importantly, the Colonial Service officers upheld high standards. People like Sir William Goode, our last Governor and first Head of State, had a sense of duty and stewardship. After Singapore, Goode served as Governor of North Borneo, now the 5 paragraph essay state of Sabah in Malaysia. He left an impression in sarah mfa creative writing tuition, North Borneo, as in Singapore. Even a generation later, the people of Sabah still remembered him fondly. Second, when the 5 paragraph about British left, our pioneer leaders were determined to mfa creative writing tuition keep the system clean. The People’s Action Party (PAP) first came to power in 1959, when Singapore attained self-government. However, it was by leadership, no means a no- brainer for the PAP to fight to win the 1959 General Election. The country faced a myriad of problems: poverty, poor public health, an acute housing shortage, a stagnant economy and an exploding population.

Did the PAP want to inherit these overwhelming problems? Why not become a strong opposition party, and let another party govern and fail? In the end, what decided the issue for Mr Lee Kuan Yew, our founding Prime Minister, and his team, was the overriding need to prevent the public service from going corrupt. One term of an incompetent, corrupt government and Humpty Dumpty could never be put together again. So the PAP fought to win and formed the Was the and Nagasaki ethical? Government. When they took their oath of 5 paragraph essay office, Mr Lee and his PAP colleagues wore white shirts and white trousers.

It symbolised their determination to keep the tuition Government clean and incorruptible. That set the tone for Singapore ever since. Third, with strong political will, we institutionalised a robust, comprehensive anti-corruption framework that spans laws, enforcement, the public service and public outreach. We enacted the Prevention of Corruption Act (PCA), which puts the essay burden of my motherland proof on essay about leadership, the accused to show that he or she acquired their wealth legally. Any unexplained wealth disproportionate to known sources of income is presumed to be from graft and can be confiscated. Was The And Nagasaki? The PCA provides for extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of Singaporean citizens overseas are treated the same as actions committed in Singapore, regardless of whether such corrupt acts have consequences for Singapore (Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau 2016a). Our anti-corruption agency, the Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB), is well resourced and independent.

It is empowered to investigate any person, even police officers and ministers, and essay conducts public outreach to raise public awareness and essay writing shape social norms (CPIB 2016b). We pay public servants fair and 5 paragraph realistic wages benchmarked to private sector earnings and, in return, demand the highest standards of integrity and performance. Fourth, we have over time developed a society and culture that eschews corruption. Singaporeans expect and demand a clean system. They do not condone giving or accepting ‘social lubricants’ to essay get things done. They readily report corrupt practices when they encounter them. Singaporeans trust that the law applies to all and that the Government will enforce the laws without fear or favour, even when it may be awkward or embarrassing.

Businesses have confidence that, in Singapore, rules are transparent and fairly applied. The story is essay leadership, told of a businessman who visited Singapore from an Asian country used to different operating norms. Was The Bombings Of Hiroshima? He left puzzled and disturbed that he could not discover the going rate for bribes to officers at different levels of government. He concluded wrongly that the prices must be very high! Singapore has achieved some success eradicating corruption, but we are under no illusions that we have permanently and completely solved the problem. About? Corruption is thesis binding, driven by human nature and greed. However strict the rules and essay about leadership tight the system, some individuals will sometimes still be tempted to transgress. When they do, we make sure they are caught and severely dealt with.

Two years ago, we charged an Assistant Director from the CPIB itself with misappropriating (S)$1.7 million. We keep our system clean not just for ourselves, but also to uphold our international reputation. Thus we deal strictly also with those who use financial institutions in Singapore to launder money or transact ill-gotten gains from corruption. We are zealous in protecting the integrity of our financial centre and business hub. There is a Chinese proverb: ‘If the top beam is askew, the bottom beams will be crooked.’ Keeping a system clean must start at the very top. A Singapore armed forces officer, on a course overseas, was once asked by his classmate how Singapore kept its system clean. He explained our arrangements and the central role of the CPIB. Assignment Of Responsibility? His classmate asked a follow-up question: but to whom does the CPIB report? The Singaporean ingenuously replied that the CPIB reported directly to the prime minister. This elicited further puzzlement.

Much later the Singaporean understood why. 5 Paragraph Essay Leadership? The real question he was being asked was, who guards the guardian? There is no formula to solve this ancient riddle, but we are determined to uphold the highest standards of integrity from the top level of the Government down. In 1996, rumours spread that Mr Lee Kuan Yew and I had received improper discounts on thesis binding, property purchases. The Prime Minister, then Mr Goh Chok Tong, ordered a full investigation, which found that there had been nothing improper. He brought the issue to Parliament, which held a full debate lasting three days (Parliament of Singapore 1996). Both Mr Lee and I spoke.

In his statement Mr Lee Kuan Yew said, “I take pride and satisfaction that the question of my two purchases and those of the Deputy Prime Minister, my son, has been subjected to, and not exempted from, scrutiny … It is most important that Singapore remain a place where no one is essay, above scrutiny, that any question of homeschool essay integrity of a minister, however senior, that he has gained benefits either through influence or corrupt practices, be investigated” (National Archives of Singapore 1996). Trust is slow to essay about leadership build, but fast to lose. We have spent more than 50 years building up confidence in Singapore. The integrity of the Government, the system and the men and of responsibility women in charge has been key to Singapore’s success. We are determined that that integrity and reputation must never be undermined and will long remain a competitive edge and a source of pride for leadership, Singapore. Essay? Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). 2016a. Prevention of Corruption Act, Singapore. Available online.

Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). Leadership? 2016b. About CPIB. Available online. National Archives of Singapore. 21 May 1996. Statement by Senior Minister Lee Kuan Yew Nassim Jade and Scotts 28. Available online. Was The Atomic Bombings Of Hiroshima And Nagasaki? Parliament of Singapore.

21–23 May 1996. Purchase of Properties by Senior Minister and Deputy Prime Minister BG Lee Hsien Loong (Statement by the Prime Minister). 5 Paragraph Essay About? Available online. 12. Jim Yong Kim: How to tackle corruption to create a more just and prosperous world. Corruption poses an enormous obstacle to my motherland international development and the global goal of ending extreme poverty. 21 Using public power for private gain is also unjust. It denies resources to the poor, undermines the delivery of services to the vulnerable and weakens the social contract, leading to exclusion, instability and conflict. I am committed to fighting corruption, because it is the right thing to do and leadership because it is critical to achieving the World Bank Group’s twin goals of ending extreme poverty by 2030 and boosting shared prosperity for the poorest 40%. More than 50 years of development experience has taught us that we can achieve these targets through inclusive growth, investing in people’s health and education and insuring them against risks, such as unemployment or illness, which threaten to plunge them into essay writing, poverty. But wherever corruption occurs, pursuing this strategy becomes more difficult.

In the Philippines, for example, corruption prevented the construction of high-quality roads in some areas, making it harder for goods to get to market and harming growth, incomes and 5 paragraph essay about job creation (World Bank 2011; Procurement Watch 2009). In Sierra Leone, it stopped some mothers from sarah, immunising their infant children, because nurses demanded rice in 5 paragraph essay, exchange for ‘free’ shots (World Bank 2012). In India, many poor people received less financial support from workfare initiatives because officials pocketed the proceeds (Muralidharan, Niehaus and assignment of responsibility Sukhtankar 2014). Some countries have experienced growing inequality and 5 paragraph essay about leadership lost billions of of responsibility dollars for public services because of 5 paragraph about leadership corruption, undermining their very foundations. Is Review Of Related? In Tunisia, former President Ben Ali and his extended family amassed an estimated fortune of $13 billion after a quarter century in power. This amounted to more than a quarter of Tunisian gross domestic product (GDP) in 2011, the year he stepped down in response to mass protests.

There were also 220 domestic companies – responsible for at essay about, least 21% of the country’s net private sector profits – connected to the family of the atomic and Nagasaki ethical? President, who had enacted regulations that gave them unfair economic advantages (Rijkers, Freund and Nucifora 2011). During my tenure at the World Bank Group, I have seen that corruption affects countries regardless of development status and 5 paragraph leadership is often an international operation. According to some estimates, businesses and individuals pay between $1.5 trillion and $2 trillion in bribes alone each year (Kaufmann 2015). This is about ten times the value of about my motherland overseas development assistance or approximately 2% of global GDP. Both domestic firms and multinational corporations make payoffs to 5 paragraph public officials in exchange for my motherland, access to commercial opportunities. The World Bank Group and others have dedicated substantial effort to understanding and 5 paragraph essay about leadership monitoring corruption, and homeschool essay developing experience and knowledge of essay about leadership how to tackle the problem. In 1996, at our annual meetings, one of my predecessors, James D. Wolfensohn, delivered a ground-breaking speech on the ‘cancer of corruption’.

He seized the opportunity to take on an obstacle to reducing poverty that we, and others, had largely failed to address (Wolfensohn 1996). Since that time, the World Bank has taken a new approach. We have invested in anti-corruption programmes in more than 100 countries. In 2007, we adopted an organisation-wide governance and mfa creative tuition anti-corruption strategy, which we updated in 2012. Today our global practices for Governance, and Finance and Markets, as well as our independent integrity group, spearhead work to share with clients our knowledge and experience in fighting corruption, though all parts of the organisation take responsibility for essay about, fighting misconduct. The bedrock of our work must be a commitment to zero tolerance for homeschool writing, corruption in our operations. Last year, the World Bank Group committed grants and loans amounting to approximately $56 billion to about support projects, programmes and policies critical to reducing poverty and inequality in developing countries. Close scrutiny of how these funds are spent and sanctions for their misuse are critical to ensuring that corruption does not undermine the intended outcome, whether it is raising farmers’ crop yields or improving students’ reading, writing and arithmetic skills. Working with developing countries, we assess project and loan plans for corruption risk, closely supervise activities and build in monitoring mechanisms, including hotlines to report misconduct.

When alleged wrongdoing takes place, our independent integrity group investigates and homeschool essay writing takes vigorous action if it confirms corruption. We have excluded firms and individuals that engaged in misconduct from receiving contracts that we financed and compelled the return of misused financial support and the cancellation of contracts associated with tainted transactions. Last year, these efforts rooted out misconduct in 5 paragraph about, connection with 61 projects worth more than $500 million (World Bank 2015). In one case, we uncovered that officials had defrauded a public administration reform project of mfa creative writing tuition $21 million using fake companies and invoices. Our investigation has led to the recovery of stolen funds and the Government’s prosecution of its officials. Even with these successes, we understand that fighting corruption requires constant vigilance and that misconduct takes many forms and adapts to new opportunities.

Still, evidence suggests that there are effective ways to make misconduct more difficult, punish wrongdoing, increase officials’ public accountability and change attitudes toward corrupt behaviour, especially among public servants and 5 paragraph essay leadership those who influence them. These actions, which I outline below, are helping countries make critical development strides, including building better roads, improving access to education and Was the atomic of Hiroshima medicine, and providing the poor with sufficient support from essay, social safety nets. 12.1 Fight corruption and increase accountability through greater transparency. Experience shows that providing citizens with access to information about government operations and public servants’ assets can be an homeschool writing, effective way to prevent officials from abusing their power when avenues exist to make authorities answerable to the public. Essay About Leadership? In 1997, the writing Ugandan Government found that schools did not receive 80% of their allocated funding because local officials diverted the support. Officials responded by publishing in local newspapers each school’s allocation, empowering administrators and parents to demand that these transfers reach their schools. By 2001, schools reported receiving 80% of 5 paragraph these allocations.

A subsequent study concluded that the amount of funds that local officials diverted correlated to the distance of a school from a major town where there was a newspaper outlet (Reinikka and is review literature Svensson 2011). Making transparent the flow of royalties and other financial transactions between governments and corporations can also reduce corruption, especially in oil, gas and mining operations. There are 31 countries, including many in Sub-Saharan Africa, that disclose all payments and receipts from oil, gas and mining operations as part of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). All 49 EITI member countries have committed to disclosing data on licences, contracts, production and other key operational aspects of natural resource extraction. The information that EITI distributes enables citizens and good government groups to monitor authorities’ relationships with extractive companies and hold officials accountable. In Nigeria, information that EITI published showed billions of dollars in underpayments by companies and their agents, sparking government efforts to recover missing funds to bolster public finances (EITI 2014). Disclosing information in connection with EITI has correlated with reduced perceptions of 5 paragraph essay about corruption among businesses in several countries, including Peru, where indicators for abuses of public power dropped by 14%. Greater confidence in good governance makes companies more likely to undertake the long-term investments necessary for natural resource extraction, suggesting that transparency contributes to economic growth, job creation and higher incomes. 12.2 Use new technologies to increase scrutiny. Evidence suggests that new, inexpensive ways of verifying identities and executing payments using digital technology can reduce the impact of corruption on Was the atomic of Hiroshima ethical?, public service delivery to 5 paragraph the poorest.

In India, for example, some of its large social welfare programmes suffered from lawrence, ineligible beneficiaries receiving payments and essay officials taking a cut of, or delaying, payments meant for the poor. To combat these problems, the government distributed smartcards based on the country’s biometric identification system to 19 million needy villagers in thesis binding, connection with the $5.5 billion National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme. This substantially reduced the role of 5 paragraph essay officials in the payment process, lessening the opportunities for atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki ethical?, misconduct. 5 Paragraph Essay About? After two years, research showed that, when compared to other programme beneficiaries, smartcard recipients received 35% more money and obtained payments almost 30% faster (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014). Technology has also helped promote accountability among public servants and about government contractors. 5 Paragraph About Leadership? In Pakistan, inspectors from some local education departments were failing to perform their duties to confirm teacher attendance in schools (Joseph 2015). Now they must take geo-tagged pictures of themselves on writing, the job, which has proved to be an effective way to hold the inspectors accountable for countering instructor absenteeism. Rates of teacher attendance – above 93% in 2015 – have increased every year since the programme began and school-monitoring information is available to the public at http://open.punjab. gov.pk/schools. In Mindanao, a conflict-riddled region of the Philippines, geo-spatial tracking and digital photography have contributed to timely construction of essay about roads (Sta Ines 2014). Previously, security concerns limited inspections in the region, making it difficult to stop contractor non-performance.

But now data and of related literature evidence of road construction in essay about leadership, the Philippines is Was the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki ethical?, publicly available at www.openroads.gov.ph. Transportation infrastructure has improved, promoting the essay about distribution of goods and economic activity. 12.3 Get citizens and companies involved. Initiatives that enable people and assignment of responsibility organisations to work with public officials to change how they deliver services have been shown to essay reduce corruption substantially. In the Dominican Republic, a participatory approach has increased people’s access to medicine and binding reduced wasteful public expenditure. Until 2012, most medical facilities in the country purchased medicines without effective oversight, paying prices for drugs that were, on average, 722% higher than those at a small number of government-run pharmacies. Essay Leadership? Patients were forced to absorb these high costs, because medicine buyers were receiving kickbacks from private suppliers (National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit 2013).

In 2010, public officials, citizen groups, the private sector and others formed the Participatory Anti-Corruption Initiative. This forum allowed them to work together to tackle corruption and take on oxford, powerful interest groups in 5 paragraph essay leadership, many areas, including medicine procurement. By 2014, reforms in this area had lowered prices, improved medication quality and yielded savings of $27 million compared to the previous year. Public spending on assignment of responsibility, drugs was reduced by 64%. Participatory governance also helped people in poor rural villages in essay about leadership, Indonesia fight the high level of corruption under the Suharto Government that was a major factor in cutting off their communities from public services and economic opportunities. In the late 1990s, a new programme empowered these villagers to direct public funding to their chosen infrastructure projects, promoting inclusive growth and helping to increase household consumption by more than 10%. Community oversight and financial audits have been critical to the efficient expenditure of $3.6 billion on infrastructure, including the construction of 100,000 km of rural roads, 17,000 small bridges and 40,000 clean-water systems, and the building or rehabilitation of 43,000 schools and health clinics. Crucially, the programme’s integrity and impact have established a constructive relationship between communities and public authorities, bolstering stability (Government of Indonesia 2012).

22. Thesis Binding? 12.4 Take on corruption at the global level. A comprehensive approach to tackling corruption needs to complement the domestic actions outlined above with cross- country collaboration to about leadership identify and prosecute misconduct and close loopholes that promote the use of public power for private gain. At present, developed and developing countries are not co-operating sufficiently to thesis oxford end the international catalysts for essay about leadership, misconduct, with harmful consequences for developing countries’ fiscal wellbeing and development. International trade in merchandise has increased by more than 500% over the last 25 years.

Trade as a share of world GDP has increased by half over essay, this period, from 40% in 1990 to 5 paragraph essay about 60% today. As economic activity has become more globalised, so has corruption. Assets obtained through official misconduct are transferred abroad and the smuggling of illegal goods and even people is widespread. New avenues for wrongdoing have expanded the number and kinds of participants involved in corruption, which now encompass counterfeiters, pirates and armed groups. Greater global trade has also created new opportunities to counter misconduct as more jurisdictions can take action to interfere with corrupt cross-border activity.

Under the United Nations Convention against ethical?, Corruption (UNCAC), developed and developing countries that have signed the accord are obligated to work with other countries to prosecute misconduct and assist with the return of stolen assets (UNODC 2015). Leadership? Still, in countries afflicted by significant corruption, prosecutors are often unable to investigate and punish wrongdoing because of political interference or ineffectiveness. Countries with more independent and robust legal systems can help. Legislation such as the UK’s Bribery Act 2010, the US’s Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and Brazil’s Clean Company Act give prosecutors the thesis oxford authority to pursue individuals or corporations who pay off foreign officials. In 2010, BAE Systems paid $400 million to essay the US Justice Department and thesis oxford ?30 million to the UK Serious Fraud Office to settle bribery allegations arising out of the sale of equipment to Tanzania. The UK Department for International Development used some of these funds to refurbish classrooms in, and provide teaching materials to Tanzanian primary schools in co-ordination with national authorities (Gray, Hansen, Recica-Kirkbride and Mills 2014, p. 6). Other countries’ punishment of the cross-border laundering of corruption’s proceeds is also important to making misconduct less lucrative. In 2014, for example, Teodoro Obiang, the son of Equatorial Guinea’s long-time leader, was forced to pay $30 million to settle US Government allegations that he had used money stolen from his country to buy a California mansion, a Ferrari and Michael Jackson memorabilia (US Justice Department 2014). Prosecutors’ willingness to use their powers to pursue foreign corruption is having a substantial impact on misconduct.

Increasing legal liability for engaging in bribery or money laundering forces firms to ensure that neither their employees nor their contractors’ employees engage in corruption. The cost of fines, reputational damage and lost business opportunities can be substantial. In 2008, Siemens AG agreed to pay $1.6 billion to the US Government and establish a $100 million anti-corruption fund at the World Bank Group to settle charges that it paid bribes to essay leadership public officials in connection with its international business (World Bank 2009). Domestic firms that show they comply with anti-corruption requirements create a competitive advantage as trusted partners for global supply chains and are likely to see an increase in commercial opportunities. The World Bank Group provides advisory services to help firms establish anti-corruption policies, yet more must be done to provide information to potential partners so that investments in compliance and ethical business practices become a source of competitive advantage and profit. Atomic? Sharing information among countries is also critical to tracking, investigating and prosecuting misconduct. However, many countries’ laws make it difficult to provide ownership information across national jurisdictions, preventing investigators from tracing cross-border asset transfers and identifying their beneficiaries. In addition, some still have bank secrecy laws or permit opaque corporate structures that create safe havens for the proceeds of corruption. The Stolen Asset Recovery Initiative, which is a partnership between the essay about leadership World Bank Group and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), is working to remove these obstacles to homeschool writing investigation and prosecution by proposing law and policy changes, providing expert advice on bringing cases and fostering co-operation across jurisdictions.

International co-operation is also vital to reducing illicit international trade, a scourge in its own right and a source of bribes to essay customs officials. Human trafficking destroys people’s wellbeing and promotes crime and instability. Trade in products resulting from illegal logging, fishing and homeschool essay hunting often damages the environment and economic growth. In Kenya, for example, outlawed commerce in ivory and essay endangered species has significantly harmed the tourism sector (UNWTO 2015). Countries can fight illegal trade and the corruption it creates by making information on customs payments and the value of trade among them readily available. Governments can also pass laws that force companies and countries to prove the legitimacy of their products now that technology enables the easy creation of a chain of custody for goods through the Was the bombings and Nagasaki use of microchips and satellite tracking. Enforcing restrictions that make illegally sourced products unsellable eliminates the incentive to bribe officials.

Harmonising cross-border trade rules related to 5 paragraph essay about leadership customs, taxation and other fiscal matters can also reduce the economic benefit of a variety of corrupt activities. For example, when regional trade partners impose similar duties on goods such as tobacco and gasoline, smuggling becomes less profitable, reducing bribery. When governments empower companies to extract their countries’ natural resources, some of these corporations exploit differences in how countries tax corporate profits to reduce their tax burden through practices such as abusive transfer pricing, which fraudulently shifts the location of profits to jurisdictions where tax rates are lower. Other large firms use their economic power to secure tax concessions and licences from weak governments. Even though these behaviours can deprive poor countries of Was the atomic bombings resources critical to their development, we have little ability to stop them because our understanding of their scale and dynamics is poor. When political elites collude with firms to rig these government licences and regulations to their benefit, public officials also create a business climate that favours politically influential firms, stifling competition, slowing innovation and 5 paragraph leadership reducing economic growth. The World Bank Group is working at multiple levels to make international trade less vulnerable to this kind of illegitimate activity.

In co-operation with the United Nations (UN) and the Organisation for is review of related literature, Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), we are helping governments crack down on abusive transfer pricing using a toolkit that enables authorities to evaluate companies’ tax reporting, especially in 5 paragraph, the extractives sector. With the International Monetary Fund (IMF), we have established an lawrence mfa creative tuition, initiative to help developing countries strengthen their tax systems, which will help make collection more efficient and policies fairer, and improve authorities’ ability to detect tax evasion. Analysis suggests that, with balanced tax systems, many lower-income countries can increase revenues from 5 paragraph essay about leadership, 2% to 4% of GDP (IMF 2011). Our support to countries such as Colombia and Ghana has already increased revenues and reduced tax evasion. Despite these efforts, corruption remains a serious obstacle to development.

Corruption can inhibit inclusive growth and job creation, stand in the way of new mothers and infants living healthy lives and prevent the vulnerable from receiving the of responsibility social assistance they need. 5 Paragraph Essay About Leadership? Government authority must be used for public good – not private gain – if we are to fulfil our responsibilities as public servants and achieve our development goals. The World Bank Group is fully engaged in developing solutions that are equal to this challenge. As its President, I am committed to ensuring that our own policies and practices align with fighting corruption. The organisation is sharing the best global knowledge of what does and essay about does not work to stop misconduct, from transparency and incentives to collective action and partnerships. Essay? We are helping countries take on corruption at the international level so they set rules that make it easier to trace assets and share information across jurisdictions, identify and prosecute corruption wherever it takes place, and promote fair and honest global competition. Still, the Was the atomic of Hiroshima and Nagasaki international community must do more across all of these areas. Essay? For example, we must produce comprehensive information about cross-border financial activities such as tax evasion, smuggling and trafficking in stolen goods and money laundering. Atomic Ethical?? Governments must evaluate the effectiveness of their anti-corruption efforts based on their work’s impact on contributors to economic growth and development, such as the quality of public services, social safety nets and the investment climate.

We must fight corruption in communities, countries and globally. I strongly support leaders’ efforts to take on entrenched interests that force the poor to pay bribes or waste public resources. I will praise the courageous anti- corruption work of governments and their partners publicly and the World Bank Group will continue to help finance these efforts. We are committed to supporting bold actions, because the use of public power for private gain is morally wrong and, as the evidence shows, prevents the poor from reaching their full potential. There can be no doubt: tackling corruption is critical to creating a more just and prosperous world.

Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). 2014. Nigeria: Recovering Missing Payments, EITI Progress Report 2014: Making Transparency Matter. Norway: EITI. Available online. Government of Indonesia. 2012. PNPM Rural Impact Evaluation April 2012. Jakarta: PNPM Support Facility.

Gray, L., Hansen, K., Recica-Kirkbride, P. and Mills, L. 5 Paragraph Essay About? 2014. Few and Far: The Hard Facts on Stolen Asset Recovery. Washington DC: The World Bank, OECD and UNODC, p. 6. International Monetary Fund – Fiscal Affairs Department. 2011. Was The Atomic Of Hiroshima Ethical?? Revenue Mobilization in Developing Countries. International Monetary Fund, pp. 1–85.

Available online. Joseph, M. S. 2015. 5 Paragraph? MIT Technology Review (Pakistan): Pakistan takes the lead in the neighbourhood. Thesis Oxford? Available online. Kaufmann, D. 2015. Corruption Matters. Finance Development. International Monetary Fund. 5 Paragraph Essay Leadership? September 2015, pp. 20–23.

Available online. Of Responsibility? Muralidharan, K., Niehaus, P. and Sukhtankar, S. 2014. Building State Capacity: Evidence from Biometric Smartcards in leadership, India. Was The Atomic Bombings And Nagasaki Ethical?? National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER). Working Paper No. 19999, pp. 1–53. Available online. National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit (UNGM), Directorate for Regional Health Service Development and Strengthening. 2013. Technical Report: Baseline Study of the Status of the Supply of Medicines and essay about leadership Medical Supplies in Specialized Health Care Centers in the Dominican Republic.

Dominican Republic: UNGM. Olken, B. 2007. Of Hiroshima And Nagasaki Ethical?? Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia. 5 Paragraph Essay? Journal of Political Economy, 115(2), pp. 200–248. Is Review Of Related? Procurement Watch Inc (PWI). 2009. A Study of Anti- Corruption Initiatives in the Philippines’ Construction Sector. Pasig City: PWI.

Available online. Reinikka, R. and Svensson, J. 5 Paragraph About? 2011. The Power of writing Information in Public Services: Evidence from Education in Uganda. Journal of 5 paragraph essay about Public Economics, (95), pp. 956–966. Rijkers, B., Freund, C. and Nucifora, A. 2011. All in the Family: State Capture in Was the bombings of Hiroshima, Tunisia. 5 Paragraph Leadership? Policy Research Working Paper 6810.

World Bank, pp. 1–46. Available online. Essay My Motherland? Sta Ines, N. Leadership? 2014. Of Responsibility? Geotagging in Isolated Areas, Philippines. In: S. Lippman, ed. Procurement for Complex Situations Challenge – Competition Winners. Washington DC: World Bank, pp.

1–5. Essay? United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available online. Essay? United Nations – World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). 2015. Towards Measuring the essay about leadership Economic Value of Wildlife Watching Tourism in Africa. Spain: UNWTO. Binding Oxford? US Justice Department.

10 October 2014. Second Vice President of Equatorial Guinea Agrees to Relinquish More Than $30 Million of Assets Purchased with Corruption Proceeds. Available [online] (https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/second-vice-president- equatorial-guinea-agrees-relinquish-more-30-million- assets-purchased). Wolfensohn, J. D. 1 October 1996. Annual Meetings Address. [online]. Available online.

The World Bank. 2 July 2009. Siemens to pay $100m to fight corruption as part of WBG Settlement. Available [online] (https://star.worldbank.org/corruption-cases/sites/ corruption-cases/files/Siemens_World_Bank_Settlement_ WB_PR_Jul_2_2009.pdf). The World Bank, Integrity Vice Presidency. 2011. Curbing Fraud, Corruption, and essay leadership Collusion in binding, the Road Sector. Washington DC: World Bank.

Available online. The World Bank. 2012. Legal Vice Presidency Annual Report FY 2012: The Framework for Accountability within the World Bank. Report No. 75111. Washington DC: World Bank. Available online. The World Bank. 2015.

The World Bank Group Integrity Vice Presidency Annual Update, Fiscal Year 2015. 5 Paragraph About? Washington DC: World Bank. Thesis? Available online. 5 Paragraph? 13. Christine Lagarde: Addressing corruption – openly. Traditionally, public officials have been somewhat nervous about discussing corruption openly. Over the past several years, however, I have been struck by the extent to which world leaders are now willing to talk candidly about what is review literature, this problem. It is not just that the economic costs have become self-evident. It is also because there is an increasing demand for change.

In a recent global survey, corruption was regarded as the ‘topic most frequently discussed by the public’, ahead of poverty and unemployment (survey cited by Klitgaard 2015, p. 15). Given that both poverty and unemployment can be symptoms of chronic corruption, my view is that the priority given to this problem by 5 paragraph essay about leadership, the public is entirely justified. In this essay, I would like to share the IMF’s perspective on what of related literature, the economic impact of essay about corruption and our experience in helping countries design and implement strategies to address it. I recognise that there are many possible definitions of Was the bombings and Nagasaki ethical? corruption, both broad and essay about leadership narrow. For the purposes of this essay, which is focused on the public sector, corruption includes any abuse of my motherland public office – whether it arises from financial incentives or political interference. I would like to make three main points. First, while the about direct economic costs of corruption are well known, the about my motherland indirect costs may be even more substantial and debilitating, leading to low growth and greater income inequality. Corruption also has a broader corrosive impact on society. It undermines trust in government and erodes the ethical standards of leadership private citizens. Second, although corruption is an extraordinarily complex phenomenon, I do not accept the proposition – or the myth – that it is primarily a ‘cultural’ problem that will always take generations to address. There are examples of countries that have managed to make significant progress in addressing it in a relatively short time.

Third, experience demonstrates that a holistic, multi- faceted approach is needed – one that establishes appropriate incentives and the rule of law, promotes transparency and introduces economic reforms that reduce opportunities for thesis binding oxford, illicit behaviour. Perhaps the most important ingredient for 5 paragraph essay about, a successful anti-corruption approach is the development of strong institutions, centred on a professional civil service that is sufficiently independent from both private influence and political interference. 13.1 The economic and social costs. Corruption afflicts countries at what of related literature, all stages of development. Indeed, some developing countries score better on corruption indices than many advanced countries. Essay About Leadership? While there are no recent studies that quantify the overall global scale of corruption, a sense of how big a problem it is can be gauged from an estimate of the amount paid in bribes every year. A recently updated estimate points to $1.5 trillion to $2 trillion (or around 2% of global gross domestic product [GDP]) in bribes paid annually in both developing and essay my motherland developed countries. 23 Given that bribes are just a subset of all of the possible forms of corruption, the overall cost of corruption – in terms both of tangible losses and of lost opportunities – is a very high amount. The direct economic costs of corruption are easily recognised by the general public. Two very clear examples are bribes given in order to evade taxes or to bypass public tender procurement. The first example results in a direct loss of 5 paragraph essay about leadership public revenues; the of responsibility second may result in both higher public expenditure and 5 paragraph lower-quality public investment.

Corruption has a pernicious effect on the economy. Pervasive corruption makes it harder to of related conduct sound fiscal policy. For example, in data covering a range of countries, we find that low tax compliance is positively associated with corruption. By delegitimising the tax system and 5 paragraph essay about its administration, corruption increases tax evasion: if the lawrence mfa creative writing granting of 5 paragraph essay a tax exemption is perceived to is review literature be the product of a bribe, it is not surprising that the public are far less willing to comply with the tax laws. 24. 5 Paragraph Essay Leadership? Corruption also undermines certain types of public expenditure to the detriment of economic performance. What Literature? For example, it is associated with lower outlays on education and skewed public investment, driven by the capacity to 5 paragraph about leadership generate ‘commissions’ rather than by economic justification (Mauro 1998). 25 The distortion in public investment spending is literature, particularly harmful given the importance of promoting efficient public investment as a means of reducing infrastructure gaps and promoting growth.

The indirect economic costs of 5 paragraph leadership corruption may be even more consequential. 26 Clearly, causation is difficult to Was the atomic establish and, in quantitative analysis, a significant effect of essay corruption on growth has not been found (Svensson 2005). Nevertheless, in comparative studies of national data, corruption is associated with a number of Was the atomic of Hiroshima ethical? key indicators. Countries with low per capita income tend to have higher corruption and countries with higher corruption tend to have lower growth. Studies have identified different ways in which corruption could affect growth. First, corruption tends to leadership impede both foreign and domestic investment. The higher costs associated with corruption are a form of tax on investment that, in turn, translates into less investment in atomic of Hiroshima ethical?, business research and development and product innovation. Moreover, by creating uncertainty as to how the regulatory framework will be applied, it increases the ‘country risk’ associated with a particular investment project. 27 More generally, corruption generates an unfavourable business climate in about, which the creation of new enterprises is stifled, reducing the economy’s dynamism.

28. Second, corruption undercuts savings. The illegal use of public funds to acquire assets abroad shrinks the economy’s pool of binding oxford savings that could otherwise be used for 5 paragraph essay about leadership, investment. Finally, corruption can perpetuate inefficiency. Because an over-regulated economy provides opportunities for regulators to demand bribes, corruption creates a strong incentive to delay economic liberalisation and innovation. The impact of corruption on social outcomes is of related, also consequential. Social spending on education and 5 paragraph leadership health is Was the atomic of Hiroshima ethical?, typically lower in essay, corrupt systems.

This, in turn, leads to homeschool essay higher child and infant mortality rates, lower birth-weights, less access to essay about leadership education and higher school dropout rates (Gupta, Davoodi and Tiongson 2002). Thesis Binding? These outcomes disproportionately affect the poor, since they rely more heavily on government services, which become more costly due to corruption. Moreover, corruption reduces the income-earning potential of the poor as they are less well-positioned to take advantage of it. For all these reasons, corruption exacerbates income inequality and 5 paragraph poverty (Gupta, Davoodi and Alonso-Terme 2002). Corruption also breeds public distrust in government. It undermines the state’s capacity to sarah lawrence mfa creative tuition raise revenue and to perform its functions as a supplier of public goods and essay services, regulator of markets and agent for society’s redistributive goals. Where powerful business elites collude to control public institutions, corruption results in state capture and the ‘the privatisation of public policy’. The fallouts are all too clear: higher inequality in political influence, deterioration of public values and, ultimately, a diminution in the overall quality of life. These non-economic costs create a vicious cycle of underperformance in the public sector that is harmful to the economy in the long term. The moral fabric of essay my motherland society is also put at risk.

It is not just that bribery becomes part of one’s everyday life. In a society where success is more likely to depend on 5 paragraph essay about leadership, who you know rather than on personal merit, the incentives for young people to of related pursue higher education are undermined. 13.2 Strategies for 5 paragraph leadership, addressing corruption. Given the potential impact of corruption on macroeconomic stability and sustainable economic growth, the IMF has been actively engaged in helping our members design and implement anti-corruption strategies. In 1997, the homeschool writing Fund adopted a policy on governance that provides guidance on the nature of its involvement in 5 paragraph essay, circumstances where issues of governance, including corruption, are judged to have a significant macroeconomic impact. Homeschool Essay Writing? Since that time, we have gained considerable experience in helping members design and implement anti-corruption strategies.

This is about, particularly important in the context of economic crises, where effective anti-corruption measures are critical to restore confidence. In some cases, the problem has been so severe that the Fund had no choice but to withhold support until a credible reform strategy was in place. Clearly, any anti-corruption strategy must be tailored to the circumstances of the particular country. Yet we have found that success requires the existence of a number of mutually supporting features, which are briefly summarised here. 13.3 Creating the homeschool right incentives. As has been noted by one expert in this area, “Corruption is an economic crime, not a crime of passion. 5 Paragraph Essay About? Givers and takers of what is review of related bribes respond to incentives and punishments” (Klitgaard 2015, p. 37). A number of instruments – broadly characterised as disciplinary in nature (sticks) – can enhance individual accountability. Other instruments provide positive reinforcement (carrots). About? The Fund’s experience is that an effective anti-corruption approach needs both positive and deterrent measures.

Strengthening the rule of law is critical to increasing individual accountability. The Fund has taken an writing, active role – including through its conditionality – to strengthen legal frameworks that are designed to increase such accountability. For example, Ukraine’s current Fund-supported programme provides for the enhancement of legislation in a number of areas, including, in particular, the law on corruption. However, unless legislation is effectively enforced, it will not be credible in deterring corruption. Without effective law enforcement institutions – the police and other investigatory services, the public prosecutor’s office and, ultimately, the courts – even the most robust legal framework will be ineffective. So, the greatest challenge arises when corruption has permeated society to the point that these institutions themselves have become compromised. In these cases, it may be necessary to create specialised ‘bridging’ institutions in the hope that they can more effectively fight corruption, including in essay, the traditional law enforcement institutions, while broader institutional reform is implemented. These ‘bridging’ institutions include independent anti-corruption commissions and specialised anti-corruption courts such as those currently being established in Ukraine and the earlier ones in atomic bombings of Hiroshima ethical?, Indonesia (IMF 2015b; IMF 2004). In this context, the Fund has found that the establishment of leadership Anti-Money Laundering Frameworks is central to the fight against corruption. Essay? Requiring banks to report on suspicious transactions provides a very effective means of deterring criminal activities.

The fact that these laws generally require even closer scrutiny of transactions conducted by ‘politically exposed persons’ (PEP) makes them particularly relevant to essay about leadership an anti-corruption strategy. Beyond the enforcement measures discussed above, an effective anti-corruption policy must also rely on transparency. Transparency shines a spotlight on government decisions and transactions, enabling citizens to monitor the actions of their governments which, in turn, deters corrupt behaviour. Publicising instances of corruption and the efforts taken to about address them also serves as a disincentive to engage in corrupt activities and shores up public trust in government. 5 Paragraph Essay About Leadership? For these reasons, the thesis binding Fund has been actively engaged in promoting greater transparency in the overall economic and 5 paragraph essay about regulatory environment. We have developed standards and codes of best practices in areas such as data dissemination, fiscal transparency and monetary and of responsibility financial policies (IMF 1997).

29 Promoting transparency in the extractive industries is 5 paragraph essay, another area that the Fund has actively pursued in its technical assistance work. Under the of responsibility aegis of the Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative (EITI), a template is now available for reporting and 5 paragraph essay monitoring government revenues from natural resources. Transparency can only go so far. It needs accountability for it to become a powerful deterrent against corruption. It is of responsibility, critical that public officials and institutions be assigned with specific mandates and tasks upon which they are expected to deliver. Moreover, oversight mechanisms are needed to ensure that officials and institutions are delivering as expected. This is why the Fund has actively supported its members in strengthening those institutions that exercise oversight powers in the management of public funds and in enhancing the financial accountability of state-owned enterprises. It has also provided technical assistance to 5 paragraph essay leadership help members monitor the use of public resources and consolidate extra-budgetary funds into the budget. Even well-meaning public officials will be tempted by corruption if they cannot earn a living wage. Research shows a correlation between increases in wages and improvements in sarah writing tuition, a country’s ranking on the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Van Rijckeghem and Weder 2002).

This is why Fund- supported programmes have sometimes included increases in public salaries as part of an anti-corruption approach (IMF 2006). That said, there are two critical considerations. First, the remuneration of the public sector needs to be transparent and meritocratic; otherwise, it will be perceived as merely an about leadership, instrument of political patronage. Second, studies show that an increase in remuneration will have little effect unless accompanied by clear signals that public officials will lose their jobs if they are caught engaging in corrupt acts. 13.4 Economic liberalisation and effective regulation. As I have indicated, one of the costs of corruption is that regulators seeking bribes through approval processes have an incentive to delay the type of economic liberalisation that fosters sustainable growth.

Wherever discretion is granted to an official regarding the essay writing approval of an economic activity, there is a risk that this discretion will be abused. 5 Paragraph About Leadership? Appropriately designed liberalisation can therefore be a powerful anti-corruption instrument. As part of Was the and Nagasaki ethical? its core mandate, the Fund has been actively engaged in encouraging liberalisation of trade, price and 5 paragraph essay about leadership financial systems. We have also advocated free and fair market-entry regulations, as well as good statistics and transparency. Importantly, where liberalisation involves privatisation, it is critical that safeguards – such as adequate and transparent procedures – are in sarah lawrence mfa creative, place so that the sale of assets is not compromised by corruption.

Of course, experience demonstrates that regulation in a market economy is essential for both sustained growth and financial stability. The challenge, however, is to design regulatory frameworks that balance the benefits of 5 paragraph essay about leadership regulation while minimising opportunities for sarah lawrence writing, abuse of discretion. 30 For this reason, in its core areas of expertise, the Fund has promoted the adoption of 5 paragraph about rules, procedures and criteria that are as targeted, clear, simple and transparent as possible. These areas include public expenditure management, tax policy and administration, banking and assignment of responsibility foreign exchange systems, and data management (IMF 1997). 13.5 The role of the private sector. When people complain about corruption, they sometimes forget – perhaps conveniently – that for every bribe taken by about, a public official, one is given by a member of the private sector.

Clearly then, addressing the behaviour of the private sector needs to be a key component of any effective anti- corruption strategy. Homeschool? How can this be done? In some cases, this means using enforcement measures. For example, in those countries where bribery is 5 paragraph essay about leadership, a common way of facilitating foreign investment, it is critical that the sarah mfa creative writing tuition country of the 5 paragraph foreign investor enforces laws that prohibit foreign corrupt practices. The Organisation for sarah lawrence mfa creative writing, Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions can be invoked in this effort (OECD 1997). 5 Paragraph About? However, experience also shows that the private sector can become effective partners in combating corruption.

It is sometimes said that business might benefit from corruption by virtue of the and Nagasaki ethical? fact that it can ‘grease the wheels’ of essay a rigid and inefficient bureaucracy. I disagree with that proposition. Assignment? Based on my own experience, investors actually seek out countries that can give them the assurance that, once an investment is leadership, made, they will not be blackmailed into providing bribes. Homeschool Writing? Because corruption creates an enormous amount of unpredictability for businesses, anti-corruption strategies can be designed to solicit their support. I find Indonesia’s experience of implementing that partnership particularly illuminating. At a recent seminar hosted by the IMF on the topic, Sri Mulyani Indrawati, Indonesia’s former Minister of Finance (and currently Chief of Operations at the World Bank), described how she successfully partnered with businesses to provide a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for their commitment not to offer any bribes to officials – ‘new rules of the game’. 31. The ‘new rules of the game’ concept has underpinned several technical assistance activities by the Fund and about the World Bank. In reforming tax agencies in is review of related, Bolivia, Bulgaria, Indonesia, Myanmar, Peru, Poland and Senegal, Large or Medium Taxpayers’ Offices (LTOs and MTOs) were established to deal with a select group of taxpayers under streamlined conditions. Beyond the business community, civil society also has a role to play.

Through the use of social media, civil society can become a powerful force in combating corruption. In addition to being a very effective means of monitoring government activities, social media can also greatly enhance the 5 paragraph essay about credibility of an anti-corruption campaign by linking new institutions that have a specific mandate in essay, this area. 32. 13.6 Building values and institutions. When dealing with corruption, a robust framework of incentives and a well-calibrated economic liberalisation cannot be substitutes for essay about leadership, strong values and effective institutions. Of course, developing values at a personal and institutional level may seem beyond the control of any government. It is binding, clearly not something that can be legislated.

Yet unless public officials take pride in their work – and their independence from both political and private influence – all other efforts will fail. Building values among public officials requires sustained public education. 5 Paragraph Essay? Formal training can help but, ultimately, values are most effectively instilled through the writing education framework, societal pressure and essay about – as I will discuss further below – the example of lawrence writing tuition leaders. The key objective is to develop a cadre of public officials who are – and are perceived to essay about leadership be – independent from binding, both private influence and political interference. This is the 5 paragraph leadership single most important feature of a strong institution. Indeed, it has been noted that one way to assess the strength of an institution is to assess the extent to which key employees are replaced at the time of elections. There are other factors that lend support to effective operation, some of binding which – such as rules that establish transparency and clear accountability – have already been mentioned.

An area in which the Fund has been particularly active is the establishment of legislative and institutional frameworks that strengthen the independence, integrity and governance of central banks, including through the Fund’s ‘safeguards assessments’. A recent example has been work in essay, Tunisia in support of the Central Bank, which strengthened its independence, internal control mechanisms and powers. Of course, enhancing the binding overall technical competence of officials who work in these institutions is also critical. For this reason, the about leadership Fund has invested considerable resources in capacity-building in a broad range of areas, from public finance management to the strengthening of the financial intelligence units, that are responsible for applying anti- money laundering laws. Developing professional institutions that do not become excessively politicised is lawrence mfa creative, critical. Yet the irony is essay about, that in writing, circumstances where institutions have been completely compromised by corruption, active and sustained political will is 5 paragraph about leadership, essential. Powerful vested interests can only be effectively challenged when a country’s top leadership sends a clear signal that they are committed to do so. Binding? In some cases, this may require wholesale dismissals within an agency that has a reputation for corrupt practices. Prosecuting the powerful ‘big fish’ – which is essay leadership, necessary in order to send a clear signal of commitment and Was the atomic and Nagasaki change – can only 5 paragraph essay about leadership be achieved if a country’s leaders visibly support the process. Moreover, political leaders play a unique role in setting an example of professional integrity.

Lee Kuan Yew is thesis binding oxford, a leader who was very effective in both signalling a zero- tolerance policy towards corruption and 5 paragraph building competent institutions at a time when corruption was pervasive in assignment, Singapore. Although active and sustained political leadership is critical to the success of any anti-corruption campaign, it is important that reforms in this area are not hijacked to implement a political agenda. One way of assessing whether anti-corruption efforts are credible is to note whether enforcement is limited to the prosecution of political rivals, or instead also extends to the government’s political supporters. 5 Paragraph About Leadership? In addition, care should be taken to ensure that an anti- corruption campaign does not create such fear that public officials are reluctant to perform their duties. For example, in circumstances where state-owned banks have extended a loan to Was the atomic of Hiroshima and Nagasaki ethical? a company that has become insolvent, it is often in the interest of the bank, the debtor and the economy more generally to restructure the 5 paragraph loan (which might include principal write-downs) in a manner that enables the company to atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki return to essay leadership viability. Writing? Yet the Fund’s experience has been that, in some countries, the managers of state-owned banks are simply afraid to engage in such negotiations. They fear that, if they agree to any debt write-down, they will be prosecuted under the 5 paragraph essay about leadership country’s corruption law for having wasted state assets – even though a restructuring might actually enhance the value of the bank’s claim relative to the alternative, the what is review of related literature liquidation of the company. Finally, although regulatory reform can promote simplicity and automaticity, there are certain functions, such as bank supervision, where discretion will always be essential. 5 Paragraph? For these reasons, regulatory reform cannot be a substitute for the development of effective institutions.

As the head of an intergovernmental organisation, I recognise that there may be considerable sensitivity about the IMF shining a spotlight on corruption. At the same time, the alternative – turning a blind eye to the problem – is thesis binding, not a viable option. As is recognised under its existing policies, it is essay, not tenable for the IMF to assess a member’s economic prospects exclusively through the lens of monetary, fiscal or financial sector policies, when the problem of corruption is endemic and has a major impact on economic performance. In such cases, the Fund will continue to engage constructively with its members in designing and implementing anti-corruption strategies, drawing upon its cross-country experience, while partnering with other international organisations that have proven expertise in this area. Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and Alonso-Terme, R. 2002. Tuition? Does Corruption Affect Income Inequality and Poverty? Economics of about Governance, (3), pp. 23–45. Available online.

Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and writing Tiongson, E. 2002. Corruption and the Provision of Health Care and Education Services. In: G. T. Abed and 5 paragraph essay about S. Homeschool Essay? Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 245– 279. Available online. IMF. 2 July 1997. About Leadership? The Role of the Fund in homeschool essay, Governance Issues – Guidance Note. News Brief, No.

97/15. 5 Paragraph Essay About Leadership? Washington DC: IMF. Available online. Homeschool Essay Writing? IMF. 2004. Legal, Judicial and essay about leadership Governance Reforms Indonesia. Indonesia: Selected Issues, IMF Country Report No. 04/189. Washington DC: IMF.

Available online. IMF. 2006. Islamic Republic of sarah lawrence tuition Mauritania: 2006 Article IV Consultation – Staff Report. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 5 Paragraph Essay? 2015a. Current Challenges in Revenue Mobilization. Washington DC: IMF.

IMF. 12 March 2015b. Ukraine – Request for Extended Arrangement. IMF Country Report No. 15/69. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. Writing? IMF. 2015c. Republic of Mozambique – Fiscal Transparency Evaluation. Country Report No.

15/32. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. Kaufmann, D. 2005. About Leadership? Myths and Realities of Governance and Corruption. Washington DC: World Bank, pp. 81–98. Is Review Literature? Available online. Klitgaard, R. 2015.

Addressing Corruption Together. Paris: OECD. Available online. Mauro, P. 1998. Corruption and 5 paragraph about the Composition of Government Expenditure. Journal of Public Economics, (69), pp. 263–279.

Available online. OECD. 1997. Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. [online]. Atomic Of Hiroshima And Nagasaki? Paris: OECD Publishing. 5 Paragraph Essay Leadership? Available online. Svensson, J. Essay My Motherland? 2005. Eight Questions about Corruption. Journal of 5 paragraph Economic Perspectives, 19(3), pp. 19–42.

Available online. Van Rijckeghem, C. and Weder, B. 2002. Bureaucratic Corruption and the Rate of Temptation: Do Wages in the Civil Service Affect Corruption and by How Much? In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 59–88. Available online. 14. Angel Gurria: How to battle 21st-century corruption.

Over the last two decades, we have made great progress in taking the about fight against corruption to the highest global and political levels. Many governments have strengthened their anti-corruption regulations, enforcement capacity and wider governance. Several high-profile corruption cases have seen justice served. The international community has increased its support for anti-corruption programmes around the world. And today there are various multilateral anti-corruption conventions in place at the global and essay regional levels, together with numerous non-legally binding international and regional initiatives. The OECD, working closely with its partners, has been prominent in mfa creative writing tuition, this fight: setting standards across a range of areas from foreign bribery to public sector integrity, as well as on related issues such as tax evasion and bid rigging. And these initiatives have made a difference. Yet despite this progress, we’re still not winning the bigger battle against corruption. Recent scandals involving national leaders and major corporations, the ongoing investigations into the sports sector, and the growing threat of terrorism and its links to corruption, also remind us that we need to do more, much more.

At the OECD, we believe that corruption’s harmful effects on growth, equality and trust are too big to ignore, and make tackling corruption not only a moral imperative but also an economic, social and 5 paragraph essay leadership political necessity. Corruption allows for of responsibility, the financing of 5 paragraph essay wars; it helps to smuggle people, guns and drugs; it channels public and private funds into illicit activities; and it undermines collective action against climate change and poverty. Furthermore, because of increased global interconnectedness, the mechanisms and vehicles of corruption are becoming more sophisticated and difficult to trace. In this essay, I argue that, to homeschool essay deal with corruption and essay the devastation it causes, the thesis international community must build coherent systems that focus on all stages of the anti-corruption process from prevention to detection and enforcement and, at essay about, the same time, ensure effective implementation by both governments and corporations. And we must boost global collaboration by fully engaging all countries – in the developed and the developing world – in the fight against corruption. 14.1 Significant progress has been made on tackling transnational bribery. Not so long ago, transnational bribery was considered a regular part of business and bribes were treated as a tax-deductible expense.

In 1999, the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions entered into force. The Convention made it illegal for essay about, citizens and businesses of essay about leadership signatory countries to assignment bribe foreign public officials while doing business abroad and our work continues to ensure it is essay leadership, fully effective (OECD 1997). As such, the OECD Working Group on Bribery has established a rigorous monitoring and sarah writing evaluation system to ensure that governments stick to their commitments (OECD 2015a). The private sector and civil society play an integral role in the group’s activities, providing input to regular consultations and about leadership the on-site visits that form part of a country’s evaluation. The Convention has helped governments to push the fight against sarah lawrence mfa creative writing, bribery up the agenda. Many of the 41 countries that make up the OECD Working Group on Bribery (which comprises all OECD countries and seven non-OECD countries) have made radical changes to their laws and institutions to comply with the Convention. One of the most recent and successful examples is the 5 paragraph essay about UK Bribery Act 2010, which entered into force in 2011. Between 1999 and 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for foreign bribery in 17 countries (OECD 2014). At least $5.4 billion was imposed in combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars (OECD 2014).

The 2014 OECD Foreign Bribery Report showed that, among the 427 foreign bribery cases concluded, almost two- thirds of cases occurred in just four sectors: extractive (19%); construction (15%); transportation and storage (15%); and information and communication (10%). In the majority of cases, bribes were paid to obtain public procurement contracts and, in around half of cases, management or CEOs were involved (OECD 2014). As of December 2014, there were 393 ongoing investigations into alleged acts of foreign bribery in 25 of the countries party to the Convention and, even as I write, new cases are being brought to light (OECD 2014). The OECD has also developed guidelines for multinational enterprises, which are addressed by governments to enterprises operating in, or from, adhering countries. These provide non-binding principles and standards for responsible business conduct in lawrence mfa creative, a global context. Our National Contact Points (NCPs) assist stakeholders, including businesses, to take appropriate measures to implement the guidelines and provide a mediation and conciliation platform when difficulties arise (OECD 2011). For example, two non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in Cameroon recently brought a case to the NCP in the United States, alleging that a company had not observed the about guidelines on combating bribery. The US NCP offered mediation to what is review literature help the parties involved achieve a mutually agreeable resolution. In June 2015, the company agreed to a request from the NGOs to investigate past cases of 5 paragraph essay about corruption and take action against any acts of corruption (US Department of what State 2015).

Of course, the best way to combat corruption is to prevent it from happening altogether. The OECD has developed specific tools to help drive this shift in behaviour, such as the OECD (2015b) guidance for managing responsible supply chains in the mineral industry across conflict or high- risk areas. 5 Paragraph About? This provides, among other things, measures to lawrence writing mitigate the risk of bribery by companies and recommends indicators for measuring improvement. In response, major industry associations have developed initiatives to implement these recommendations, with a specific focus on the gold, tin, tungsten and tantalum sectors. As a result, industry audit programmes designed to implement the due-diligence guidance now cover 90% of the 5 paragraph essay about leadership refined gold, 95% of the smelted tantalum and 75–85% of the assignment of responsibility smelted tin produced every year (OECD 2015c). The Governments of 5 paragraph Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the sarah tuition Congo and Rwanda have all integrated these initiatives into their legal systems (OECD 2015c). In addition, the 5 paragraph essay OECD adopted the atomic bombings and Nagasaki ethical? 2010 Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and 5 paragraph Compliance. This is the first and only intergovernmental guidance for the private sector on how to sarah lawrence mfa creative prevent and detect foreign bribery through effective internal control, ethics and compliance programmes (OECD 2010a). It is complemented by the G20/ OECD (2015) Corporate Governance principles, which have just been reviewed and updated.

14.2 Improvements to national integrity systems. The OECD’s progress on tackling transnational bribery has been matched by extensive work on 5 paragraph about leadership, wider integrity systems at a national level. These include codes of conduct, effective competition, business integrity, and oxford measures to secure greater value for 5 paragraph essay leadership, money in public spending. For example, the OECD has been examining the impact of bid rigging, which raises prices, reduces quality and restricts supply in the government procurement process and is often combined with bribery of public officials or unlawful kickbacks. Assignment? Three years ago, we adopted a recommendation designed to help governments eliminate this type of corruption from their procurement processes and boost competition, forming the basis for numerous sets of national guidelines and advocacy materials (OECD 2012). About Leadership? For example, based on OECD good practices, the assignment Colombian Competition Authority is developing an electronic screening programme to detect bid rigging by 5 paragraph essay about leadership, identifying high-risk tenders (OECD Competition Committee 2014).

The OECD has also conducted several country-specific projects in co-operation with national competition authorities to reduce bid rigging and increase transparency, starting with the Mexican Social Security Institute – which secured cost savings of around $700 million per bombings and Nagasaki ethical?, annum and dramatically decreased its risks of corruption (IMCO 2012). As the recent FIFA corruption scandal shows, government agencies such as tax authorities are essential players in the fight to deter, detect and disrupt national and global corruption. That is 5 paragraph about leadership, why the OECD has supported work to my motherland strengthen the reach of tax administrations in this area, including our 2010 recommendation to improve information sharing and collaboration across government agencies to combat corruption, tax evasion and other serious economic crimes (OECD 2010b). This led to the establishment of the Oslo Dialogue, a global forum to develop and promote a whole-of-government approach to 5 paragraph leadership tackling tax crimes and other serious financial crimes and is supported by the capacity-building programmes delivered through the OECD’s International Academy for Tax Crime Investigation (OECD 2015d). In addition, we’re working with our members to target projects and industries that have traditionally been most at risk of corruption – issuing recommendations and atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki ethical? guidance related to ethics, managing conflicts of interest and increasing transparency in lobbying, and very importantly, public procurement (OECD 2015e).[^33] Building on this, we’re successfully helping governments to pre-emptively identify and limit the risks of corruption and mismanagement in major infrastructure projects – as we did with the leadership Milan Expo 2015 and the construction of Mexico City’s new airport.

14.3 Progress in extending international collaboration. Our effectiveness in curbing corruption depends on sarah lawrence mfa creative, our ability to join forces and leadership co-ordinate actions globally. As a result, we have been raising awareness of all the aforementioned initiatives in other international circles, and we are working to integrate emerging economies and essay writing developing countries in our work. [^33]These include the 1998 Ethics Recommendation, the 2003 Recommendation on 5 paragraph essay about, Guidelines for Managing Conflict of Interest, the 2010 Recommendation on Transparency and Integrity in Lobbying and the recently updated Recommendation on Public Procurement. In particular, the OECD has actively supported the G20 to make the top standards in the fight against corruption count on a global scale. Based on OECD work and standards, the G20 has made a number of commitments and adopted principles and guidance on topics such as foreign bribery and solicitation, public procurement, asset disclosure, whistle-blower protection and sarah writing tuition private sector transparency and integrity (OECD/G20 2015). We have also made progress in our dialogue with China on anti-corruption and the promotion of responsible business conduct, which is particularly timely as they take over the presidency of the G20 in 2016. Other emerging economies, in particular India, are also showing increasing signs of interest in the standards developed by our organisation. 5 Paragraph Essay Leadership? Most importantly, we are increasing our co-operation with developing and transition economies. We have regional anti-corruption programmes across Africa, the Asia-Pacific region, Eastern Europe and atomic bombings of Hiroshima Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, and Latin America (OECD 2015f). In addition, working with the Open Government Partnership (OGP), we are helping developing and transition economies to implement and about monitor the OGP standards.

14.4 There is still a long road ahead. So what next? At the OECD, we believe we need to focus on four major areas in the future. a) Corruption is every country’s problem. Every major economy must be active against corruption. Homeschool? It is still the case that 24 out 5 paragraph essay, of the 41 parties to the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention have yet to issue a single sanction (OECD 2014). Atomic And Nagasaki? Everyone needs to step to the fore and contribute their share in tackling international corruption. A more even implementation of the Convention will also promote a more level global playing field. And while the 41 countries make up approximately 66% of essay world exports, a number of significant economies have yet to of responsibility join, including China, India and Indonesia. G20 leaders support their accession to the Convention and, together, we must make it happen in the near future.

As part of this, the OECD can and should play a bigger role in helping to strengthen anti-corruption practices across the essay about leadership world by integrating partner countries into Was the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, its various initiatives. The progress we have made on tax transparency shows what can be achieved when we engage developing countries on an equal footing. Today there are 129 jurisdictions committed to implementing the 5 paragraph international standard for exchange of tax information on request (OECD 2016). The new global common reporting standard on tax transparency agreed in 2014, which will be implemented by more than 95 jurisdictions by 2018, will ensure the automatic transmission of information about financial accounts held offshore by taxpayers (OECD 2016). It is a major step forward not only for tax fairness, but also for making available additional information that is crucial in tracking corruption. Writing? I firmly believe the OECD can replicate this successful model in the fight against corruption. b) Implementation, implementation, implementation. As we have seen, many of the standards are in place. We must now focus on about leadership, effective implementation. Thesis Binding Oxford? This means law enforcement authorities need to be sufficiently independent and equipped with the necessary financial and human resources to do the job. Professionals such as lawyers, accountants and 5 paragraph leadership auditors need to assignment be much more aware of the risks they face when advising in business transactions, especially at the international level.

Ratings agencies should include corruption risks in their analysis of companies. Corruption case settlements should be made public and the protection of whistle-blowers reinforced. We also need to make an effort to embed integrity within the management of both public and private organisations, including in their general management, human resources, internal control and audit, and external audit systems. This would also improve the monitoring of progress and the effectiveness and coherence of integrity policies and practices. Further engagement with the private sector is imperative. 5 Paragraph Essay About? Our work clearly shows the importance of company self- reporting in detecting corruption. However, self-reporting is often not acknowledged or incentivised. We intend to undertake work to sarah lawrence mfa creative writing tuition ensure good compliance is rewarded and self-reporting actively promoted, as well as to find innovative ways to protect companies from undue solicitation. Finally, effective implementation will depend on 5 paragraph essay leadership, how we are able to about address corruption in organisations where corruption often occurs – such as state-owned enterprises, public/private partnerships and local governments – and sectors that need special attention, such as customs, health, education and 5 paragraph essay about law enforcement. As our Foreign Bribery Report (2014) shows, public procurement is a high-risk area that needs special attention. c) Integrating and widening the what integrity agenda.

The effectiveness of our various tools and initiatives will also depend on how we are able to link them up, build synergies, provide consistency in our approaches and support co-ordination between institutions responsible for enhancing integrity and fighting corruption. Such connections also need to be built by governments and the different stakeholders at the national level, strengthening the links between initiatives on foreign bribery and public sector integrity with those on tax evasion, bid rigging, money laundering and illicit financial flows. The OECD is uniquely placed to assist countries in this respect. We’re ready to work on the necessary training and policy advice, as well as offering our expertise to 5 paragraph about leadership specific situations, when required – as our successful work on large infrastructure projects with Italy and Mexico shows. Beyond institutional solutions, we need to balance a rules-based compliance approach with greater attention to the political economy of corruption and to the values of public officials. Atomic Bombings Of Hiroshima Ethical?? This will require taking better account of the existence of vested interests when shaping policies by promoting transparency and 5 paragraph integrity in political finance, elections and homeschool writing lobbying at various levels of essay leadership government. Preventing public officials or policies from being swayed by powerful and narrow vested interests is crucial, if we are to strengthen trust in our governments.

d) The relationship between corruption and other global issues. Corruption is at the heart of is review of related many of the biggest issues the world now faces. As we know, the essay about forced displacement of people due to conflict, persecution, violence and human rights violations is on the rise. The current refugee crisis has triggered a global discussion about migration and refugees. Is Review Literature? Corruption plays a significant role in essay, this crisis in the wake of inadequate government services.

It is an aggravating factor as it facilitates people smuggling by organised criminals. Furthermore, recent tragic events have emphasised the need for all international organisations to play a part in the fight against terrorism. The relationship between corruption and terrorism has long been recognised. Evidence shows that corruption contributes to the financing of terrorism and creates inequalities that disenfranchise communities and promote the development and growth of terrorist groups. This phenomenon is facilitated by the growing complexity of corruption in Was the bombings, commodity trading and 5 paragraph essay illicit trade, through crude oil swaps, trade mispricing and stolen resource trading. The OECD is looking to further explore these issues in order to best equip countries to fight these corrosive and dangerous practices.

We also know that corruption undermines the fight against climate change. For example, there is ample evidence that corruption acts as a major facilitator of the estimated (up to) $100 billion illegal logging industry (UNEP, Interpol 2012). The availability of large amounts of funding in the fight against is review, climate change may also favour corrupt practices. But overall, this is an area that remains relatively unexplored. The OECD is well placed to undertake work in this area in essay, the light of its expertise in essay, environmental issues, trade (including analysis of illicit trade) and essay about fighting corruption. In 2015, we saw the essay my motherland emergence of major bribery scandals in sports. Apart from its economic importance, sport plays a major role in essay, holding societies together and we cannot tolerate the ethical breaches that undermine its legitimacy.

These scandals illustrate the limits of self-regulation. Global leadership is essay, required in this area. The OECD’s knowledge and experience in lobbying, good public governance, public procurement and fighting corruption mean that the organisation is essay about, ready to play a key role on this topic. Finally, at the OECD, we are acutely aware of how important it is to take forward the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda (UN 2015). Addressing corruption is vital in order to successfully achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). While corruption is explicitly mentioned only in Goal 16, it is clear that it cuts across all of the SDGs and will be a major hurdle to achieving them. Corruption has a significant impact on poverty, inequality, hunger, education, the availability of clean water and sanitation, economic growth, industry innovation and infrastructure. It thwarts resource mobilisation and allocation and diverts resources away from sustainable development and from efforts to eradicate poverty. International organisations, including the OECD, must work together to thesis binding ensure the fight against corruption is made a priority in 5 paragraph essay leadership, order to achieve the SDGs.

The G20 could take a leading role in this respect. Mfa Creative? We need to establish a common vision and a global agenda. The OECD stands ready to play its part and work hard to win the battle against the dark side of our economies by designing, promoting and leadership implementing better anti- corruption policies for better lives. G20/OECD. Assignment Of Responsibility? 2015.

Principles of Corporate Governance. Availableonline. Instituto Mexicano para la Competividad (IMCO). 2012. 5 Paragraph Essay About Leadership? Evaluacion del Acuerdo de Trabajo IMSS-OCDE-CFC. Available online. OECD. 1997.

Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. OECD. 2010a. Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and Compliance. Available online. OECD.

14 October 2010b. Recommendation of the Council to Facilitate Co-operation between Tax and Other Law Enforcement Authorities to Combat Serious Crimes. Available online. OECD. 2011. Thesis Binding? National Contact Points for the OECD Guidelines for about leadership, Multinational Enterprises.

Available online. Thesis? OECD. 2012. Recommendation of the OECD Council on Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement. Available online. OECD. 2014. OECD Foreign Bribery Report: An Analysis of the Crime of Bribery of Foreign Public Officials. Paris: OECD Publishing. Essay? OECD.

2015a. Country Reports on the Implementation of the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention. Was The Atomic Bombings And Nagasaki? Available online. OECD. 2015b. Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from essay, Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas.

Available online. OECD. 2015c. Is Review Of Related Literature? Implementing the OECD Due Diligence Guidance. Available online. OECD. 2015d. Forum on Tax and Crime. Available online. OECD. 2015e. Bribery and Corruption. Available online. OECD. 2015f. Regional anti-corruption programmes. Available online. OECD. Essay About? 2016.

Global Forum on essay writing, Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes. Available online. OECD Competition Committee. 2014. Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement in Colombia. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. OECD and G20.

2015. 5 Paragraph Leadership? Anti-corruption. Available online. United Nations. Essay? 2015. Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Available online. UNEP, Interpol. 2012. Leadership? Green Carbon, Black Trade.

Norway: UNEP, Interpol. Available online. US Department of State. 28 July 2015. US NCP Final Statement CED/RELUFA on the Specific Instance between the Center for Environment and Development (CED) with Network to Fight against Hunger (RELUFA) and homeschool essay Herakles Farms’ affiliate SG Sustainable Oils Cameroon (SGSOC) in Cameroon. 5 Paragraph Essay About? Available online.

15. Assignment Of Responsibility? Mart Laar: The cancer of the modern world – a European perspective. Corruption is a cancer. At first, it can look small and harmless. Before you know it, it has taken over your entire body. Likewise, the losses from corruption can start small, but in leadership, the end the Was the bombings ethical? damage is enormous. The problem of corruption around the world is well known. Dictators, arms smugglers and warlords rely on corruption to 5 paragraph leadership fund violence against their own populations. Sarah Writing? We know too about the corruption in post-Communist countries like Russia.

It’s not just the corruption in 5 paragraph leadership, the economy; it’s the corruption of the legal and political systems that sustains it, which is so damaging in so many countries. Systemic, widespread corruption can also hold back countries such as Ukraine that are making genuine efforts to reform and build closer links with Europe. It undermines the inspiring campaigns and aspirations of reformers – as seen in Moldova, for instance – and saps the confidence of potential European partners. In Ukraine and Moldova, it is no coincidence that public dissatisfaction and protest appear to be as much about corruption as they are about anything else. And the public are right: corruption siphons off much- needed investment and slows the about growth and progress of Eastern European economies.

So I believe that we need a plan for 5 paragraph about leadership, Europe that places anti-corruption right at assignment of responsibility, the heart of the process. I know about corruption. I’ve seen it with my own eyes. You can no more eradicate it than you can abolish human greed. But that doesn’t mean that there is no hope. Estonia was deeply corrupted, just as other former Communist countries were as they made the 5 paragraph leadership transition to sarah lawrence independence. We were so corrupted – it was so ingrained – that we didn’t even understand that it wasn’t normal. It had become a way of life.

So for us, progress depended on a fundamental realisation: we could only 5 paragraph essay leadership cut ourselves off from the old Communist heritage if we cut out the Was the atomic bombings of Hiroshima cancer of corruption. This was easy to say, of course, but harder to implement. European institutions stressed from the start of the integration process the importance of fighting corruption, but sometimes this seemed to us to be just warm words. To our surprise, as our economy and trade relations grew, several Western companies allegedly offered generous bribes in many common business deals. To them, corruption in Eastern Europe was normal. So, while the 5 paragraph leadership West finances campaigns against essay my motherland, corruption abroad, it would be significantly more effective if all countries also dealt with the criminal activity and the bribes originating at home. In many countries, corruption isn’t actually a negative word. 5 Paragraph Leadership? It is connected with friendship and taking care of family.

People know that some officials from the government take money from oxford, business; that’s how life has always been. How do you begin to unpick that? In Estonia, we knew that if we wanted to 5 paragraph essay about break free, we didn’t have any choice – we had to end corruption. Within ten years of transition, we had dramatically cut corruption – to the point where we were less corrupt than several European Union (EU) member states (Transparency International 1998). How did we do it? A huge part of the answer was the European Union. We received vital encouragement from the EU, including as part of the negotiations on enlargement. Most importantly, we received a very clear message right from the start that the what is review door to the EU would be closed to countries with the usual scale of post-Communist corruption. About? At first, it was thought that the assignment EU was not serious. But then the Slovakian Government, under Vladimir Meciar, was ousted from negotiations on enlargement (European Commission 1997).

All of a sudden, we knew that the fight against corruption had to be taken seriously. 5 Paragraph About? Transparency was important too. Clear data enables you to see very similar countries, like Latvia and Estonia, with very different levels of corruption (Transparency International 2015). So if you could cut it in one country, why not the other? With the help of the EU, independent non-governmental organisations (NGOs) were also created, which aided the atomic bombings ethical? fight against corruption. 5 Paragraph Essay Leadership? The EU shared with us, along with the other countries hoping to join, all of the best practice and legislation for tackling corruption.

This allowed us to take big steps forward very quickly. An important part of this was to regularly publish key officials’ income and its sources, supported by homeschool essay, criminal punishments for corruption in leadership, the penal code. Not all the assignment of responsibility measures we took were popular – many people were angry about our efforts. But the European ‘sticks and carrots’ approach made our plans possible. We could privatise public assets, in the knowledge that they could only be sold for legal money moved through European banks that had rules against money laundering and fraud. Using money only from EU and US banks meant that we didn’t have to privatise using ‘black money’ and corruption.

When you cut corruption out of banking and the wider economy, it is much harder for corruption to take root in 5 paragraph, politics. Helping to tackle corruption in assignment, Eastern Europe has also, of course, provided tangible benefits for people in Western Europe. It has helped open up new markets for trade and investment – based on a level playing field and open competition – therefore boosting the 5 paragraph essay prosperity and security of all EU member states, including the about big economies of the West. Many people, including leaders, have asked for the secrets of Estonia’s success in tackling corruption. Every country is 5 paragraph, different, but here are my suggestions: One – don’t become corrupt yourself. How can your citizens take anti-corruption programmes seriously if they suspect their government is tuition, corrupt? So you need to make it clear from the start: mistakes can be pardoned; corruption cannot.

There can be no yellow cards – just red ones. Two – let the market do the job. The more radical market reforms you introduce, the less corruption you will have. Abolishing subsidies is a good start: they always go to the wrong places, making the rich richer and the poor poorer. Simplifying the tax system and cutting taxes helps too – as does the abolition of custom tariffs, in which the EU plays a key role. 5 Paragraph? Three – make government smaller. This is binding oxford, often underestimated in the transition to a market economy. You can’t move your country to the future with the old machinery. So you need to break up the old structures that provide opportunities for corruption. A good way to start is to cut the government by half and essay double the salaries of those who remain.

And then cut the size again by another 20%. Your new public service must be non-partisan and independent. As you go forward, keep government lean. It’s important – big governments and big bureaucracies create corruption. Lawrence? Four – make everything public. Transparency is one of the most powerful allies in fighting corruption. When information on public spending, government agencies’ work and use of governmental benefits and privileges is freely available, it starts to reduce corruption. Modern technology can help a lot here. Placing government services online and making them open through e-government has been highly effective in Estonia.

It doesn’t just cut the misuse of government credit cards and make sure government procurement is clean, it also cuts down on time and paper – and lets trees grow. Five – let freedom reign. Freedom takes the state official out of the daily situations and transactions where corruption can occur. If you need to essay about leadership have a separate government document every time a house is built or renovated, there is a chance for corruption. When decisions – or the speed of decisions – depend on assignment of responsibility, the will of leadership a state official rather than the law of the land, you will have corruption. Abolish them and Was the atomic of Hiroshima and Nagasaki you find that nothing bad happens. These conclusions are really quite simple.

More freedom means less corruption, less freedom means more corruption. It’s just the same in sport. If you take away the competition and fair play, you will lose the spirit of sport. That’s what corruption does to all of our efforts, our dreams and our desires – in corrupt societies, they are thwarted and the human spirit is poorer as a result. We showed in Estonia that it doesn’t have to be like this. 5 Paragraph Leadership? Together we can change it – together we can do it! European Commission. 15 July 1997. Agenda 2000 – Commission Opinion on Slovakia’s Application for Membership of the European Union.

Brussels: European Commission. Available online. Transparency International. Homeschool? 1998. Corruption Perceptions Index 1998. Available online. 5 Paragraph Leadership? Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Available online.

16. Jose Ugaz: People’s power: taking action to demand accountability. Over the past quarter of a century, the face of corruption has changed. And so has the anti-corruption movement. In the early 1990s, corruption was simply not talked about in the international community. In fact, facilitation payments were widely recognised in law as deductible business expenses if handed out abroad. Back then, the focus of the emerging anti-corruption movement was to get corruption on the agenda: raising awareness of its devastating effects and showing its disproportionate impact on essay, the poor.

It is the most vulnerable people in our societies who too often have to make the hard choice to pay bribes to get the essential services they need, such as treatment for a sick grandparent or an education for their child. This focus shifted in the late 1990s to creating ways to both measure corruption and develop the tools to prevent it. Launched in 5 paragraph about leadership, 1995, Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) put governments on the spot by publishing their scores around the world (Transparency International 2015a). By 2003, the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) – now ratified by 178 countries – outlined a solid framework of thesis binding oxford anti- corruption laws (UNODC 2015). This came six years after the OECD Convention Against Foreign Bribery and seven years after the leadership ground-breaking Inter-American Convention against Corruption (OECD 1997; International Association of essay my motherland Anti-Corruption Authorities 2012). The G20 has had an 5 paragraph essay leadership, Anti-Corruption Action Plan since 2010 and the fight against corruption is sarah lawrence mfa creative, now at the heart of the about UN’s Sustainable Development Goal 16, promoting peace and justice with targets for tackling corruption (Transparency International 2015b; UN 2015). Today many countries have solid anti-corruption legislation. But laws don’t work if they are not properly enforced. Corruption remains rife. Countries get used to about my motherland failing scores and billions of dollars of illicit financial flows and money laundering provide luxury lifestyles for the corrupt. So what’s next?

Pressure from the essay about leadership public is mfa creative writing tuition, key. We already know that pent-up anger against corruption can provoke people action. 5 Paragraph About? In Tunisia, a dictator was ousted in 2011 by hundreds of thousands of protestors. Essay? His successors are now hunting down the millions he and his family stole. 5 Paragraph Essay? In Guatemala, months of peaceful protests in 2015 forced out writing, both the president and the vice-president. They are now in jail facing corruption charges. 5 Paragraph Essay Leadership? Marches against thesis binding oxford, corruption in Brazil, Chile and Indonesia have also led to substantive changes to laws. This shows how much can be achieved when people react to specific events, but the 5 paragraph about leadership rejection of corruption needs to become more sustained.

This essay explores the Was the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki ethical? new tools that citizens can, and should, make use of to fight corruption both collectively and as individuals. It discusses how communities can take action on the everyday issues of corruption that affect their lives and the major difference individuals can make when they say no to corruption. It also looks at how we can and should act together against the phenomenon of grand corruption, something that our ever- more connected world is now making possible. At TI, we define grand corruption as the 5 paragraph essay abuse of of Hiroshima and Nagasaki high- level power that benefits the few at leadership, the expense of the many and is review of related literature causes serious and widespread harm to individuals and society alike. Too often, it goes unpunished because the 5 paragraph about leadership corrupt hide behind political immunity, secret companies that allow them to hide stolen money and a global financial network that turns a blind eye to illicit financial flows. Even here, citizen action can make a difference to unmask the corrupt. I strongly believe that it will be pressure from people around the atomic world – coming together, using new technologies and speaking with a united bold voice to demand justice – that will start to hold the grand corrupt to account. It has become urgent for the victims of grand corruption to be recognised. Together, we can all help to stop the current trend.

Public opinion polls and surveys from the past five years have consistently shown that people see corruption as one of the key social challenges of our time (BBC 2010; Avaaz 2014). When a United Nations online poll consistently featured corruption as a top priority for the next generation of leadership Sustainable Development Goals, this was translated into Goal 16, which commits all governments to “provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions” (UN 2016; UN 2015, p. 2). This growing awareness, combined with the emergence of smart communications technology, will help to drive activism. Around 50% of the world’s population is online, while a similar proportion of the adult population owns a smartphone. By 2020, this is expected to rise to 80% (The Economist 2015). There are already clear wins for mobilised, tech-savvy, anti-corruption activism. In Brazil, for example, a new law took effect in 2010 called Ficha Limpa, or Clean Record, which prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption, mismanagement of public funds or electoral violations from standing for public office for at least eight years. It came about tuition, because more than 40 civil society organisations were able to mobilise two million Brazilian citizens to use online actions, together with events, to campaign for essay leadership, the legislation (Salas 2010).

This is especially important in a country where TI studies show that 81% and 72% of people respectively feel that political parties and the legislature are corrupt or extremely corrupt (Transparency International 2013a). Thanks to this law, Brazilian courts barred 317 mayoral candidates – who had criminal records – from running for office in the 2012 municipal election. In the 2014 general election, this rose to 497 (Alves 2014). However, the campaign’s impact is not limited to the disqualification of corrupt candidates. Crucially, it has changed the way Brazilians perceive their capacity to make their collective voice heard. It has transformed individual anger about political corruption into collective action for social change. In our latest survey, 81% of Brazilians now believe that ordinary people can make a difference in the fight against corruption (Transparency International 2013a). Essay Writing? Use of social media helped ignite and 5 paragraph about leadership organise the uprisings across North Africa and what literature the Middle East. It allowed millions of people to 5 paragraph about leadership share messages of civil resistance and collective activism. Despite this, one of the many frustrations following the Arab Spring was the feeling that the perpetrators of corruption in the old regimes were not being brought to justice. The lack of strong institutions to deliver the kind of justice the people demanded thwarted real reforms.

In Guatemala, a similar story of disaffected citizenry turned out differently, because three key factors came together: technology, people and Was the bombings of Hiroshima ethical? an institutional pressure for accountability. Guatemala has suffered from political corruption and widespread impunity for decades. The justice system was seen as weak and 5 paragraph about co-opted by essay, powerful interests. Yet, when a huge customs fraud scandal involving a number of the country’s political elite was uncovered in 2015, the people decided enough was enough. For five months, they took to the streets every week, co-ordinating and advertising the protests on 5 paragraph, social media. Their numbers swelled.

This, combined with pressure from emboldened national prosecutors who were working alongside international investigators from the UN, eventually forced the country’s president and vice- president to atomic resign. They were arrested shortly afterwards. This new spirit of empowered citizenship should be an inspiration to others precisely because it can deliver change. 5 Paragraph Essay About Leadership? It gives legitimacy to thesis binding oxford legal action in the spirit of democracy. It is the will of the 5 paragraph people. Masses can usually only be mobilised for a limited period of time around a specific goal.

Their successes are watershed moments for bombings of Hiroshima ethical?, all involved, yet they signal the beginning rather than the end of a long process. Systemic anti-corruption reforms are vital for preventing large-scale corruption scandals from happening again and essay about leadership again. So how do you keep society interested when there are no big, flashy news headlines or high-profile people to go after? By showing it that engagement matters. When we think of communities, we think of the of Hiroshima and Nagasaki basic services that people need: education, health, waste collection, public transport and 5 paragraph about roads.

Often communities are one step removed from how these are funded. What? Their taxes go into a pot and they take no notice until a hospital fails or a pothole damages their car. But we can only 5 paragraph essay know whether money is well spent if we have access to information about it. In too many countries, communities either don’t request the information or it is simply not available. When people demand transparency and accountability, they can make a difference.

They need to participate meaningfully in the decisions that affect their daily lives. Lawrence Writing? This is what happened in a school just outside Dhaka, the capital of 5 paragraph essay about leadership Bangladesh. Corruption in about, education is a significant challenge in Bangladesh and particularly affects the poor. Admission officers demand bribes, teachers are often absent and leadership there is no way to report or keep track of the problem. One school decided to change the is review of related way things worked.

It signed an Integrity Pledge and introduced social monitoring tools such as citizen report cards, while budgets were prepared with the participation of the community (Zaman 2011). Within a year, the dropout rate fell from 30% to 7%, the collection of unauthorised payments stopped, scholarships were distributed transparently and 100% of students passed the annual final examination. This success has led to the initiative being rolled out in other schools in Bangladesh. Similar initiatives have been used to 5 paragraph leadership improve health, water and atomic of Hiroshima and Nagasaki ethical? construction services from Bolivia to 5 paragraph essay Uganda. One crucial ingredient in their success is the literature active involvement of local communities. If you empower communities, they will make their voices heard and they will take charge of their own futures (Sidwell 2011).

The other crucial element is transparency. 5 Paragraph Essay? Having access to information is a precondition for is review of related literature, making informed decisions and holding public officials and elected leaders to account. 5 Paragraph Leadership? More than 100 countries now have freedom of information laws, yet their implementation is still patchy (McIntosh 2014). But not only do governments need to release information, citizens also need to make active use of it. This combination of information and activism can be a potent tool. In July 2015, El Salvador authorities confirmed that citizens had the assignment of responsibility right to ask for information about 5 paragraph essay about leadership, public officials’ assets. Homeschool Essay Writing? This is essay, important because, if you can track wealth over time, it can show whether officials are using their positions for illicit gain. In less than four months, Salvadoran citizens submitted close to binding 6,000 requests for information. These uncovered cases where the wealth of public officials grew by 300% during their time in office (Heywood 2015). 5 Paragraph Essay Leadership? Investigations into the inexplicably high wealth of some officials are now being held.

New technologies are facilitating this push for transparency. Essay My Motherland? ‘Big data’ may be a buzzword, but its trickle- down effect can allow ordinary people to 5 paragraph search and evaluate important information. There is no reason why local, regional and national governments cannot put their records online and create a platform for citizens to search data on public tenders, tax spending or any other part of the day-to-day running of communities. About? Increasingly, civil society organisations are also launching online tools to essay help communities hold their local authorities to account. Through Fix My Street, people in sarah tuition, Georgia can flag construction and infrastructure issues in their neighbourhood to 5 paragraph about leadership the mayor’s office and essay my motherland track repairs (Transparency International 2013b). The online portal has triggered the 5 paragraph about fixing of hundreds of problems. In Argentina, voters are visualising the relationship between money and politics through an interactive database, which aggregates political party financing data. Assignment? The site allows citizens to see where party funds are coming from and where they are going (Transparency International 2012). 5 Paragraph Leadership? In Lithuania, manoSeimas (My Parliament) lets users find out how parliamentarians have been voting on policy issues (Transparency International 2016a). The tools to hold elected officials to account are beginning to expand.

It is up to people to start using them. This is where civil society organisations can play an important role in raising awareness and creating a safe environment for speaking up. 16.4 Individuals can make a difference. For too many people, the idea that a corrupt system can change is assignment of responsibility, difficult to believe; they simply accept corruption as business as usual. In Peru, there is even a popular saying about politicians ‘roba, pero hace’, which roughly translates to ‘he steals but makes things happen’ (DATUM 2014). More than half of all Peruvians are willing to vote for corrupt politicians as long as they ‘do work’ (Ipsos Peru 2014). Sadly, every year, one in 5 paragraph about, four people around the writing tuition world pay a bribe to access public services (Hardoon and Heinrich 2013). In Cambodia, India and Kenya, this figure is even higher than one in two. In Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of its income on bribes for essay, basic services they are entitled to, such as water, medicine and education (Transparencia Mexicana 2011). People accept this huge financial burden, because they feel powerless and vulnerable (Hardoon and Heinrich 2013). They believe reporting corruption won’t make a difference and could put them or their family in danger.

Breaking this wall of silence requires a number of important cultural and legal steps. People need to know that there is strong, enforced legislation to protect whistle-blowers, so they are safe when they speak out. When citizens feel these mechanisms cannot be trusted, then organised civil society has a vital role to play. This includes advocating the implementation of protection as well as supporting individual victims and witnesses of corruption. The results can be impressive. TI opened advocacy and legal advice centres in more than 60 countries around the world to offer free and confidential legal advice and to help citizens report corruption (Transparency International 2016b). More than 200,000 citizens have been in contact with our centres and we have collected numerous stories illustrating that one single brave individual reporting corruption can make a huge difference to the lives of entire societies. In the Czech Republic, a whistle-blower on environmental corruption helped to oxford save the country more than €2 billion (Transparency International 2015c). In Nepal, money that was meant for 5 paragraph essay, women giving birth in remote regions but stolen by healthcare officials was returned and redistributed where it was needed most (Transparency International 2015d). In Guatemala, nepotism in local government was stamped out of related literature, after a citizen uncovered that the mayor had hired around ten of his relatives (Transparency International 2015e). In March 2015, Transparencia Venezuela launched a smartphone app Dilo Aqui, which allows ordinary citizens to report instances of bribery and any irregularities during elections (Transparencia Venezuela 2015a).

In the parliamentary elections in December 2015, more than 400 complaints of electoral abuse were registered via the app that were then channelled to the National Electoral Council and the Comptroller General for follow-up (Transparencia Venezuela 2015b). The goal is to encourage, cajole, educate and empower more citizens to speak out and about leadership speak out safely. This affects us all. In the UK, for example, a TI survey showed that, while 90% of people would like to report corruption if they came across it, fewer than 30% knew how (Krishnan and Barrington 2011). Individuals everywhere need to take their responsibility as citizens seriously and speak up for their right to live in Was the atomic of Hiroshima ethical?, a society free of corruption. When they do that, governments and institutions have to 5 paragraph listen and act. About My Motherland? 16.5 The new challenge: bringing down grand corruption. Every year an estimated $1 trillion in illicit financial flows leave developing countries, often with a single keystroke (Global Financial Integrity 2015). The majority of these funds end up in developed countries.

Be it in a property in London or a bank account in Switzerland, the effects on the local economies left behind are devastating. The money comes from skimming off basic services budgets or taking bribes for contracts. Such abuse of entrusted power for private gain has immediate consequences on people – victims are often left helpless. We want to see behavioural and systemic change in the next ten years and we want victims to be recognised and taken into serious consideration. For this to happen, we have developed the new concept of ‘grand corruption’. Unfortunately, examples of grand corruption are everywhere. The Chinaleaks documents showed how the country’s elite funnelled billions of dollars of essay corrupt money into oxford, so-called ‘safe havens’ such as the Bahamas using shell companies (Boehler 2014). The President of 5 paragraph essay about leadership Equatorial Guinea, Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, and his son Teodoro are estimated to have allegedly siphoned off more than $300 million from state coffers to buy a luxury lifestyle in Paris and the United States, while the about majority of the country’s population lives in poverty.

Then there is Ukraine’s former leader Viktor Yanukovych who used state proceeds to fund a lavish lifestyle. Essay About Leadership? Think also of the billions of dollars’ worth of fines the big banks, including household names such as Barclays, HSBC, Citibank and BNP Paribas, have had to pay for institutionalised corruption like rigging exchange rates, mis-selling products and helping clients avoid anti-money laundering rules and evade taxes. We witness human rights abuses in thesis binding, cases of grand corruption. There are victims. When money is siphoned off for the benefit of the few, it is the many who suffer. Schools are not built, healthcare systems are degraded and essay infrastructure neglected. It exacerbates poverty and exclusion. Grand corruption also damages democracy and good governance. When a state is captured, such as allegedly happened in thesis binding oxford, Guatemala under President Otto Perez Molina, then insecurity and instability are high. It is the citizens that pay the price.

Unfortunately, grand corruption often goes unpunished. In the case of 5 paragraph essay about leadership corporations, too often it is the shareholders who pay the fines, not the individuals who commit the crimes. To change this, we need help from citizens. They have to use all the tools for fighting corruption outlined above – technology, community actions and mass movements - to bombings and Nagasaki demand justice and unmask the corrupt both in leadership, the countries where the corrupt money is generated and, just as importantly, in the countries where it ends up. Of Responsibility? Money laundering is 5 paragraph about, not just a term used to describe Mafia-style organised crimes. It might be the way your neighbour bought their flat via a secret offshore company, or the essay about cash payments used to purchase a luxury watch. Citizens living in countries on 5 paragraph essay, the receiving end of corrupt money need to be part of the assignment of responsibility fight against essay leadership, grand corruption too. And this is where awareness raising is still in its infancy. We as civil society are calling on governments to put mechanisms in homeschool essay writing, place that prevent dirty cash from about, entering their countries. But because this type of corruption is not obvious to citizens of dirty money destinations – in fact it can actually add to economic growth – there is still limited will from assignment, citizens to about pressure their leaders or take action themselves.

The G20 has taken up this cause at a high level. It remains for the countries themselves to introduce the legislation and enforce it. The UK recently adopted legislation giving immediate access on beneficial ownership information to law enforcement agencies, banks and businesses with duties to check that they are not handling stolen cash. In 2016, a central registry containing this information will be made public. It is time for more countries to follow suit and for citizens to campaign to ensure that they do. More and more, journalists and essay non-governmental organisations (NGOs) – using new online search tools to 5 paragraph about leadership follow money – are exposing cases of grand corruption and pressing for criminal investigations and indictments. We strongly believe that ordinary citizens have a part to play in this too. We call this ‘social sanctioning’: once the corrupt are exposed they should not be allowed to live freely off their dirty money. Homeschool Essay Writing? We would like to see a day when the corrupt can’t get visas for travel, luxury shops turn their cash away and real estate agents refuse to sell them their penthouse flats.

Without active citizens the fight against essay about, corruption cannot be won. People need to thesis binding oxford say no to corruption on every level. They need to speak out against extortion and 5 paragraph leadership denounce leaders and companies who are exposed as engaging in corruption. They need to take responsibility for their own actions and writing tuition demand the same from 5 paragraph essay leadership, their peers. Together we can create a global culture where corruption is rejected and mfa creative writing tuition accountability rules. There are plenty of leadership examples where this has happened.But the feeling of disempowerment is still too widespread. People need to thesis oxford turn the anger and helplessness they feel into active rejection of the status quo.

Civil society organisations can help create awareness and mobilisation, but governments have to enforce laws that show the 5 paragraph essay about corrupt will be held to account. In countries where institutions are weak, citizens play an even more important and often braver role. Those who speak out sarah mfa creative writing, can be targets, but not everyone has to be on the front line. Take the example of the school in Bangladesh: it was parents and local organisers who asked the school to note who showed up to teach and to 5 paragraph about commit to not asking for admissions bribes. These small steps led to measurable improvements – the kids passed their exams.

Our technology, our reach and our upraised voices can bring hundreds of thousands onto the street. These things can also be used to simply draw attention to the inconsistencies between a local politician’s lifestyle and their publicly declared salary. It is the combination of our loud indignation and what is review of related our quiet vigilance that will put an end to corruption, both grand and not so grand. Alves, L. 16 September 2014. 5 Paragraph About? Ficha Limpa Law Forces Candidates to Withdraw.

The Rio Times. Available online. Bombings And Nagasaki? Avaaz. 2014. Where next for Avaaz in 2014? Setting the agenda. Available online. BBC Press. 9 December 2010.

Global poll: Corruption is 5 paragraph about, world’s most talked about problem. Available online. Boehler, P. 22 January 2014. ChinaLeaks: Expose on Chinese elite’s offshore accounts comes at sensitive time. South China Morning Post – China Insider. Available online. DATUM. 2014. Peru 21 – ELECCIONES 2016.

Available online. Economist, The. 28 February 2015. Planet of the Phones. Of Responsibility? [online]. Available online. Global Financial Integrity. 2015. About? Illicit Financial Flows. Available online.

Hardoon, D. and Heinrich, F. 2013. Global Corruption Barometer 2013: Report. Berlin: Transparency International. Available from: http://www.transparency.org/gcb2013/report Heywood, M. 13 November 2015. When Transparency Rules. Transparency International blog. Available online. Thesis Binding Oxford? International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities. 15 February 2012. Organization of 5 paragraph essay about leadership American States (OAS). Available online.

Ipsos Peru. September 2014. Informe de Opinion Data – Peru, septiembre de 2014. Available online. Krishnan, C. and Barrington, R. 2011. Corruption in essay about my motherland, the UK: Overview and Policy Recommendations. UK: Transparency International. McIntosh, T. 19 September 2014. Paraguay is 100th nation to pass FOI law, but struggle for openness goes on. The Guardian. Available online.

OECD. 1997. About? OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. Available online. Salas, A. 22 June 2010. Aiming for thesis binding, a clean record in Brazil. Available online. Sidwell, M. 5 Paragraph About Leadership? 25 August 2011.

Race to the top. Transparency International blog. Available online. Transparencia Mexicana. 10 May 2011. Indice Nacional De Corrupcion Y Buen Gobierno. Available online. Transparencia Venezuela. 19 March 2015a. Transparencia Venezuela lanzo ‘Dilo aqui’, una aplicacion para denunciar. El Universal.

Available online. Transparencia Venezuela. 6 December 2015b. Tercer Reporte denuncias recibidas en el marco del proceso electoral Parlamentarias 2015. Available online. What Is Review Of Related Literature? Transparency International. 2012. Empowering citizens, securing lasting change: using technology for transparency. Berlin: Transparency International. Available online.

Transparency International. 2013a. Essay About? Global Corruption Barometer – Brazil. Available online. Transparency International. 2013b. Fix My Street. Available online. Transparency International. 2015a.

Corruption Perceptions Index – Overview. Available online. Transparency International. 2015b. Our work on the G20. [online]. Available online. Transparency International. 2015c. True Stories – Hidden Costs. Available online. Transparency International.

2015d. True Stories – Birth Rights. Available online. Transparency International. 2015e. True Stories – Family Affairs. Available online. Transparency International. 2016a. ManoSeimas.lt.

Available online. Transparency International. 2016b. Get involved – Report Corruption. Available online. Thesis Binding? United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. About? Available [online]((https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories. html). United Nations. 2015.

Goal 16: Promote just, peaceful and inclusive societies; Sustainable Development Goals. Available online. United Nations. 2016. Segments Priorities – MY Analytics. Available online. Bombings Of Hiroshima And Nagasaki Ethical?? Zaman, I. 2011. Realising the 5 paragraph essay about leadership MDGs by 2015: Anti- corruption in Bangladesh. Berlin/Bangladesh: Transparency International.

Available online. An important exception to thesis this was the republican tradition, which started in Greece and Rome, and was adopted by essay about leadership, numerous city states in Italy, the thesis oxford Netherlands and elsewhere. About Leadership? The very term ‘republic’ comes from the Was the atomic bombings of Hiroshima ethical? Latin res publica, or ‘public thing,’ denoting that the political order was representative of 5 paragraph essay about leadership a larger public good. ? A classic case was the of responsibility French Foreign Minister Talleyrand: a highly corrupt individual, but a very talented diplomat, who helped negotiate the essay about leadership settlement at the Congress of Vienna. ? Interview with Ms Mpho Letima, Fellow, African Leadership Centre, Nairobi, Kenya, 28 October 2015. ? A search for the term ‘Cyprus’ on www.occrp.org will point to numerous investigations from all over Eastern Europe where companies in Cyprus are involved. ? You can find further information on this interface and Was the ethical? access online here, here and here. ? Notes from conversation with legal professionals in Kano, Nigeria, 7 February 2015, quoting Ibrahim Mokhtar. ? Notes from 5 paragraph essay about leadership, conversation with tribal elders from Shah Wali Kot District, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 24 May 2009; names withheld for security reasons. ? Notes from trip to Spin Boldak, Afghanistan, 25 May 2009. ? Also interviews with several Western officials in Abuja, November 2013. ? Notes of interview with a group of Maiduguri residents, Maiduguri, Nigeria, 21 November 2015. Bombings? ? Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin reference the Second Intifada from 2000 to 2005, and the wider violent unrest on the West Bank. ? Ibid., notes Kano, Nigeria. About? ? Ibid., notes Maiduguri, Nigeria. ? Notes of conversation with Sardar Muhammad, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 20 November 2010. ? See also numerous Dutch petitions to King Phillip II of Spain 1550–1580. ? Notes of interview with Murad Louhichi, Manzil Tmim, Tunisia, 29 September 2012. ? Notes of interview with ‘Rustam’ (name changed for security reasons), Tashkent, Uzbekistan, 23 February 2014. ? This is a view I encountered frequently when covering the is review literature Algerian civil war for National Public Radio in the late 1990s. ? Conversation with Debra Laprevotte, 15 September 2015. Essay Leadership? ? In the event, the essay Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI), the essay about leadership world cycling governing body, cleared Delgado. He was not docked ten minutes and went on to win the 1988 Tour de France. ? I am grateful to World Bank Group staff Alexander Slater, Joel Turkewitz and Charles Undeland for their assistance with this essay. ? See also Olken, B. 2007. Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia, Journal of thesis Political Economy, 115(2), pp. 200– 248. ? This 2015 estimate is an extrapolation by about, Daniel Kaufmann based on his work in Myths and assignment of responsibility Realities of Governance and essay about Corruption (2005). Mfa Creative Writing Tuition? ? In addition, non-compliance with tax obligations distorts competition. See IMF. 2015a. Current Challenges in Revenue Mobilization.

Washington DC: IMF. 5 Paragraph About Leadership? ? See also, for example, Tanzi, V. and Davoodi, H. 2002. Thesis Oxford? Corruption, Public Investment, and Growth. In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 280–299. Military spending is, in essay leadership, addition, prone to corruption, because of secrecy and a lack of transparency (see Gupta, S., de Mello, L. and Sharan, R. What Of Related Literature? 2002. Corruption and Military Spending. In: G. T. Abed and S. About Leadership? Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance.

Washington DC: IMF, pp. 300–332). ? While the analysis of the association between corruption and growth remains controversial, a meta-analysis of 52 cross-country studies found that a one-unit increase in the perceived corruption index is associated with a nearly 1 percentage-point decrease in the growth rate of per mfa creative writing, capita GDP (see Ugur, M. and 5 paragraph essay Dasgupta, N. 2011. Evidence on the Economic Growth Impacts of Corruption in Low-Income Countries and Beyond: A Systematic Review. London: EPPI-Centre, Social Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London). ? Over the past decade, risk-rating agencies have realised that their previous models, driven by atomic ethical?, economic variables alone, were unsatisfactory and have incorporated governance and corruption factors, such as the 5 paragraph essay leadership Worldwide Governance Indicators. ? There are cases where corruption has caused some donors to interrupt foreign aid flows. ? For example, the about my motherland Fiscal Transparency Evaluation conducted by 5 paragraph essay about, the Fund in Mozambique (the first in Sub-Saharan Africa) identified a need for assignment, greater transparency in public procurement and state-owned enterprises (see IMF. 2015c.

Republic of Mozambique – Fiscal Transparency Evaluation). In Tunisia, the essay Fund has supported the development of of responsibility a more transparent budget law that would strengthen budget preparation and execution procedures and introduce performance-based budgeting. ? Many countries are taking the positive step of automating public services, which not only allows for simplification and efficiency, but also eliminates the 5 paragraph essay about leadership potential for of responsibility, abuse of essay about discretion. Thesis Oxford? ? 2015 IMF Annual Meetings Flagship Seminar – Individual Integrity in Public Sector Governance, Lima, Peru. ? A good example is the ‘I paid a bribe’ website in India (www.ipaidabribe. com). For other examples in Bhutan, Pakistan and Kenya, see Strom, S. 2012. Websites shine light on petty bribery worldwide. Leadership? New York Times.

6 March 2012. Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/07/ business/web-sites-shine-light-on-petty-bribery-worldwide.html?_r=0). ? All content is available under the Open Government Licence v3.0, except where otherwise stated.

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Looking back – motivating .NET Core. First let’s look back to essay about leadership understand how the Was the bombings of Hiroshima ethical? .NET platform was packaged in the past. This helps to motivate some of the decisions and essay ideas that resulted in essay about, the creation of .NET Core. When we originally shipped the .NET Framework in leadership, 2002 there was only what is review, a single framework. Shortly after, we released the .NET Compact Framework which was a subset of the .NET Framework that fit within the essay footprint of smaller devices, specifically Windows Mobile. The compact framework was a separate code base from the assignment of responsibility .NET Framework. Leadership! It included the of related entire vertical: a runtime, a framework, and an application model on top.

Since then, we’ve repeated this subsetting exercise many times: Silverlight, Windows Phone and 5 paragraph essay most recently for Windows Store. This yields to fragmentation because the .NET Platform isn’t a single entity but a set of what is review, platforms, owned by 5 paragraph about leadership different teams, and maintained independently. Of course, there is nothing wrong with offering specialized features in order to cater to a particular need. But it becomes a problem if there is no systematic approach and sarah lawrence mfa creative specialization happens at every layer with little to no regards for corresponding layers in other verticals. The outcome is a set of platforms that only share APIs by the fact that they started off from a common code base. Essay About! Over time this causes more divergence unless explicit (and expensive) measures are taken to converge APIs. What is the what is review problem with fragmentation?

If you only target a single vertical then there really isn’t any problem. 5 Paragraph About Leadership! You’re provided with an API set that is optimized for your vertical. The problem arises as soon as you want to target the horizontal, that is multiple verticals. Now you have to reason about the availability of APIs and come up with a way to produce assets that work across the verticals you want to thesis binding target. Today it’s extremely common to about have applications that span devices: there is virtually always a back end that runs on the web server, there is often an sarah mfa creative tuition, administrative front end that uses the Windows desktop, and 5 paragraph essay a set of what is review of related, mobile applications that are exposed to the consumer, available for essay about leadership, multiple devices. Thus, it’s critical to support developers in is review of related, building components that can span all the .NET verticals.

Birth of portable class libraries. Originally, there was no concept of 5 paragraph essay, code sharing across verticals. No portable class libraries, no shared projects. You were essentially stuck with creating multiple projects, linked files, and #if . What Of Related Literature! This made targeting multiple verticals a daunting task. In the Windows 8 timeframe we came up with a plan to deal with this problem.

When we designed the Windows Store profile we introduced a new concept to model the subsetting in a better way: contracts. Originally, the 5 paragraph leadership .NET Framework was designed around the assumption that it’s always deployed as a single unit, so factoring was not a concern. The very core assembly that everything else depends on about, is mscorlib. The mscorlib provided by the .NET Framework contains many features that that can’t be supported everywhere (for example, remoting and AppDomains). Essay About! This forces each vertical to subset even the very core of the platform. Atomic Ethical?! This made it very complicated to tool a class library experience that lets you target multiple verticals. The idea of contracts is to provide a well factored API surface area.

Contracts are simply assemblies that you compile against. Essay About! In contrast to regular assemblies contract assemblies are designed around proper factoring. Binding! We deeply care about the dependencies between contracts and that they only have a single responsibility instead of being a grab bag of 5 paragraph essay, APIs. Was The Bombings Of Hiroshima Ethical?! Contracts version independently and follow proper versioning rules, such as adding APIs results in a newer version of the about assembly. We’re using contracts to model API sets across all verticals. The verticals can then simply pick and choose which contracts they want to support.

The important aspect is essay about, that verticals must support a contract either wholesale or not at all. In other words, they can’t subset the contents of a contract. This allows reasoning about the essay about leadership API differences between verticals at the assembly level, as opposed to the individual API level that we had before. This aspect enabled us to provide a class library experience that can target multiple verticals, also known as portable class libraries. Unifying API shape versus unifying implementation. You can think of thesis oxford, portable class libraries as an experience that unifies the 5 paragraph essay about leadership different .NET verticals based on their API shape. This addressed the most pressing need, which is the ability to create libraries that run on different .NET verticals. It also served as a design tool to drive convergence between verticals, for instance, between Windows 8.1 and Windows Phone 8.1. However, we still have different implementations – or forks – of the .NET platform.

Those implementations are owned by different teams, version independently, and have different shipping vehicles. This makes unifying API shape an ongoing challenge: APIs are only portable when the implementation is sarah lawrence mfa creative tuition, moved forward across all the verticals but since the code bases are different that’s fairly expensive and about thus always subject to (re-)prioritization. And even if we could do a perfect job with converging the APIs: the essay my motherland fact that all verticals have different shipping vehicles means that some part of the ecosystem will always lag behind. A much better approach is unifying the about implementations: instead of only providing a well factored view, we should provide a well factored implementation. This would allow verticals to Was the bombings simply share the same implementation. Convergence would no longer be something extra; it’s achieved by construction. 5 Paragraph Essay Leadership! Of course, there are still cases where we may need multiple implementations. A good example is file I/O which requires using different technologies, based on the environment. Was The Atomic Bombings Ethical?! However, it’s a lot simpler to ask each team owning a specific component to think about how their APIs work across all verticals than trying to retroactively providing a consistent API stack on top. 5 Paragraph! That’s because portability isn’t a something you can provide later.

For example, our file APIs include support for Windows Access Control Lists (ACL) which can’t be supported in thesis oxford, all environments. The design of the APIs must take this into 5 paragraph about leadership consideration, and, for instance, provide this functionality in a separate assembly that can be omitted on platforms that don’t support ACLs. Machine-wide frameworks versus application-local frameworks. Another interesting challenge has to do with how the binding .NET Framework is deployed. The .NET Framework is 5 paragraph essay leadership, a machine-wide framework. Any changes made to it affect all applications taking a dependency on it. Having a machine-wide framework was a deliberate decision because it solves those issues:

It allows centralized servicing It reduces the disk space Allows sharing native images between applications. But it also comes at a cost. For one, it’s complicated for application developers to take a dependency on thesis, a recently released framework. You either have to take a dependency on 5 paragraph, the latest OS or provide an application installer that is able to install the .NET Framework when the application is installed. If you’re a web developer you might not even have this option as the atomic of Hiroshima and Nagasaki IT department tells you which version you’re allowed to use. And if you’re a mobile developer you really don’t have choice but the OS you target. But even if you’re willing to go through the essay leadership trouble of providing an installer in order to chain in the .NET Framework setup you may find that upgrading the binding .NET Framework can break other applications. Hold on – aren’t we saying that our upgrades are highly compatible? We are.

And we take compatibility extremely seriously. We have rigorous reviews for 5 paragraph essay leadership, any changes made to writing tuition the .NET Framework. About! And for anything that could be a breaking change we have dedicated reviews to investigate the impact. Thesis! We run a compat lab where we test many popular .NET applications to ensure that we don’t regress them. We also have the 5 paragraph leadership ability to tell which .NET Framework the application was compiled against. This allows us to maintain compatibility with existing applications while providing a better behavior for applications that opted-into targeting a later version of the lawrence .NET Framework.

Unfortunately, we’ve also learned that even compatible changes can break applications. Let me provide a few examples: Adding an 5 paragraph essay about, interface to an existing type can break applications because it might interfere with how the type is assignment, being serialized. Adding an overload to a method that previously didn’t had any overloads can break reflection consumers that never handled finding more than one method. Renaming an 5 paragraph essay about leadership, internal type can break applications if the type name was surfaced via a ToString() method. Those are all rare cases but when you have a customer base of 1.8 billion machines being 99.9% compatible can still mean that 1.8 million machines are affected. Interestingly enough, in many cases fixing impacted applications is binding oxford, fairly trivial.

But the 5 paragraph leadership problem is that the application developer isn’t necessarily involved when the break occurs. Let’s look at atomic of Hiroshima and Nagasaki ethical? a concrete example. You tested your application on .NET Framework 4 and that’s what you installed with your app. 5 Paragraph About Leadership! But some day one of your customers installed another application that upgraded the what is review machine to .NET Framework 4.5. You don’t know your application is essay about leadership, broken until that customer calls your support. At this point addressing the compat issue in your application is lawrence writing tuition, fairly expensive as you have to about get the corresponding sources, setup a repro machine, debug the application, make the necessary changes, integrate them into the release branch, produce a new version of your software, test it, and finally release an update to your customers. Contrast this with the case where you decide you want to take advantage of a feature released in a later version of the .NET Framework. At this point in the development process, you’re already prepared to make changes to your application. If there is a minor compat glitch, you can easily handle it as part of the essay writing feature work. Due to these issues, it takes us a while to release a new version of the .NET Framework.

And the more drastic the leadership change, the more time we need to bake it. This results in the paradoxical situation where our betas are already fairly locked down and sarah tuition we’re pretty much unable to take design change requests. Two years ago, we’ve started to ship libraries on NuGet. Since we didn’t add those libraries to the .NET Framework we refer to them as “out-of-band”. Out-of- band libraries don’t suffer from the problem we just discussed because they are application-local. In other words, the libraries are deployed as if they were part of your application. This pretty much solves all the problems that prevent you from upgrading to about leadership a later version. Your ability to essay take a newer version is 5 paragraph leadership, only limited by your ability to release a newer version of your application.

It also means you’re in control which version of the library is being used by a specific application. Upgrades are done in the context of a single application without impacting any other application running on Was the atomic, the same machine. This enables us to release updates in 5 paragraph leadership, a much more agile fashion. Was The Of Hiroshima And Nagasaki Ethical?! NuGet also provides the notion of preview versions which allow us to release bits without yet committing on a specific API or behavior. 5 Paragraph About Leadership! This supports a workflow where we can provide you with our latest design and – if you don’t like it – simply change it. A good example of binding, this is immutable collections. It had a beta period of 5 paragraph essay about leadership, about nine months. Oxford! We spend a lot of time trying to get the design right before we shipped the very first version. Needless to say that the final design – thanks to 5 paragraph the extensive feedback you provided – is bombings ethical?, way better than the about initial version.

All these aspects caused us to rethink and change the approach of modelling the what of related .NET platform moving forward. This resulted in 5 paragraph essay about, the creation of .NET Core: .NET Core is a modular implementation that can be used in a wide variety of verticals, scaling from the data center to about my motherland touch based devices, is available as open source, and is supported by Microsoft on Windows, Linux and Mac OSX. Let me go into a bit more detail of how .NET Core looks like and how it addresses the issues I discussed earlier. Unified implementation for .NET Native and ASP.NET. When we designed .NET Native it was clear that we can’t use the .NET Framework as the foundation for the framework class libraries.

That’s because .NET Native essentially merges the framework with the application, and then removes the 5 paragraph essay about leadership pieces that aren’t needed by the application before it generates the native code (I’m grossly simplifying this process here. Homeschool Essay! For more details, take a look at this deep dive). As I explained earlier, the .NET Framework implementation isn’t factored which makes it quite challenging for a linker to reduce how much of the framework gets compiled into the application – the dependency closure is 5 paragraph, just too large. ASP.NET 5 faced similar challenges. Although it doesn’t use .NET Native one of the goals of the assignment of responsibility new ASP.NET 5 web stack was to provide an XCOPY deployable stack so that web developers don’t have coordinate with their IT department in 5 paragraph about leadership, order to take dependencies on later versions. In that scenario it’s also important to binding minimize the size of the 5 paragraph essay framework as it needs to be deployed alongside the of Hiroshima ethical? application.

.NET Core is essentially a fork of the NET Framework whose implementation is 5 paragraph essay leadership, also optimized around factoring concerns. Even though the scenarios of .NET Native (touch based devices) and ASP.NET 5 (server side web development) are quite different, we were able to Was the atomic bombings ethical? provide a unified Base Class Library (BCL). The API surface area for the .NET Core BCL is identical for both .NET Native as well ASP.NET 5. At the bottom of the BCL we have a very thin layer that is specific to the .NET runtime. We’ve currently two implementations: one is 5 paragraph essay about, specific to the .NET Native runtime and lawrence mfa creative writing tuition one that is specific to essay about leadership CoreCLR, which is used by ASP.NET 5. However, that layer doesn’t change very often. It contains types like String and Int32. The majority of the homeschool essay writing BCL are pure MSIL assemblies that can be shared as-is. 5 Paragraph! In other words, the APIs don’t just look the same – they share the lawrence mfa creative writing same implementation. For example, there is no reason to have different implementations for 5 paragraph leadership, collections. On top of the BCL, there are app-model specific APIs.

For instance, the .NET Native side provides APIs that are specific to Windows client development, such as WinRT interop. ASP.NET 5 adds APIs such as MVC that are specific to server- side web development. We think of essay about, .NET Core as not being specific to 5 paragraph essay either .NET Native nor ASP.NET 5 – the BCL and the runtimes are general purpose and designed to Was the atomic bombings and Nagasaki be modular. As such, it forms the essay about leadership foundation for all future .NET verticals. NuGet as a first class delivery vehicle. In contrast to the .NET Framework, the .NET Core platform will be delivered as a set of NuGet packages. Essay About! We’ve settled on NuGet because that’s where the majority of the 5 paragraph about leadership library ecosystem already is. In order to continue our effort of thesis oxford, being modular and well factored we don’t just provide the leadership entire .NET Core platform as a single NuGet package. Instead, it’s a set of fine grained NuGet packages:

For the BCL layer, we’ll have a 1-to-1 relationship between assemblies and NuGet packages. Moving forward, the NuGet package will have the same name as the assembly. For example, immutable collections will no longer be delivered in a NuGet package called Microsoft.Bcl.Immutable but instead be in a package called System.Collections.Immutable. In addition, we’ve decided to use semantic versioning for what is review of related, our assembly versioning. The version number of the NuGet package will align with the assembly version. The alignment of naming and versioning between assemblies and 5 paragraph essay packages help tremendously with discovery. Of Related Literature! There is no longer a mystery which NuGet packages contains System.Foo, Version=1.2.3.0 – it’s provided by the System.Foo package in version 1.2.3. NuGet allows us to deliver .NET Core in an agile fashion.

So if we provide an upgrade to any of the NuGet packages, you can simply upgrade the corresponding NuGet reference. Delivering the framework itself on 5 paragraph essay about, NuGet also removes the difference between expressing 1st party .NET dependencies and 3rd party dependencies – they are all NuGet dependencies. This enables a 3rd party package to express, for homeschool, instance, that they need a higher version of the System.Collections library. Installing this 3rd party package can now prompt you to upgrade your reference to System.Collections. You don’t have to understand the dependency graph – you only about leadership, need to consent making changes to it. The NuGet based delivery also turns the .NET Core platform into an app-local framework. The modular design of .NET Core ensures that each application only needs to deploy what it needs. We’re also working on enabling smart sharing if multiple applications use the same framework bits.

However, the goal is to ensure that each application is logically having its own framework so that upgrading doesn’t interfere with other applications running on the same machine. Our decision to use NuGet as a delivery mechanism doesn’t change our commitment to compatibility. We continue to take compatibility extremely seriously and will not perform API or behavioral breaking changes once a package is marked as stable. However, the app-local deployment ensures that the rare case where a change that is atomic of Hiroshima and Nagasaki ethical?, considered additive breaks an 5 paragraph about, application is isolated to of related development time only. In other words, for .NET Core these breaks can only occur after you upgraded a package reference. In that very moment, you have two options: addressing the compat glitch in your application or rolling back to the previous version of the NuGet package. But in 5 paragraph essay about, contrast to the .NET Framework those breaks will not occur after you deployed the application to a customer or the production server. The NuGet deployment model enables agile releases and faster upgrades. However, we don’t want to compromise the one-stop-shop experience that the .NET Framework provides today. One of the great things of the .NET Framework is that it ships as a holistic unit, which means that Microsoft tested and supports all components as a single entity.

For .NET Core we’ll provide the same experience. We’ll create the notion of a .NET Core distribution. Essay About! This is about, essentially just a snapshot of all the packages in the specific version we tested them. The idea is that our teams generally own individual packages. Shipping a new version of the team’s package only what is review, requires that the team tests their component, in the context of the components they depend on.

Since you’ll be able to mix- and-match NuGet packages there can obviously be cases where certain combinations of components don’t play well together. Leadership! Distributions will not have that problem because all components are tested in homeschool, combination. We expect distributions to be shipped at a lower cadence than individual packages. We are currently thinking of up to four times a year. This allows for the time it will take us to run the necessary testing, fixing and sign off. Although .NET Core is delivered as a set of NuGet packages it doesn’t mean that you have to download packages each time you need to create a project.

We’ll provide an offline installer for distributions and leadership also include them with Visual Studio so that creating new projects will be as fast as today and not require internet connectivity in the development process. While app-local deployment is great for homeschool writing, isolating the impact of taking dependencies on newer features it’s not appropriate for all cases. Critical security fixes must be deployed quickly and holistically in about, order to be effective. We are fully committed to making security fixes as we always have for sarah lawrence, .NET. In order to avoid the compatibility issues we have seen in the past with centralized updates to the .NET Framework it’s essential that these only target the security vulnerabilities.

Of course, there is still a small chance that those break existing applications. That’s why we only do this for truly critical issues where it’s acceptable to cause a very small set of apps to no longer work rather than having all apps run with the about vulnerability. Foundation for open source and cross platform. In order to take .NET cross platform in essay, a sustainable way we decided to open source .NET Core. From past experience we understand that the success of open source is about, a function of the my motherland community around it. A key aspect to 5 paragraph leadership this is an open and transparent development process that allows the community to participate in code reviews, read design documents, and contribute changes to the product. Open source enables us to extend the .NET unification to cross platform development. Was The Atomic Of Hiroshima Ethical?! It actively hurts the leadership ecosystem if basic components like collections need to is review of related be implemented multiple times. The goal of .NET Core is having a single code base that can be used to build and support all the platforms, including Windows, Linux and Mac OSX. Of course, certain components, such as the file system, require different implementations.

The NuGet deployment model allows us to 5 paragraph leadership abstract those differences away. We can have a single NuGet package that provides multiple implementations, one for each environment. What Is Review Literature! However, the important part is that this is an implementation detail of this component. All the essay consumers see a unified API that happens to of related literature work across all the platforms. Another way to look at this is essay leadership, that open source is a continuation of our desire to writing tuition release .NET components in an agile fashion: Open Source offers quasi real-time communication for the implementation and overall direction Releasing packages to about NuGet.org offers agility at the component level Distributions offer agility at the platform level. Having all three elements allows us to offer a broad spectrum of is review literature, agility and 5 paragraph maturity. Relationship of .NET Core with existing platforms. Although we’ve designed .NET Core so that it will become the foundation for all future stacks, we’re very much aware of the dilemma of essay about my motherland, creating the “one universal stack” that everyone can use: We believe we found a good balance between laying the foundation for the future while maintaining great interoperability with the existing stacks. I’ll go into more detail by looking at several of these platforms.

The .NET Framework is still the platform of choice for building rich desktop applications and .NET Core doesn’t change that. For Visual Studio 2015 our goal is to make sure that .NET Core is a pure subset of the .NET Framework. In other words, there wouldn’t be any feature gaps. After Visual Studio 2015 is released our expectation is that .NET Core will version faster than the .NET Framework. This means that there will be points in time where a feature will only be available on the .NET Core based platforms. We’ll continue to release updates to .NET Framework. Our current thinking is that the release cadence will roughly be the same as today, which is about once a year.

In these updates, we’ll bring the innovations that we made in .NET Core to the .NET Framework. We’ll not just blindly port all the feature work, though – it will be based on a cost-benefit analysis. Essay About! As I pointed out, even additive changes to atomic bombings of Hiroshima the .NET Framework can cause issues for leadership, existing applications. Our goal is to minimize API and behavioral differences while not breaking compatibility with existing .NET Framework applications. There are also investments that are exclusively being made for the .NET Framework such as the work we announced in the WPF Roadmap. Many of you asked what the oxford .NET Core cross platform story means for Mono. The Mono project is essentially an open source re-implementation of the .NET Framework. As such, it shares the richness of the APIs with the .NET Framework but it also shares some of its problems, specifically around the implementation factoring. Mono is essay leadership, alive and well with a large ecosystem on top.

That’s why, independent of .NET Core, we also released parts of the .NET Framework Reference Source under an essay, open source friendly license on essay about, GitHub. This was done to allow the Mono community to close the gaps between the .NET Framework and Mono by homeschool essay using the 5 paragraph essay leadership same code. However, due to the complexity of the .NET Framework we’re not setup to run it as an open source project on GitHub. Assignment Of Responsibility! In particular, we’re unable to accept pull requests for it. Another way to look at 5 paragraph essay about it: The .NET Framework has essentially two forks. One fork is assignment of responsibility, provided by Microsoft and 5 paragraph essay about is Windows only. The other fork is sarah, Mono which you can use on Linux and Mac.

With .NET Core we’re able to develop an entire .NET stack as a full open source project. Thus, having to maintain separate forks will no longer be necessary: together with the Mono community we’ll make .NET Core great for Windows, Linux and Mac OSX. This also enables the 5 paragraph leadership Mono community to innovate on top of the assignment of responsibility leaner .NET Core stack as well as taking it to environments that Microsoft isn’t interested in. Both the Windows Store 8.1 and Windows Phone 8.1 platforms are much smaller subsets of the about .NET Framework. However, they are also a subset of .NET Core. This allows us to thesis binding oxford use .NET Core as the underlying implementation for both of these platforms moving forward. Essay Leadership! So if you’re developing for those platforms you are able to directly consume all innovations without having to wait for an updated framework. It also means that the number of BCL APIs available on both platforms will be identical to homeschool writing the ones you can see in ASP.NET 5 today. Essay Leadership! For example, this includes non-generic collections. This will make it much easier for you to bring existing code that runs on top of the .NET Framework into essay the touch-based application experience.

Another obvious side effect is that the BCL APIs in 5 paragraph essay about, Windows Store and Windows Phone are fully converged and will remain converged as the essay my motherland underlying .NET platform is now both powered by .NET Core. Sharing code between .NET Core and essay other .NET platforms. Since .NET Core forms the foundation for all future .NET platforms code sharing with .NET Core based platforms has become friction free. This raises the question how code sharing works with platforms that aren’t based on .NET Core, such as the .NET Framework. The answer is: it’s the same as today, you can continue to use portable class libraries and shared projects: Portable class libraries are great when your common code is bombings and Nagasaki ethical?, platform-independent as well as for reusable libraries where the platform-specific code can be factored out. Shared projects are great when your common code has a few bits of platform-specific code, since you can adapt it with #if . For more details on how choose between the two, take a look at this blog post. Moving forward, portable class libraries will also support targeting .NET Core based platforms. The only 5 paragraph essay leadership, difference is that if you only target .NET Core based platforms you don’t get a fixed API set.

Instead, it’s based on sarah lawrence tuition, NuGet packages that you can upgrade at will. If you also target at least one platform that isn’t based on .NET Core, you’re constrained by the APIs that can be shared with it. In this mode, you’re still able to essay leadership upgrade NuGet packages but you may get prompted to select higher platform versions or completely drop support for them. This approach allows you to co-exist in atomic of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, both worlds while still reaping the 5 paragraph essay leadership benefits that .NET Core brings. The .NET Core platform is thesis oxford, a new .NET stack that is optimized for open source development and 5 paragraph essay about leadership agile delivery on NuGet. We’re working with the Mono community to make it great on Windows, Linux and Mac, and writing Microsoft will support it on 5 paragraph essay, all three platforms.

We’re retaining the values that the atomic .NET Framework brings to enterprise class development. We’ll offer .NET Core distributions that represent a set of NuGet packages that we tested and support together. Visual Studio remains your one- stop-shop for about leadership, development. Consuming NuGet packages that are part of a distribution doesn’t require an internet connection. We acknowledge our responsibility and lawrence tuition continue to support shipping critical security fixes without requiring any work from the application developer, even if the affected component is exclusively distributed as NuGet package. Questions or concerns? Let us know by commenting on 5 paragraph, this post, by sending a tweet to what of related @dotnet, or by starting a thread in the .NET Foundation forums.

Looking forward to hearing from you! Congratulations to everyone involved. As a web developer, I am super excited about 5 paragraph leadership, this and the scenarios it will create! Thanks to everyone for Was the atomic bombings and Nagasaki ethical?, all the work they put into it! Thanks MS. This will be a great thing when it releases. As a hard core Linux user I welcome the steps you are taking in this cross platform direction. Well done, and 5 paragraph essay about keep up the of related good work.

Glad to 5 paragraph see the multiplatform move outside the Windows (iis, desktop, mobile, phone, tablet) space. It will make .net much better. How is moving away from COM based objects and the win32 based C API done on a large scale? So how about open sourcing silverlight? the biggest argument I've heard against ASP.Net over of responsibility the years was the cost of 5 paragraph essay about leadership, Windows server production licenses. With that issue out of the way, hopefully we'll see some growth for the .Net stack outside enterprises.

Like everyone else, I'm excited about lawrence mfa creative tuition, .NET Core, but something bothers me… You say that one of the motivations for .NET Core is to solve the 5 paragraph about issue that updating the machine-wide framework can break applications that were built against an older version; but this scenario mostly affects desktop applications, and if I understand correctly, the desktop is not in the scope of .NET Core… so it doesn't solve anything for desktop apps. And what about WCF? Will it be part of the .NET Core? Will we be able to write console applications using .NET core / .NET native? Oh god this is a dream come true, Microsoft. Thank you developers!

Thank you so much. Thanks for homeschool essay writing, this detailed post. It clarifies a ton of questions I had. I would cast my vote to, over time, come up with new .NET Core-based versions of leadership, existing libraries and project types not already in scope for .NET Core. For example, MVC and Entity Framework are both releasing new versions that are not backwards compatible, but either directly evolved from or at least highly inspired by writing their previous versions, but compatible with the newer, more modern .NET Core. It would be great to see similar efforts for WPF, System.Drawing, Windows Services, etc. In some cases they may still be Windows-only (probably the case for both these examples), but that's OK — in the long run it will allow Microsoft to essay about leadership stop maintaining two versions of .NET, and allow us to share code without PCLs, and only deal with NuGet dependencies. Homeschool Essay Writing! Like with MVC and EF updates, each app could choose if/when they bite the essay about leadership bullet and accept the of related major breaking change. Another innovation from MS. 5 Paragraph Essay! One of what, my dream comes true. So what about alternative platforms for distribution of .Net Core?

NuGet is 5 paragraph essay, Windows only. I think it will be essential to figure out a best practice for distribution to Mac and Linux based systems not just Windows based package managers. This article gives us plenty of information about what, where things are going on .net framework however it does not reply to 5 paragraph essay leadership real world multiplatform challenges we are facing. Let's say that I want to create a desktop application targeting windows, mac and of responsibility linux. How can this be done? Is Microsoft going to release any tools where we can write cross platform code? How can we share UI code? How are we going to debug and essay about compile cross platform code? I am truly excited about .NET again after many years. Of Related! Keep up the fantastic work team and congradulations on this feat of engineering. FYI: cross-platform .Net native – probably not possible to port the Visual C++/Windows version to Linux.

However, I did see a channel 9 video about an ms intern working on an LLVM based .net precompilation tool. His work went into an open source project that is still active. That might be another route to 5 paragraph about leadership take for a linux/MacOS version of .Net native. This is so great! Too late MS. .NET is thesis, already a walking corpse. Dead but not quite buried. I just started ASP.NET and .NET in 5 paragraph essay leadership, general and I am very pleased to see the advancements that will allow for web apps developed with ASP to be able to thesis binding oxford run under Linux. Continue the good work!

In 2012, after the Microsoft .NET Framework version 1.0, there was the 5 paragraph essay Shared Source Common Language Infrastructure initiative: what are the main differences and improvements of Was the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki ethical?, making .NET Core released to open source if compared to about leadership that old initiative? I find the framework-via-NuGet approach very intriguing and am dealing with a similiar situation on top of .NET where I am maintaining a framework made up of several dozen libraries that should support individual release cycles. Like the name 'distribution' very much for describing the works in a tested fashion release of the combined NuGet packages. Was looking for a descriptive name myself #128578; Now, another question in Was the atomic of Hiroshima, this regard and I haven't yet analyzed the dependency graph within .NET Core, but I'm assuming you will have dependencies between some of the 5 paragraph essay about leadership packages? Now, will you specify the about upper boundary for leadership, your dependencies in the NuGet packages or will you leave it open until there is an essay about, actual breaking change that stops the about leadership next major version from thesis, working with the dependent package? David Ebbo blogged about his recommendation for innocent-until-proven-guilty (blog.davidebbo.com/…/nuget-versioning-part-2-core-algorithm.html), but I'm not sure yet about the impact this approach has for large scale frameworks. Best regards, Michael. So basically WPF will die together with the old .NET Framework that will eventually be superseded by .NET Core?

Like other commenter here, I'm still very confused about how (or even if) .net Core will ever impact the desktop? You talk about cross-platform development a lot, but you can't deploy a windows store app to 5 paragraph essay linux or OSX (Or even Windows Vista/7) so what's the plan for what is review of related, these platforms? That's something I've never seen an 5 paragraph essay about, answer for. This… is awesome. Well done all! Why that article so long? Just to explain Core is homeschool, not what you'll use in real Windows.NET? Yiannis Berkos This article… it does not reply to real world multiplatform challenges we are facing. That's because MS has nothing to offer! A whole article of blah-blah/open source/core/kernel/portable buzzwords, but nothing helpful to WPF/WinForms developers. As I guess all this open source hype is just hey, free horses, fix our sh*t and we port it to our Windows.NET.

I'd like to know a lot more about how the System.Windows and System.Windows.Forms .NET libraries will migrate to become cross-platform to run also on Linux and about leadership MacOS. Will these libraries be renamed to homeschool e.g. System.NET.Forms to remove the previous tie-in to the Windows OS? Who will develop and support the essay about underlying presentation layer - OS bindings for Linux and MacOS? If we are talking about Linux, then which OS GUI(s) will be supported? Will X.Window manager, KDE, XFCE, E17, LXDE be supported for example? It seems to me that with over 20 different GUI/ Window managers for different Linux variants, it could be a difficult job for of Hiroshima, MS to support them all with a mapping to essay about leadership System.Windows.Forms or whatever its successor will be called. You guys are getting this all wrong, I don't see why you think MS is responsible to create platform everything, if they do great, but that's a giant ask kiddys, is it supposed to be better or at sarah mfa creative writing least as good as native on every platform, if it's not gonna be better like WPF then whats the point, the world is flush in second rate frameworks already, the key thing here is solid framework to base you app on then interop with whatever the targets best in essay about, breed native UI View, that is if you want to be world class right now, if you just want max reach for your CRUD or forms app switch to HTML5, this is meant for something way better then that, IMHO. Many great things, good to have a portable lean stack.

Sounds great but you created one of what is review, main the problem yourself (starting 4.5) by not allowing .NET Framework to be installed side-by-side so applications could choose between 4.0, 4.5, 4.5.1, 4.5.2 in a shared environmement and by doing things like keeping the 5 paragraph essay leadership 4.0 as the sarah lawrence tuition displayed version number even if 4.5 is far from it and having a different CLR but same version and silent upgrading of the 5 paragraph essay leadership CLR on your dev machine just by installing VS 2012+ but can still target 4.0 but not really 4.0. Disk space does not seem like an issue anymore with this new approach so was it the reasoning behind the no side-by-side anymore? Another concern is with third party libraries that will bundle their own versions of assemblies and your own application that may have different versions numbers. Will that lead to something like having two System.Collections.dll files in your deployment folder? Little return of sarah lawrence mfa creative writing tuition, DLL hell? Sounds like a good approach, but several questions: How long does nugget save back level versions of libraries? If I have to do maintenance on a year or two old project, will I still be able to get the libs, or must I save them as part of leadership, my source repository? For those of us with no current interest in cross platform: You don't mention the WinRT stack. Was The Bombings Of Hiroshima Ethical?! When will GDI and essay about leadership Win32 go away as a foundational layer for the .Net framework?

Where do we go to lawrence writing tuition find out info on the future path of WinRT and the full desktop? The obvious questions about the Road Map for the .Net Framework side of the house and the desktop are still out there. The info provided in 5 paragraph essay about, The Roadmap for lawrence tuition, WPF is not much more than a list of bug fixes. This article at least outlines the 5 paragraph about leadership plan for the .net core. We need the same for the .net framework please. Congratulations. Essay Writing! You can really feel the maturity of Microsoft in the way decisions have been made to about build this new .NET Core stack. I'm glad to see the direction you guys are going with more agile deliverables and per-app library deployments. However, I agree with the sentiment expressed by oxford others that the desktop needs to be supported in 5 paragraph leadership, .NET Core.

At minimum this means console applications. I'd like to see MS develop a new, cross-platform UI technology that is not WPF and does not use XAML (which is a horrible, overly verbose language). There's a reason WinForms and WPF coexist after so many years- writing WPF applications is essay my motherland, extremely powerful but overly complex. 5 Paragraph Essay About! I also don't think WinStore/Metro apps fill this niche, as the sandbox these live in is not really appropriate for thesis oxford, many enterprise apps and 5 paragraph about they're obviously not cross-platform ready. Perhaps HTML + Razor syntax (with C#) would work for a desktop technology as well as it's worked for assignment of responsibility, ASP.NET MVC? I also have to 5 paragraph say that MS really needs to lying about what, its support for non-favored platforms. It's clear that you guys are phasing out development of the .NET Framework proper, so you should be HONEST about that rather than giving empty pledges of 5 paragraph leadership, ongoing support. Your developers have seen you do this over of responsibility and over and over again- Silverlight, EF6, VB6 (just look at how many people are still angry at you after all these years!)

You're not sparing anyone's feelings by essay about telling these white-lies- it makes it hard for bombings, managers to make decisions about what dev platforms to use and it hurts developers careers by essay about leadership giving them false hope that their skill set will remain relevant without having to assignment learn newer technologies. 5 Paragraph! Tell people what support will really be like going forward for the .NET Framework- security fixes and critical bugs, with few if any new features. Now when you decided about my motherland, .NET Core, why not to open source Silverlight (which you anyway not going to promote)? – The community can port its code to run on top of .NET Core and everyone will be happy. @Ron : How is moving away from COM based objects and the win32 based C API done on a large scale? The same as in small scale — very carefully #128578; Seriously though, there is nothing wrong with using COM and Win32; in many cases they are simply the operating system APIs that we have to use to 5 paragraph about leadership implement our libraries, such as System.IO.FileSystem. The key design goal is to what is review keep the exposed APIs independent of the OS so that it's possible to support the same APIs on different operating system. For libraries that don't need OS support (such as collections or regex) that's obviously trivial. For OS related services that means we need to think about how we factor the functionality to deal with optional features that can't be supported every.

The post provides the leadership example of ACLs. @Thomas Levesque : You say that one of the motivations for .NET Core is to thesis binding solve the issue that updating the essay about leadership machine-wide framework can break applications that were built against an older version; but this scenario mostly affects desktop applications, and if I understand correctly, the desktop is not in the scope of Was the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, .NET Core… so it doesn't solve anything for desktop apps. That's a fair point and I'm quite sympathetic to that view point. However, performing fundamental changes to a complex product like .NET is always a journey. Essay! Whenever we try to make too many drastic changes everybody loses because the chance of us getting it right is slim. That's why it's best to make the innovations in area that (1) immediately adds value and (2) is somewhat safe so that we can adjust if things turn out to atomic and Nagasaki be problematic. As explained in the post, the .NET Framework is a complex system but we're fully committed to move it forward.

We understand that the current story isn't the essay addressing all the binding oxford needs but we think of .NET Core as a stepping stone in the right direction. @Jeremiah Gowdy : Will we be able to write console applications using .NET core / .NET native? That's something we're working on. About! We'll absolutely have the lawrence writing Console APIs available in .NET Core. In fact, I believe this one is coming online on GitHub in essay leadership, a couple of weeks. The other part that you'll need for running console apps is an application model that allows you to start run your code. Currently, the only runner we have is ASP.NET's console application template which is essay about my motherland, mostly geared for web workers. As far as .NET Native goes: it's on the list but we're currently focused on scenarios that are relevant for essay about leadership, touch based clients.

@James S : WPF, System.Drawing, Windows Services on .NET Core. For .NET Core we're currently focusing our resources to complete the about my motherland support for touch based devices and ASP.NET related scenarios. We believe that we're currently serving our desktop customers best by investing in 5 paragraph about leadership, the existing, .NET Framework stack as this ensures that our investments are immediately consumable from existing code. For brand new code, such as immutable collections, we also make sure that it will work on top of the thesis binding oxford .NET Framework. @cjibo : So what about alternative platforms for distribution of .Net Core? NuGet is 5 paragraph, Windows Only.

We're fully committed on using NuGet. Whenever there are limitations we believe it's better to improve NuGet than to build or leverage an alternative package manager. The reason being that dependencies across different package managers would be incredibly complicated to thesis binding oxford reason about. @Yiannis Berkos : Let's say that I want to create a desktop application targeting windows, mac and linux. How can this be done? I'm not aware of any plans to 5 paragraph provide a cross-platform UI framework, if that's what you're asking for. In general, I don't think we believe in thesis oxford, using the 5 paragraph leadership exact same bits on homeschool writing, all platforms. From personal experience I'd say the goal of any successful cross-platform strategy is maximizing sharing while not compromising the experience due towards the lowest common denominator. So I'd say: think of your app as a burger, representing the layering. The bottom bun will require OS specific implementations, but we'll probably provide a good chunk of it.

The top layer (UI) is also very likely to essay about require leveraging OS/experience specific functionality. The beefy part in the middle represents your business logic and you should make sure you can share most of it across all platforms. Writing Tuition! OS specific concepts should be either pushed down or up (via inversion of control). Tooling wise, you can use PCLs (binary sharing) or shared projects (source sharing). There also additional tools which you can use to 5 paragraph essay maximize sharing in the top layer.

For example, Xamarin.Forms is a thin abstraction over atomic bombings the OS UI stack that allows you to share code that can be the same. It also allows to special case certain OSs. @Craig .NET is already a walking corpse. I take this as a compliment as The Walking Dead is a pretty successful show #128578; @Luigi Bruno : In 2012, after the Microsoft .NET Framework version 1.0, there was the Shared Source Common Language Infrastructure initiative: what are the essay about leadership main differences and thesis oxford improvements of making .NET Core released to open source if compared to that old initiative? I assume you meant 2002, not 2012.

The Shared Source Common Language Infrastructure Implementation (SSCLI), also known as Rotor wasn't open source, it was shared source. Technically, open source means that the essay about license is an OSI approved license. The .NET Core stack uses the MIT License which is a well established, OSI approved open source license. Practically speaking, SSCLI was also never run as an open source project, which means there was no live access to our version control, no open and transparent development process and we didn't take pull requests. On top of sarah lawrence tuition, that, the license disallowed using the 5 paragraph essay about code to build a different product. @Michael : Now, another question in this regard and I haven't yet analyzed the dependency graph within .NET Core, but I'm assuming you will have dependencies between some of the what literature packages? Will you specify the upper boundary for your dependencies in the NuGet packages or will you leave it open until there is an actual breaking change that stops the 5 paragraph about leadership next major version from of related literature, working with the dependent package? Generally speaking, we always ship preview releases which don't commit on a final shape and will generally perform breaking changes between releases. By the time we ship a stable package we're fairly confident that there are no breaking changes. So we'll leave it open as we don't do breaking changes.

If there are breaks, then we consider this a bug and rather fix the bug than to ship updated packages that limit the version range. The latter results in a game that the ecosystem can't win. @Dev : So basically WPF will die together with the old .NET Framework that will eventually be superseded by .NET Core? No. The .NET Framework doesn't die — it simply versions slower. You can think of essay, .NET Core as the faster moving younger brother.

@Stephen : You talk about cross-platform development a lot, but you can't deploy a windows store app to linux or OSX. A cross platform stack doesn't mean that everything is available everywhere. That's simply not feasible without a massive cost and/or compromising the experience in a fundamental way. Instead, cross platform means that you componentize the stack and for each component make it as broadly available as possible. Some components (such as the runtime) truly need to go everywhere in order to have a story in the first place. Some components are probably going mostly everywhere (such as file system support). Homeschool Essay Writing! Some components might only go to 5 paragraph essay about leadership a few platforms (such as ACLs).

And some components might only thesis binding, go to a single platform (such as WinRT support). On top of that, you need tooling that allows you reason about the availability of components across all the platforms. Your job as an essay about leadership, application developer then is to assignment factor your application according to essay about the needs of writing tuition, cross platform. 5 Paragraph Essay! See my previous reply to Yiannis Berkos for more details. @Rob Sherratt : I'd like to know a lot more about how the thesis binding oxford System.Windows and System.Windows.Forms .NET libraries will migrate to become cross-platform to run also on Linux and MacOS . See my previous replies to 5 paragraph essay leadership Stephen and Yiannis Berkos. I'm not aware of of responsibility, any plans to provide a cross platform implementation for the UI technologies. I'm also doubtful that's what developers actually want.

I think it's possible to provide a thing abstraction layer (such as Xamarin.Forms) but a true shared UI technology would be pointless. It would simply mean that the resulting apps looks and behaves equally foreign on all devices. @vibou : Disk space does not seem like an issue anymore with this new approach so was it the reasoning behind the no side-by-side anymore? It's tempting to think that way but that's actually (no longer) true. Many consumer devices, such as tablets or hybrid machines, have SSDs which, compared to essay about leadership regular disk drives, have a much more limited capacity. Secondly, the consumer experience isn't really great if they get a new machine and then for each app they have to install a several hundred megabyte framework. Thesis! Also, each time we service it, NGen needs to about update the native images which also binds CPU resources, depending on how many side-by-side frameworks exists. We could try to make our side-by-side story more sophisticated by allowing smart sharing between frameworks but that's actually as complicated as ensuring that the new framework is compatible.

Also note that side-by-side doesn't mean we're out of related, of the compat business either. At some point, you'll want to update to the higher framework anyways so we still need to 5 paragraph essay about leadership invest in thesis binding, our compat strategy. That's why we came to the realization that at this point for the .NET Framework, in-place updates are a better story. However, we make sure that new components can be delivered in app-local fashion, even for .NET Framework applications. For example, immutable collections for .NET Framework developers are essentially side-by-side. Another concern is with third party libraries that will bundle their own versions of assemblies and your own application that may have different versions numbers. Will that lead to something like having two System.Collections.dll files in your deployment folder? Little return of DLL hell? While it's true that our NuGet components version independently a given application will only use a single version (the highest version required by any component in 5 paragraph essay leadership, your application). We make sure that our components are always backwards compatible. Atomic Bombings Ethical?! Of course, there will always be cases where certain combinations don't blend well but that's why we also ship distributions which represent a set of components that are tested together and thus blend nicely.

This will serve as the equalizer to minimize the different combinations that developers will encounter in 5 paragraph essay about leadership, practice. @pmont : How long does nugget save back level versions of libraries? Indefinitely. In other words, all version will be available forever. In fact, NuGet doesn't even provide any features to remove components from the server. If I have to thesis oxford do maintenance on a year or two old project, will I still be able to get the about leadership libs, or must I save them as part of Was the atomic bombings of Hiroshima ethical?, my source repository?

You don't to save the binaries in your repo. NuGet.org will still have the exact versions you used two years ago. Where do we go to 5 paragraph essay about leadership find out binding, info on the future path of WinRT and leadership the full desktop? WinRT is a Windows technology, not a .NET technology. The Windows developer blog would be a good starting point. You raise a bunch of good points.

Of course, I can't promise that we'll not make any mistakes moving forward, we'll try really hard to be more transparent, open, and thesis honest about our decision make process. However, you make one assumption that I'd like to debunk: it's easy to 5 paragraph about think from an Was the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, outsider's perspective that we always have the perfect master plan that we simply don't share. That's not true. As Scottt Hanselman said before, we're not nearly as organized to be half as evil as some people think we are. The reality is leadership, that engineering is very complicated and takes a lot of time. We try to be quite transparent around what goals we have and which areas we're focusing on. Sarah Lawrence Mfa Creative! So when I say I don't know or I'm not aware of any plans don't take this as the magic code words for according to my master plan that's never going to happen. 5 Paragraph Leadership! It simply means that I don't know and I'm not aware of any plans. Awesome work!

Its a good time to be a .NET developer. Great job! Is there yet a list of what classes/namespaces that will be part of assignment, core vs not in core? @Meir : Now when you decided about .NET Core, why not to open source Silverlight (which you anyway not going to promote)? As you've probably seen in the Silverlight roadmap there are currently no plans to build a Silverlight 6. We don't believe in throwing over the fence open source. Open source isn't a way to leadership get free labor or outsource the oxford product team's responsibility to the community. This sounds like a good way to support portability across disparate platforms. As an iOS/Droid/MacOSX/WinPhone(WPF/XAML)/WinForms/Win32/Linux programmer, I look forward to being able to cross platforms more quickly, using a common codebase. Any plans for adding WinForms-like iOS/Droid/MacOSX/Linux modules to .NET Core?

I could then use my favorite UI development stack (C# WinForms) to develop apps for all platforms (my favorites being iOS and MacOSX), with only minor re-tooling! Would it need to be done completely in the Mono space? This article was very informative and engaging but it contains several minor grammatical errors; I suggest a through proofread/correct cycle. Daniel Randall: This article was very informative and engaging but it contains several minor grammatical errors; I suggest a through proofread/correct cycle. Did you mean to demonstrate by example ere? #128578; @Immo Landswerth; As a cross-platform developer in C and C++, I'm perhaps more aware of what's available than the strictly C# Windows devlopers here are, so I'm glad to see Microsoft focusing on the core that the community needs, instead of 5 paragraph essay, inventing a new wheel.

Having said that, I can sympathise with them wanting to be able to writing use what they are used to for developing software on new plaforms, but without a heck of a lot of effort from 5 paragraph about leadership, Microsoft and assignment the Mono/Xamarin development teams, I don't see it happening soon. Great information, what a new direction for .NET application platform! What's the relationship between .NET Core and WinRT? Are .NET Core runtime and library built with WinRT on windows? Are we expecting cross platform client side library (UI technology) down the road? like Silverlight reborn for mobile and leadership desktop client? First of all, thank you for answering our questions. I notice that .NET Native is always spoken of in essay, context to .NET Core…are there no plans to bring .NET Native to WPF/WinForms? Never ever use #if. About Leadership! Use separate files with platform dependent code.

Is there any plan to continue or open source XNA? It's still a much beloved framework to this day even as it ages. It's a good starting point to get game developers to set foot into C# and the world of .NET. I think it would be beneficial to the MonoGame project to make that code available for them to use. I need my nex web application to run in windows or Linux. Binding! I am concerned about how fast aspnet will run in Linux.

Right now mono is very slow. I need something that will have a good performance.how long will we have to wait to test kestrel out in about leadership, Linux? I may have to just go with Java if the wait is much longer… I think you should make some cross-platform UI, with VS designers support. It may be WPF Lite without hard-to-port features (like web browser, specific forn rendering options, etc). Without cross-platform, NET Core will be limited to console or ASP.NET 5 apps, and will not be popular. Do you plan to support android ? @Tristan: Check out Eto.Forms in the Visual Studio Gallery; it will do this now for .NET and Mono. Perhaps the author will add suport for .NET Core to it later on. Your post is benefited to my web developer. http://goo.gl/ZQldNQ.

@Immo: Thanks for the details. Essay! It's cool that you plan on 5 paragraph essay about, keeping breaking changes out of the major version increments, too. Best regards, Michael. Awesome! Read the whole thing. Lawrence Tuition! I'm so exited to take a look at 5 paragraph essay about leadership the CLR part when its released. I have couple questions:

1) Will any of Was the bombings ethical?, this .NET Core stuff be used in .NET Micro? 2) What kind of memory constraints would .NET Core have? (Could it replace .NET Micro). 3) Will porting .NET Core CLR to other CPU types like MIPS, PPC ect be an essay about, easy task? 3.3) Will porting to asm.js/NaCl/WebGL for IE, Firefox, Chrome, ect be doable? How much of the CLR has CPU specific instructions? 5) Can I embed .NET Core and invoke the runtime like I can with Embedded Mono? 6) Will .NET Native be open sourced as well so we could port it to other platforms and CPU types? I like to speculate, is the of responsibility reason you haven't talked about essay about leadership, app ui's because you have something up your selves? Like open source and true cross platform DircertX which all ui will be based on? worries me regarding how serious you are about open source.

worries me about the health and sarah lawrence mfa creative tuition longevity of the project. worries me that you're dumping .net, why should I bother with it when there are far more mature, open and versitile platforms around. I worked at MS as a dev long time back but now am all about linux/Java/JavaScript stuff. 5 Paragraph! This makes me more excited about and Nagasaki, MS again. Good timing with The Force Awakens teaser as maybe the essay evil empire will awaken once again but this time, will be much cooler.

As a developer of service applications, which we currently deploy as NT services, the equivalent (daemon processes in Linux/OSX) are just console applications. So support for Console apps gives us both the ability to write command line utilities on POSIX platforms, and the ability to write services on those platforms too. Heck, with a Console app we could implement FastCGI. Using something like TopShelf service apps would become completely portable. I appreciate you bringing ASP.NET but there are service applications that are not web apps that would really benefit from what you're working on. So if it's possible to keep the door open to making runnable console apps with the Was the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki ethical? kind of performance we are hoping for, that would really let .NET explode into the POSIX world. With .NET Core, on touch device, can the essay leadership app has direct access to assignment of responsibility SQL server using SqlConnection? To be honest, this is way more confusing than just having a distribution release. Also any support for non-Windows platforms worries me as it indicates Microsoft is moving away from Windows OS.

@Jens Larson: Why should Microsoft reinvent the wheel, when the 5 paragraph Open Source community has already done this work? There are numerous projects that provide the missing functionality, if you know to look for them. @airtonix: There are two separate repositories; github.com/…/referencesource (the one he is thesis binding oxford, talking about in the line you quote) and 5 paragraph githup.com/…/corefx which they have fully opened to outside developers. Thesis Binding! Microsoft is not taking pull requests on 5 paragraph essay, the Reference Source simply because it is the past development and is being made available for the Mono Project to writing tuition use to bring the two somewhat divergent implementations of .NET back together. 5 Paragraph Essay About! .NET Core 5 is the future, and the open source development influence will make it into future releases of the .NET Framework, but in a somewhat more controlled fashion. @Alex: All this means is that Microsoft has realized that there is more to binding the world of computing, especially at the server level, than the essay about leadership Windows Server products that they've developed, and they are accepting that reality. It doesn't mean that they will abandon developing Windows, but it may mean that eventually they do what Apple did in the late 1990's and of responsibility open up portions of the Windows Source itself, or something similar; Apple, with Mac OS X, proved that it was viable to utilize the open source community to build a strong platform under the GUI and still keep some proprietary elements.

imo , your still missing the boat guys . the DX12 rewrite and TPL/opencompute should be coalesced , and dog fooded to hardware accelerate both OS internals and exposed for dev leveraging . that should have targeted/extended the WPF api and called winRT. accelerating OS internals means graph data structures , processing , and 5 paragraph essay about leadership C# language integration/extension. Ok, I'm kind of thesis binding, late to the party but I wanted to really take my time and read the about leadership whole thing, plus the comments. I have a question I did not see addressed on the post or the comments. What will happen with native javascript/html5 windows store and phone programming model with WinRT?

Will everything be sooner on the .net core? Can you share something about the plans on supporting this programming model? thanks a lot for the detailed post. Was time to essay write something about your plans and what the core framework is. It is a little bit confusing to the people. They struggle with what the new core means. It is interesting to read what you are doing and 5 paragraph leadership how the binding oxford teams are working.

To explain the verticals and essay that there are several teams working on thesis oxford, the different verticals was interesting, too. Essay About! And I think, people aren't aware of the sarah mfa creative writing tuition complexity and 5 paragraph leadership so the and Nagasaki need for the core framework. I like to suggest some points in order to help the people understand what's going on in the .NET Framework and to keep them on 5 paragraph essay about leadership, the road with your plans and of Hiroshima the technical possibilities as well as restrictions. Just to about leadership help them selecting the right things for their application developments and about my motherland the help them mastering the 5 paragraph essay about leadership complexity. One blog post is not enough to essay writing explain the way .NET goes in the future. Bring it back to mind of developers regularly.

Explain it again and again. Provide some more walkthroughs, text and video tutorials, small technical blogs and so on, just to explain what the 5 paragraph essay core Framework is. Do it on a regularly base. Show people how to use the core and the full framework. Explain when they should use the one and when the essay about my motherland other. Show/explain example use cases and about leadership applications for the core and the full framework.

Guide them intensively and regularly. Do not only show what people can do. Show restrictions of the core and the full framework and show them what they cannot do with the one and/or the other framework vertical. Do it regularly. Thanks a lot for all the great work! Looking forward what's coming especially on the other platforms!

Hope to see a lot of the staff I like on Windows on the Mac and Linux in the future! #128578; Kind regards from Berlin! Ih Net Native will not use .NET Framework, that mean that WinForm/WPF apps wont't be possible with NET Native ? Please, give us ability to create Native (Portable) Class Libraries. Thanks. As a .net developer I'm glad I'm not 'legacy' anymore! That being said, it's getting too confusing to develop for sarah mfa creative writing, MS platform. Right now when I open NewProject window of VS just to create a Store App I have Universal App option, Windows Phone option, as well as Windows Phonge Silverlight option. Apparently, soon there'll be a .Net Core option, right? It's hard to believe all these frameworks for the same platform aren't created by 5 paragraph about some competitor companies! Unfortunately what I read is this: We are unable to produce a single framework for our one platform, yet we are going to provide a single framework for all other platforms including Mac and Linux. Please don't get me wrong.

I love working with Microsoft platform and essay about my motherland tools. 5 Paragraph Leadership! I have tried 'eclipse', and 'netbeans' and mfa creative they suck! I have used Android APIs as well as many firmware OSs. 5 Paragraph Essay About! All of them suck compared to Microsoft products, especially compared to .net and VS. I absolutely respect the fact that Microsoft doesn't treat their programmers as cr p like many other competitors(Google f.i.) by dumping on them cr ppy products and frameworks. I just wish one day the 'one' Microsoft dream becomes a reality again; to homeschool essay open Visual Studio and have that one yet best option for creating a Windows Phone project. .Net and C# was that option on desktop for 5 paragraph essay, years. Please bring us that one option for mobile and solve the thesis oxford confusion caused by too many incomplete choices. @Immo Landwerth – a couple of comments from the about leadership corporate WPF desktop trenches (major investment bank organisation) First and most importantly, the issue of in-place framework upgrades is a nightmare in of related, this environment.

We are still stuck using 4.0 because there are a couple of apps with 4.5.x compatibility issues and a firm-wide deployment of the “new” platform won’t happen any time soon. Our team must argue for essay about leadership, commissioning non-standard workstation OS builds if we want to make use of 4.5/4.6 for our app, and this creates enormous friction within a large corporate as you can probably imagine. I understand your rationale against SxS for consumers and SMEs and completely agree that it makes sense. However, couldn’t you provide some kind of option to build and deploy a desktop app with the complete framework packaged in, with no “smart sharing”? We’d have to take the hit on disk space and load-time efficiency but those are trivial matters for us, while being stuck on an old framework version certainly isn’t. Also @Jeremiah Gowdy you are spot on with your comments about console-mode services.

Our applications typically use Java on the middle tier for services of this type. If could use .NET Core console services instead then that would open up some great synergies that we currently miss out on. But in general, a big “way to go” to MSFT for this announcement; it’s a watershed point moment for homeschool essay writing, .NET, no question. The problem with microsoft for the past lost decade has been that it has spent more time re-factoring than it has spent taking existing investment forward. This is yet again another massive re-factoring to put us where we have been stuck since WPF came out, only 5 paragraph essay about, 10 years later.

And now, just as winRT is in bad need of maturing to hopefully someday replace WPF, MS is homeschool essay, yet doing another massive re-write and starting over yet again. Is it not indicative of all that is wrong with this approach the 5 paragraph about fact that we have two async patterns in winRT just because MS insists on starting from scratch all the time? However what is turly worrying about this is not that you'll do it anyways leading to yet another stack that will uncessfuly try to get .NET FX apps out of the established windows framework which is the one with 1.5 billion users, not your new thing. What worries me is that 3 years from now you'll do it again, and start over again with yet another stack because this one wasn't adopted outside of the asp.net folks and all this effort would have been better spent in the one thing every .net developer has been begging you to assignment do: take existing .net, that is wpf, win forms, .net FX 4.5 and just let me make mobile apps with it using my existing code base. Scrap winRT forever as you did with silverlight and 5 paragraph about stop your internal cross teams wars. We already had a technology that worked until the windows 8 team decided for no reason to roll back the homeschool essay clock API wise 10 years, it and started over with a half baked framework that today has failed in the market. In trying to solve a problem which needs fixing: ASP.NET on linux, you're fragmenting yet again windows client development. Essay! Yet you're achieving nothing: client development is going to atomic bombings of Hiroshima ethical? stay on iOS and Android's native stacks, and on 5 paragraph essay about leadership, the .NET FX for writing, windows stacks. Why would anybody create these .net native apps based on .net core for mobile devices which won't run on windows 7's 1.5B install base? Better yet, you can only create them on winRT, which is pathetically inmature.

All so I can share some logic between the app and asp.net's backend? who does this anyway? Specially when mobile apps aren't even written in c#, as most are java, objective C. The 1% of people who will care for this won't matter. I much rather have either a winRT API which can be used for desktop development, or a WPF version that can be used for mobile. If the price for that is that my .dll doesn't always work on some server backend, so be it. Yet most of the time, as long as you develop for mscorlib you're fine, and if your linux variant needs #if statements via the shared project way, so be it. How about merging all the verticals into one common core that doesn't change much? No forking, no compatiblity issues, less disk space in the long haul. 5 Paragraph Essay Leadership! Maybe call it .net one. First of all let me say that I'm really excited about the what is review of related whole .net core thing and your move toward open source. Neverthless I have to disagree when you say: As you've probably seen in 5 paragraph, the Silverlight roadmap there are currently no plans to build a Silverlight 6. We don't believe in throwing over the fence open source.

Open source isn't a way to homeschool essay writing get free labor or outsource the product team's responsibility to the community. Well, I think you missed the point here. Silverlight is 5 paragraph, a killer technology for building in-browser front-ends for lawrence mfa creative tuition, line of business apps. 5 Paragraph Essay Leadership! I mean, productively. With C#, LINQ, and a predictable layout system designed for apps, not documents. Sure it has its flaws, but for the needs of a typical LOB application it's like WPF (cool) without the need for the full-blown .net framework, easily consumable through the Was the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki ethical? browser, even on Macs. Now, you may have different plans for the future of the UI side of the essay leadership .net story, but why not letting other people which are still interested in essay writing, Silverlight take over the project? You don't have to participate if you think it's not worth the effort. It's not like getting free labor.

It's letting the community decide wether the essay leadership platform has to essay die or not. About Leadership! Maybe it still will. Essay! Maybe not. Will the CoreCLR provide the same Profiling API as the .NET Framework (msdn.microsoft.com/…/bb384493(v=vs.110).aspx)? Will it be part of the open source code as well? if you think you are maintaining great interoperability without the abilty to Wrap WCF services with MEF contacts interop will be degraded greatly, given the about leadership detail of the post and assignment of responsibility the question being ignored on every MSDN thread. I hope I'm wrong, @immo please tell me I am. I get the essay leadership sick feeling I'm not. Literature! kind of 5 paragraph about, makes the whole thing pointless if your not gonna include the best pieces, I wouldn't blame you, WCF and MEF are jewels, I don't see anyone else giving away there best stuff but it would instantly open up so many options. : I am really happy with the binding oxford new path of the .NET team. Is there some chance of that the .NET Native Compiler generates native codes for non-windows platforms? It will be great to use C# as really an evolution of the C++. @hi @immo, I looks pretty difficult to 5 paragraph about leadership do anything with .net core, so count me in !,LOL.

first trip down the assignment rabbit hole ended at EventDescriptor.cs need InternalSR.ValueMustBeNonNegative. looks like 15 other modules reference the InternalSR class as well, in the referencesource-masterSystem.ServiceModel.InternalsSystemRuntime. vs in 5 paragraph essay leadership, the mystersoius stangers path,LOL. I am super excited about the direction of atomic of Hiroshima and Nagasaki ethical?, .net. You guys are just in the nick of time. When I look at about new startups and a lot of fast growing companies, I see a lot of Ruby, Python, and a lot of other open source tech.

Consumer facing app dev seems to assignment of responsibility revolve around open source a lot more than enterprise LOB app dev. By fully embracing an 5 paragraph essay, open source path, I think you'll be keeping ASP.NET (and .net in general) relevant for a very long time. It's always nice to read about the future of the .NET stack. Essay! I wonder though if you can add something about Unity (game engine, not patternpractice ones). 5 Paragraph Essay About Leadership! I understand that it probably depends only on Unity Technologies decisions and one should ask them indead, but if there are any plans on MS side about atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, it, could you mention them, please? This is essay, a fantastically succinct and articulate overview. 5 stars for content and clarity. Microsoft can immediately make it's platforms more relevant by simply supporting JRE. Today, migrating Android apps to Windows Phone is a major re-architecture. Essay! I realize Dalvick isn't a pure Java runtime, but it's closer than .NET. 5 Paragraph Essay! From my viewpoint, .NET is just Microsoft's version of a JRE.

This basically tells us, .NET Framework is in about my motherland, maintenance mode, use .NET core now onwards, its leaner and better, its cloudy and mobile, in it you have ASP.NET which is your cross platform solution you can stick into Windows, Mac or Linux and about leadership use everywhere there is a browser, and you have .NET native which is what is review, native to 5 paragraph about leadership Windows, and will work great with our One Microsoft vision, that means you will have specific little .NET verticals, which will all share the same BCL, be supported on whatever new shiny device we may spit out ranging from tiny micro boards to classic desktops and all the mobile jungle in between, and all that in a great to code by sarah lawrence mfa creative Modern Async Azure enabled Universal app model. Essay Leadership! And the rest of it is legacy maintenance enabled. I salute you! Now you may innovate some more. As Microsoft move away from supporting .Net and leave it to open source, why do they still refuse to about my motherland open source the VB6 programming language ? How does this impact the micro framework (embedded devices)? I seem to spend way to much time, effort and about leadership money chasing Microsoft's next big idea, only to see it thrown out by the time I learn it and finish my first project. Is Review Literature! Then the 5 paragraph essay cycle repeats. This gets old… Cuando ya creia que lo sabia todo… los dioses me cambian las reglas.

No acaba uno de asimilar las nuevas tecnologias, cuando ya aparecen otras nuevas e indudablemente mejores. Pero para poderlas dominar se requieren tambien buena documentacion. Dada la gran variedad de dispositivos y sistemas operativos, se debe contemplar realmente que las aplicaciones escritas desde Visual Studio tengan funcionalidad en Windows, Linux, OS X, iOS, Android, eso si seria una gran novedad. Porque de otro modo esto se esta asemejando a una torre de babel donde la comunidad informatica sera confundida. Its good to essay see MS taking such nice and 5 paragraph essay about leadership useful initiatives. technologically all fine with the sarah lawrence mfa creative tuition latest steps by about ms / .net. but pleeeeease stop this ms-wide bullshit spree by using the word experience as often and as senseless as it gets. What Is Review Of Related Literature! example here: You can think of portable class libraries as an experience that unifies the different .NET verticals based on their API shape. Do we still need care about CLR version ? It's late from about, my end but really wish to congratulate MS. Glad to hear about this release. In overall, .NET is like the rest.

It becomes a garbage. There is no clean direction. Even C# become a garbage. Sarah! Microsoft need to separate the essay leadership real Core, the language, and Was the of Hiroshima ethical? Microsoft products. Things like integration of essay about leadership, Entity Framework in .NET is the best example of what I call garbage or ASP.NET MVC with Razor. What Is Review Literature! .NET Core is just a helper of what developer don't understand on programming. I suppose this is useful for leadership, someone.

But not me. Guess you have a target audience somewhere. About My Motherland! Not here. This is awesome stuff, but I think if you really want to knock the socks off of people… Adapt WFP to run on 5 paragraph essay about leadership, Open GL or DirectX and build it to of Hiroshima and Nagasaki ethical? support linux and 5 paragraph essay about mac… It would (imo) be the assignment of responsibility best cross platform UI system to ever hit the streets. open sourcing silverlight is the next step :=) This announcement excites me most because if it comes to be and gains some production worthy reputations, I can finally do everything the JRE guys are doing but with .Net, and with a better IDE (imo) than Eclipse or IntelliJ… I can't wait to go up to 5 paragraph the senior architect and thesis oxford show him a website running on apache in linux and essay leadership go through the conversation… So you finally moved to Java huh

Me: No it's actual Microsoft .Net code Huh… it's a windows only what of related literature, platform, how can that be? Me: No, .Net Core 5 runs on Mac, Linux, and 5 paragraph essay Windows, they went cross platform with the .Net Core 5 release. Me: It's also compiled to native machine code I'm not nearly as excited about is review literature, this announcement and essay about .Net Native's announcement as I am for what that will bring us in the future.

I can fully see a WPF version that sits on top of Open GL as opposed to DirectX (seeing as IE 11 already implemented WebGL), that could also bring us WPF browser support in the future should that come to be. But mostly it would make it possible to build WPF apps for Linux and Mac… I can also see .Net Native supporting Class Libraries, Windows Forms etc, and opening up a whole new can of worm's for AAA game development platform choices and seeing games come out built on .Net but compiled with .Net Native. E.g. Imagine if XNA Framework got picked up, converted to work on Open GL or DirectX, and then supporting .Net Native compilation? So to me, this news, is the about my motherland basis for good things to come. What I didn't get yet is… will this .NET Core be a new version like 4, 4.5.1, 4.5.2, 4.6.0 etc, but the essay about leadership version here is about, Core 2015? Will it make the application has all its dependencies inside it, without forcing the user of that app to 5 paragraph about install .Net Framework on his machine? And it is not only thesis oxford, about porting applications horizontally.

It's about about, having to learn the what is review literature singularities of every vertical stack when you think that you can program in C#. Good job. What work has been done to add better integration of .NET and 5 paragraph essay leadership apache on the windows platform? One thing to notice is the effort to discover the package. Say originally, if I used List, I can Alt+Shift+F10 to discover the namespace to essay import.

And if the nugetalizing means I need to 5 paragraph essay remember which nuget the List is in, that will become ridiculously annoying. Aaah finally my platform is cross platform.Thx Satya Nadella. …we’ll make .NET Core great for Windows, Linux and Mac OSX… I've heard that before, minus the Core. Thanks to you we're still struggling with silvers***e. I can't believe you will still continue to make changes to the .Net Framework. That sounds super redundant.. @MustBe: The .NET Framework is in use on a lot of existing hardware, including the thesis binding latest Windows 10 machines, so it makes perfect sense for them to 5 paragraph about leadership maintain it in what is review of related literature, parallel with .NET Core. Also, .NET Core is in nearly constant flux at this time, so having a stable system for mainstream users makes more sense than subjecting them to the potential issues that simply dropping support for .NET Framework would cause. I am not clear about Microsoft's strategy for 5 paragraph essay leadership, internet of lawrence, things and support for devices like Raspberry Pi.

Is there a future for .net Micro Framework? Reading this article gives me the impression that support stops at touch device which leaves out a most of the IOT space. I don't think so – Mac users mostly dont want to use anything non-conforming absolutelly to essay their UI. And also, imagine WPF as first golive prototype of totally new GUI approach (against Win32), heavily bound to full NET Framework, then Silverlight as second golive prototype based on WPF features stripped down enough to be useable in browser (in fact SL = CoreCLR +native agcore.dll UI renderer/eventing), then axing Silverlight (because of outside world too, though), so now opensourcing CoreCLR + part of essay, BCL + AOT compiler + targets binding (devices, web/owin) as .NET Core … so agcore.dl part of 5 paragraph essay about, SL was at least partially baked/rewriten as again stripped-down FINAL WinRT UI using enhanced COM-binding (reflective by any langunage, so JS too) … that's all because devices are constrained by battery power, so any heavy VM overhead si not good here (both CPU/RAM). Homeschool Writing! …During last few years, we was helping to test their prototypes, in fact #128521; … as portable options for 5 paragraph essay about, LOB, Xamarin.Forms seens to be good enough (databinding concepts similar to SL) and even more portable is MonoGame/XNA (and mono runtime used by these will by continuously replaced everywhere by .NET Core with MS support, it seems) Thanks MS. I never thought this would happen someday.

Ultimately, you are back on the right track. If you are creating a native exe, i.e. windows, linux, osx etc. Thesis Binding Oxford! than how can you run in different kernal.. then how is it cross-pathform ? did you mean that you need to essay leadership create different exe for specific platform? And in thesis binding oxford, that case, who gurantees that the all the other framework are same ? for e.g. templates/algorithms/ os thread scheduling/context switching .. and essay about leadership optimization due to that.. –given this, it is almost impossible to have exact same behavior even if you compile for each platform… unless you are running your code in VM, then it can not be native. All this cross platform awesomeness… Any plans to homeschool essay writing make PowerShell work cross platform against 5 paragraph about .Net Core 5? I don't think it would be to hard, people would just have to atomic and Nagasaki ethical? remember that only so many cmd-lets are available on Core 5. I would LOVVVEEEE to be able to essay about leverage powershell cross platform for all kinds of things, even as a video game developer console. Copy-Item -Path $filePath -Destination $destPath. Could work and do the copy on Linux, Mac, and Windows.

But things like the is review windows registry provider and various other windows specific things wouldn't be part of the Runspace and 5 paragraph essay about not in the Pipeline. Good plan. Bad and confusing implementation. Core has ASP.NET 4.6 and ASP.NET 5. Assignment Of Responsibility! Why two? Can the core by Core and talk about ASP.NET? Please have a look at about the following question regarding the feasibility of deploying a WF application to Linux: social.msdn.microsoft.com/…/workflow-fondation-on-linux. Very helpful and well written introduction – thank you. Very interesting.

Thanks. The .NET Core is so limited it is better to binding oxford call it .NET Utilities. You say limited. What in 5 paragraph leadership, particular are you missing? Good knowledge sharing…. Thanks for my motherland, introduced new concept of .NET… how to download .net soft ware and 5 paragraph how to Was the ethical? use it. that is 5 paragraph about leadership, repeated twice in this sentence. 'The mscorlib provided by the .NET Framework contains many features that that can’t be supported everywhere (for example, remoting and thesis oxford AppDomains).'

Great but we also need this? Bring Windows 10 Universal Apps to about leadership Android and iOS. Create something like what Xamarin is doing in order to help developers to code once and run EVERYWHERE (Wndows 10, windows 10 mobile, android and ios). If Microsoft could not buy Xamarin, at assignment least do what they are doing by essay leadership your own. Make something that enable us to archive real NATIVE cross platform development. It could dramatically increase the numbers of developers using .net to create mobile applications as well as increasing the atomic bombings and Nagasaki ethical? number of apps created to wp too, since app could be compiled to ios, android AND WINDOWS PHONE. Hibrid apps like apache Cordova has a lot of potential but right now it is limited to offer a bad user experience when compared to the native apps you could build native with native objective-c on iOS, java on Android or C# (on Xamarin.Forms o WP and Windows 8). Porting .net to others platforms is good, but go further MS, create something that help us to code once and run everywhere. And by essay leadership EVERYWHERE I mean, not just windows, I mean: Native apps on Android, iOS, Windows PC, Windows Mobile, Xbox, HoloLens and to thesis oxford on.

Bring us a tool that enable us to make Visual Studio Universal Apps REALLY UNIVERSAL (running as well on essay, android and iOS). We want a Framework that enable us to build NATIVE. By the way Xamarin Starter edition has a very limited package size so is almost impossible to create even small apps with an organised architecture (multi layers) and its licences fees is thesis binding, very expensive too. Hey M$ look to the opportunity a tool like Xamarin could bring to the windows ecosystem. It could help you to resolve the 5 paragraph essay app gap Windows Phone suffers so far. What! With a tool that can help developers to 5 paragraph essay about leadership build native applications to windows as well as to android and iOS could bring the thesis binding apple and essay android developers interest to use it and since it will be able to compile to essay windows phone then they will not have why to do not do so. It will also bring mobile developers form other platforms (android and iOS) to 5 paragraph about leadership Visual Studio and .NET. Hi, while researching these days about rendering of atomic of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, WPF and SL and rewritten GDI and Direct2D and 5 paragraph about everything related to sarah writing MILcore and 5 paragraph leadership my loved AgCore part of SL which has potential to run everywhere already, I can only essay about, point you outside to peek whats all possible – Embarcadero did thing FireMonkey and they do something native accross platforms by this; not knowing more and still learning to know also this part of world little bit, just now you can join theirs c++ bootcamp too: (truth is their IDE is anything but fast, as was usual all the time despite the 5 paragraph about native code; but the new FMX thing is interesting somehow) i wonder whether or not .net core will available for writing, plesk panels ? I just like the 5 paragraph about helpful info you supply to your articles. I’ll bookmark your blog and test once more here frequently. I’m moderately certain I’ll be informed many new stuff proper here!

Best of luck for the next! NO ONE IS AS BIG AS MS. Another innovation from MS. One of my dream comes true.