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Essays on science fiction

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SF Essays - Gunn Center for the Study of Science Fiction

Arts: Film/The Pianist term paper 20313. Essays! This analysis of The Pianist (Roman Polanski, 2002) will argue that the use of realism through each of the technical codes of style enhances the expressions of the text in its predominant realistic settings consistent with the era in the college application essay which the essays fiction story takes place. What Of Related Literature! It will also assess the ways in which these technical codes interact to create its desired effect. The different meanings constructed within the text will also be analysed. Each code will consist of justifications for each point and examples will be given to provide evidence of each constructed meaning. At the conclusion of the discussion, after each technical code has been analysed, a conclusion will be drawn upon to combine each code into one and to dissect these and then to on science, combine them back together to create the overall stylistic expression of the text, which will be considered as ‘sombre realism’. Essays On Ottoman Historians And Historiography! The Mise en Scene in the 2002 film The Pianist, works around a realistic perception of stylization which is essays on science seen throughout the film. The use of lawrence, dull colours to emphasize the depressive feeling of the characters is highlighted with their costume, set decoration as well as the buildings around them. The text is set in the early 1940’s period of World War II and every part of the mise en scene has been carefully created to conform with this era in order to make it seem realistic. Natural soft lighting is used throughout the text, and it is only used in scenes out on science, of the Jewish Ghetto.

For example, an interior scene within the apartment of one of the protagonists’ friends who is trying to help him shows very bright natural light to create a binary opposition between the world of the main character, and education leads to success essay that of the Polish people who are considered much more contented. This use of on science fiction, three point lighting reflects both worlds in very different ways. Inside the Ghetto, very little lighting is used, and many grey and sarah mfa creative writing brown shades of colour are used together with the lack of lighting to essays on science, create the necessary sensitivity to evoke the emotions of hopelessness and despair. Make up and costume also plays an imperative part in establishing the leads realism of the text. At the commencement of the film each character is considered well groomed and looking in good health, all with costume consistent with that of the pre-war period.

Also, it would be near impossible to tell the difference between a Jew and a Pole. However, as the text progresses, the health and look of the Jewish people living inside the Ghetto decreases, this is made very relevant considering the ways in which they are living. All of essays, this culminates in the end, after the protagonist has made it so far to reach the end of the war, albeit looking much discarded; he manages to thesis, borrow a German officer’s coat to keep him warm. This proves to be a bad idea when the essays on science Polish police begin shooting at him, thinking he is a German. This creates an ironic stylized effect which is unknown throughout the suggested previous sections of the text.

As noted before, realism plays a very important part in such a film set in such a time. The acting styles within this text also reflect that fact. A very serious undertone is used throughout, with very little humour to set the sombre undertones that is needed to in effect echo within the text. The use of language code between characters throughout the text is somewhat inconsistent, to also evoke the realism of the time. For example, German officers only speak German throughout the text, whether this is speaking to essays on science, other officer’s or the literature Jews themselves.

The Jew’s on the other hand speak English consistently, while speaking German and Hebrew sporadically at certain times throughout the text while communicating with other characters. The cinematography in The Pianist is effective in creating the desired depressive war time effects all throughout the film. The camera is efficient in drawing attention to the very small important details that the mise en scene puts out there in front of the camera. For example, character expressions are very important in essays fiction such a film to evoke all of the necessary emotions to the audience. With the use of low angle to medium shots, the camera is used to take the essays on ottoman historians characters out of the picture and into the minds of the essays audience. Swift camera movements and extreme close ups throughout the of related literature war action scenes assist in making the conflict a lot more realistic and believable. This emphasises the nature of the conflict making it appealing and showing the true nature of war. On the exterior scenes of the wall, the on science fiction camera movements are much more steady and stable, tracking down characters along the lester footpath. For example, at one stage while the protagonist is walking down the path at night time in an attempt not to be seen, a consistent frame image is created with the essays fiction camera to induce the feeling that the thesis character does not want to be seen, and essays certainly not caught. Where mobile framing is concerned, pan shots are used frequently to show the destruction that the war has bought to the world of the story. B. Pearson! These pan shots are used at various stages throughout the essays on science fiction text, each time bringing a different meaning to the story to create the feeling of realism.

Within these pan shots, shots of lawrence mfa creative writing, long duration are used in combination with the music (which will be discussed later in depth) to steady the motion of the essays forthcoming story. The continuity editing system is used throughout most of lester essay, The Pianist, this making for greater realism and allowing the story world to speak for itself. However, at selected parts the montage editing system is used. In these sections, they are combined each time with musical score to show the expressions of the Jewish people as they are being relocated, usually between Ghettos. This editing system places a greater emphasis on the relationships between shots and essays on science fiction the graphic, rhythmic, spatial and temporal possibilities of these relationships, and the way they affect the story world within the text. Elliptical editing also plays an important factor throughout various stages of The Pianist. An ellipsis is created at selected stages to move the story onward in less screen time. For example, this can be seen a lot more in the earlier stages of the film, particularly when new policies are coming in from the German government to the Jewish people such as when they have to sarah, wear their arm bands. These elliptical instances are much more frequent in the early stages, while the beginnings of the on science fiction war are coming into sarah lawrence mfa creative writing, plan and everyone is being affected by essays them. Diegetic sound plays a very important role from the outset in establishing each and every emotion in The Pianist.

With the use of the piano as a recurring motif throughout the bauld on writing the college essay film in fiction order to express the feeling of the people around him, as well as the feelings inside himself, the of related literature protagonist uses diegesis to exemplify the feelings of everyone in the story world to the audience. Sound perspective is also apparent within the text, bringing a sense of spatial distance and location analogues to the cues for visual depth and volume which is obtainable through its visual perspective. Together with this, it becomes clear that non-diegetic sound is also very influential in realising the expressional realism throughout the film. The dynamics of the on science fiction score are very consistent the entire way through, and the sound of the piano music becomes almost expected during scenes of essays, despair for the characters involved. Non-diegetic sound is very significant in on science this way, especially during long establishing shots of landscape showing the destruction that the war has bought to the characters involved in the world of the story. While the haunting sound of the piano is notable throughout most of the text, there are also stages in mfa creative writing tuition the film whereby other sources of sound can be heard. For example, when the Jews have first moved to the Ghetto, a group of them are made to dance on the side of the road by the German officers. Cheerful diegetic music is made to be played by the band as the Jews who are in on science fear of being shot dance around with each other, at the amusement of the German guards. While the sound may be cheerful in itself, the meaning that this conveys certainly is not. The expressive meaning here is that the sound is being used to sarcastically make the Jewish dancers feel even more worthless, and in turn make others laugh at them.

This analysis of on writing, The Pianist has discussed the essays on science fiction ways in which each of the technical codes of film style affects the meanings that the text itself conveys to the audience. Mise en scene commented on the all important aspect of realism and the ways that costume, make up and setting all combine together to influence the war-time period setting. Thesis! This section also highlighted that the lighting (or sometimes lack of) influenced the feelings of the people involved in the story world. The section on cinematography furthermore noted the aspects of shot duration with special consideration to the ways in which the camera takes the characters expressive emotions and gives them to on science fiction, the audience. Editing discussed the systematic use of the types of editing used in the text, while highlighting on lawrence mfa creative writing tuition, the important aspect on the way elliptical editing uses time as a method of conveying a meaning. Lastly, sound emphasised the impact of the motif piano throughout the text, both as a signifier as well as a source of diegetic sound. With all of these four technical codes combined, a steady conclusion can be made about the intended focus on the world of the story. Firstly, the impact on realism is obviously a key factor in determining the emotive instances of the essays text.

This is is review of related literature where mise en scene, cinematography, editing and sound all come together to reactively produce realism. Also, the benefits that sound has upon the text, releasing the feeling from the protagonist, has an everlasting effect that embroils the four technical codes together to produce its required result. Essays On Science Fiction! Bordwell, David and Thompson, Kristen (2005) Film Art: An Introduction, Seventh Edition. New York: McGraw Hill. The Pianist 2002, Motion Picture, Focus Features, Germany/France/USA, Director: Roman Polanski. Our writers are all Uni graduates able to work effectively on any level under time constraints.

Well-versed in most subjects and citation styles, our writers have years of ghostwriting experience doing both academic and professional projects. Every paper is written from scratch based on your instructions and there is no plagiarism of any kind. Plus, we guarantee free unlimited revisions. You will enjoy direct contact with the writer throughout the entire process and will receive the paper by e-mail/download. The projects are never resold and bauld the college application essay will remain your unique property for a lifetime.

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Science fiction essays

sample essay gre awa Why Is The AWA Section So Important? If you aren’t new to on science the GRE format, you’d probably know that the GRE begins with the AWA section. But, most students underestimate its importance. Agreed; from the admissions point of view, a difference of historians, 0.5 – 1 point on essays fiction, the AWA doesn’t make or break your chances of getting into your dream school. A 5.0 is almost as good as the what literature 6.0. On Science Fiction! And unless you score below 4.0, you won’t be hurting your chances. But, the AWA is more than just a score.

It holds a lot more importance than you think. On Ottoman! No. We’re not talking about the importance of language or coherence or logic. But the importance of the first ever section that you are going to face on test day. The Big Mistake Most Students Make: Almost half of the GRE test takers every year are Native English speakers. Fiction! And these students tend to essays on ottoman neglect practicing the AWA section at essays on science fiction, home, because according to them, it’s not worth investing time on something they are very confident about. But, there are a few vital points that they don’t realize.

We’ve observed what students do when they practice for the GRE, how their approaches have affected their scores on test day, and bauld application essay, figured out four reasons as to why the AWA is an extremely important aspect of the on science GRE exam. Reasons Why Practicing AWA is Important. False scores during practice: This is the thesis single most important thing to fiction consider when we talk about the importance of the AWA section. Education To Success! Now, students normally tend to skip the AWA section when they take practice tests, so they can directly go to the first section of on science fiction, Math/Verbal.

Though this might seem like the obvious choice to you, you should consider the aftereffects before jumping into conclusions. Think about it. The GRE is not a typical test that you encounter at college or elsewhere. It is a marathon. An intense, 3 hour 45 minute ride, which obviously you aren’t accustomed to. Now, if you skip the essays and historiography AWA section during practice, you’ll be forfeiting 60 minutes of the total test time, which means you are going to have to sit for 2 hours and 45 minutes only. This translates into an inflated overall score during practice, because you are just that much more active than you will be on test day. So, you get accustomed to sitting for 2 hours 45 minutes for the test, and your brain is hardwired to concentrate for that much time only. But, on test day, you still have two more sections to finish after you complete 2 hours and 45 minutes.

Do you get the essays point? It’s that extra one hour of concentration that requires sudden attention from your brain, which it sadly isn’t ready for. This is essays historians exactly why thousands of students score very low on their last two to three sections. They simply aren’t ready for the extra time, because their brains feel tired already. So, if you don’t skip the AWA during practice, you’ll be writing in essays fiction the exact test conditions as on test day, thereby training your brain for the big encounter. Despite what has been told above, if you are still very confident that the AWA is something you can ace with ease on on ottoman, test day, you are probably wasting time practicing it during practice tests.

But how can you still train your brain to withstand the mental pressure while not tackling AWA at essays on science, all? Simple. Decide the time when you want to take the practice test. Exactly an hour prior to what of related the start of the essays on science test, start practicing tough quant or RC passage questions. Do these questions thoroughly, and suggested thesis, don’t relax at all.

Think of it as an exam, and essays fiction, keep doing random problems out of the Official Guide or Barron’s or any other material that you have. This will keep your mind occupied and stressed, just as it would be when tackling the of related literature AWA section on test day. This way, you are not only training your brain to withstand the essays fiction mental pressure, but you are also buying the time off for some valuable practice. AWA is essays on ottoman historians and historiography a great confidence booster. Since the AWA is the first thing you will see on test day, it is what makes or breaks your confidence. If you ace this section, it will be a confidence booster for the rest of the exam. Essays Fiction! You will definitely carry the momentum further into the test.

But at the same time, if you don’t do well on this section, the momentum won’t be on your side. What Of Related Literature! The added pressure and the worry that you haven’t done well until then, will have a massive effect on your performance thereon. Difficult to essays on science score a perfect 6.0. only 1 percent of all students writing the GRE, score a perfect 6.0 on the AWA . Which is of related around 7000 of 700,000 students every year. This statistic alone shows how hard it is to get a perfect AWA score.

And universities love students who score well in fiction all the sections. They look for students who don’t leave any stone unturned. And it definitely doesn’t make a good impression on essays on ottoman, you if you have a great GRE score, but a paltry AWA score. So, it goes without saying that you will need lots of practice if you plan to score anywhere close to the perfect figure. Universities know the fact that most students take the essays fiction help of consultancies and essay writing firms to lawrence tuition help with their essays and Statements of Purpose.

We too, do not encourage approaching consultancies, because then, your essays and SOPs don’t sound original. All they have are some basic templates that they tweak a little based on your profile, and send them away. But the universities compare your essays with your AWA score, and essays, if your AWA score is 3.0, for example, but your essays sound brilliant, they understand that you haven’t sent the application on your own. This creates a very negative impression on you, which you don’t want to happen. Suggested! So, make sure you practice thoroughly and score well on the AWA section. To sum it up, the AWA is still a part of the GRE test, and one shouldn’t ignore it or think of essays on science, it as something that isn’t as important as the historians and historiography other sections. So, when you are practicing the test, make sure you are doing it right. After all, it would feel amazing to fiction score in the top 1 percentile, wouldn’t it?

Each of your AWA essays is essays historians scored on a scale of 0 to 6. Two readers will read your Issue essay and assign it a deserving score and two different readers will read your Argument essay and assign it a score. Each grader will award a 6.0 to fiction the top essays and scores of thesis, 0 are reserved for essays written on topics other than the one assigned or written in a foreign language. The graders spend about 30 seconds to on science 2 minutes on each essay, and of related, give it a score based on pre-defined evaluation metrics such as the overall quality of your critical thinking and writing, as mentioned previously. Essays Fiction! The graders who evaluate the responses are college and university faculty members from various subject matter areas, including higher education. Once the suggested thesis readers finish grading your essay, the two scores will be averaged to essays on science fiction arrive at a final AWA score. If the grades given by the two readers differ by more than a point, a third, highly experienced grader is brought in to resolve the discrepancy (i.e., determine your final score for bauld application essay that essay). For each essay, your final score is the average of the essays fiction scores assigned by the two readers or the adjusted score assigned by education leads the third reader. Here’s how a typical Analytical Writing score might be derived: If you earned scores of 6 and 5 on the Analysis of an Issue, then your final score for the Issue essay would be the average of these two i.e., (6 + 5) /2 which equals to 5.5 and if you earned scores of 4 and 5 on the Analysis of an on science Argument, your final score on the Argument essay would be (4 + 5) /2 which equals to 4.5. Your final AWA score will be the suggested average of your scores on on science fiction, Issue and bauld, Argument essays i.e., (5.5 + 4.5) /2 which equals to 5, which will be your final AWA score.

It should be noted that though your AWA scores range from 0 6, about 90 percent of essays fiction, all scores fall between 2 and 5. The average score for the AWA section for mfa creative writing tuition all the essays test takers so far is lester essay around 4.2. Your Analytical Writing Assessment scores are computed and fiction, reported separately from the essays on ottoman multiple-choice sections of the test and on science fiction, have no effect on your Verbal, Quantitative, or Total scores. Your score report however will not include copies of your responses; only scores are sent. You will receive your essay scores approximately 10-15 days after your test date. It is time to understand what a perfect essay looks like.

In this chapter, we will discuss a couple of examples for perfect 6.0 Argument and essay, Issue essays, and we will also analyze the reasons these essays deserve a perfect score. This will give you a basic idea of the various key aspects of the AWA essays that you should include while writing. These essays have been taken from the ETS Essay Pool itself, Example and Analysis of a Perfect 6.0 Issue Essay. “When someone achieves greatness in any field such as the arts, science, politics, or business that person’s achievements are more important than any of his or her personal faults.” When individuals attain greatness, their achievements are more important than their personal faults. While historians should not whitewash the personal foibles of great individuals, the fiction impact that these mortals have had in their fields should tower over any personality defects. To focus on essays and historiography, the personal weaknesses of great individuals is to miss the importance of their achievements.

The course of human history is decorated with individuals able to rise above their peers and reach the zenith in their fields. These individuals are often the subject of intense scrutiny from essays on science fiction, contemporaneous skeptics and later historians. But no one can lead an on ottoman exemplary private life all the time; no human being is able to withstand such surveillance and historical scrutiny without personal faults coming to on science light. Great individuals are no exception. Essays On Ottoman Historians! However, it is misguided to focus on their personal faults rather than their achievements. To do so is to fiction miss the importance of their work, without which our culture would be worse off. For example, Abraham Lincoln was arguably one of the greatest Presidents the United States has ever had. He managed to bring the leads to success country through a substantial revolution and to end slavery despite powerful economic and social forces working against on science, him day and thesis, night.

However, Lincoln was not a saint. On Science Fiction! He was moody and on ottoman historians and historiography, prone to depressive funks that disrupted his family life and essays on science fiction, slowly eroded his marriage. These personal faults did not reduce his success as a President. While we do not have to ignore questions about whether he was a depressive, we also should not consider them an important part of sarah lawrence mfa creative tuition, his political heritage. In contrast, many people criticize Lincoln’s decision to essays suspend the right of habeas corpus. This (presumed) failing is to success essay not personal in on science nature, but relates directly to Lincoln’s work in his field. Criticisms of this sort are entirely relevant, whereas personal criticisms are not. Another example of a great individual dogged by criticism of his personal conduct is Albert Einstein. Einstein developed a number of the most important theories in essays modern physics, including an explanation of the photoelectric effect, an explanation of Brownian motion, special and general relativity, and Bose-Einstein quantum statistics.

Each one of these theories would have been considered a great life’s work for a scientist; for one man to contribute this much is essays on science fiction remarkable. However, Einstein also had life-long problems with infidelity. The fact that he cheated on his wife is in no way relevant to essays his accomplishments in the field of physics, and essays, indeed most references to Einstein properly ignore it. Sarah Writing! To focus attention on the faults of his personal life is to on science obscure the impact he made on education leads to success essay, history. Great individuals have personal faults, as all human beings do. Yet it is incorrect to essays assert that these faults detract from those individuals’ accomplishments.

We are better able to appreciate the gravity of great accomplishments when we are not burying our heads in the sand, in search of personal failings. The essay above deserves a perfect score, because it takes all the 7 major elements that graders look for, as we have already discussed in chapter 3: Clarity, Structure, Sentence Variety, Vocabulary, Grammar, Evidence, and Reasoning. The thesis provided by the student is very clear and concise. There is no confusion about which side the student took. The issue essay tests how well we can present a position on an issue effectively and persuasively, and essays on ottoman historians and historiography, this essay passes both the tests. The piece is also very well organized. The most popularly used structure “intro-body-body-body-conclusion” really works well for essays on science fiction this type of an issue, and thesis, the student made good use of essays on science fiction, it.

While the response included only two examples as opposed to the suggested three, the two examples presented are extremely strong. President Lincoln is an ideal case study of a leader whose greatness should be not be obscured by his domestic problems. The same can be said with Einstein; his infidelities may have wounded his family emotionally, but his contribution to modern science and technology will be remembered throughout the history of mankind. So, obviously, two of the most historic and the most apt examples were presented by the student here. Additionally, the conclusion is substantial and does an excellent job of summing up the essay. The student uses a variety of sentences in order to make the conclusion unique, and not sounding too much like the introduction itself. He/She does a great job of restating the suggested thesis introduction paragraph without sounding overly redundant.

Lastly, this essay is extremely well-written, and shows the student’s grasp over written English language. The grammar and syntax are almost flawless, and it is hard to write a better essay response to essays on science this issue, in under 30 minutes. These are the reasons why this essay deserves a straight 6.0 score. Example and Analysis of a Perfect 6.0 Argument Essay. The following appeared in the editorial section of a national news magazine: “The rating system for electronic games is b. pearson similar to the movie rating system in that it provides consumers with a quick reference so that they can determine if the subject matter and contents are appropriate. This electronic game rating system is not working because it is self-regulated and essays on science fiction, the fines for violating the rating system are nominal.

As a result an independent body should oversee the to success essay game industry and essays on science fiction, companies that knowingly violate the rating system should be prohibited from releasing a game for two years.” Discuss how well reasoned you find this argument. Point out flaws in the argument’s logic and analyze the argument’s underlying assumptions. In addition, evaluate how supporting evidence is b. pearson essay used and what evidence might counter the argument’s conclusion. Essays On Science! You may also discuss what additional evidence could be used to strengthen the argument or what changes would make the argument more logically sound. The argument claims that the electronic games rating system, although similar to the movie rating system, is the college not working because it is self-regulated and violation fines are nominal; Hence, the fiction gaming rating system should be overseen by an independent body. Stated in this way the argument fails to mention several key factors, on the basis of which it could be evaluated. The conclusion relies on assumptions, for which there is no clear evidence. Leads Essay! Therefore, the argument is rather weak, unconvincing, and has several flaws. First, the argument readily assumes that because the electronic game rating system is self-regulated, it is not working well.

This statement is a stretch and not substantiated in essays on science any way. There are numerous examples in other areas of business or commerce, where the entities are self-regulated and rather successful. For instance, FIA, the Formula1 racing organization is self-regulated. Yet, the leads sport is very popular and essays fiction, successful, drawing millions of spectators around the suggested world each year. Fiction! Tickets are rather expensive, races are shown on pay-per-view, and what is review, nearly all drivers are paid very well. Another example is the paralleled movie rating system that the argument mentions. The author fails to clarify whether it is working well, but it is clear that the movie rating system is pretty well received by people, who often base their decisions to go see a movie with kids or not on fiction, the movie rating. It has never been a case when someone would feel cheated by the movie rating and express disappointment afterwards. Since the thesis movie rating system is also self-regulated, it follows that this regulatory method is working pretty well and it is not obvious how it can be the on science reason for the poor electronic game rating system.

The argument would have been much clearer if it explicitly gave examples of how the self-regulatory system led to bad ratings and customer dissatisfaction. Second, the is review literature argument claims that any violation fees for bad electronic game ratings are nominal. It thus suggests that this is yet another reason for essays the rating system not working. This is again a very weak and education leads to success essay, unsupported claim as the argument does not demonstrate any correlation between the monetary amount of the fines and essays on science fiction, the quality of the electronic game rating system. In fact, the argument does not even draw a parallel with the mentioned movie rating system and mfa creative tuition, its violation fines. Essays On Science! If any such correlation had been shown for the movie rating system, which supposedly works well, then the author would have sounded a bit more convincing. In addition, if the suggested argument provided evidence that low violation fines lead to electronic game manufacturers to ignore any regulations with respect to the game rating system, the argument could have been strengthened even further. Finally, the argument concludes that an independent body should oversee the game industry and companies that violate the rating system, should be punished.

From this statement again, it is essays on science not at all clear how an independent regulatory body can do a better job than a self-regulated one. Without supporting evidence and examples from other businesses where independent regulatory bodies have done a great job, one is left with the impression that the claim is is review of related literature more of a wishful thinking rather than substantive evidence. As a result, this conclusion has no legs to essays on science fiction stand on. In summary, the argument is flawed and therefore unconvincing. It could be considerably strengthened if the author clearly mentioned all the relevant facts. In order to assess the merits of a certain situation, it is essential to have full knowledge of all contributing factors. The essay above deserves a perfect score, because it takes all the on writing application essay 7 major elements that graders look for, as we have already discussed in chapter 3: Clarity, Structure, Sentence Variety, Vocabulary, Grammar, Evidence, and Reasoning. The thesis provided by the student is very clear and concise. There is no confusion about which side the student took. The issue essay tests how well we can present a position on an issue effectively and persuasively, and essays on science, this essay passes both the tests. The piece is also very well organized.

The most popularly used structure “intro-body-body-body-conclusion” really works well for this type of an argument, and the student made good use of it. The response included sufficient examples that are pretty solid, and more than satisfy the student’s take. The examples provided are also real-life in what is review literature nature, as opposed to many hypothetical examples that students write. This gives this essay response quite an edge. The student uses a variety of sentences in order to fiction make his/her point strong enough to concur with.

He/she does a great job of restating the introduction paragraph without sounding overly redundant. All the paragraphs are very well written, and the structure, writing, and vocabulary used by bauld on writing the college essay the student shows the student’s grasp over essays on science fiction, written English language. The grammar and syntax are almost flawless, and it is hard to suggested thesis write a better essay response to this issue, in under 30 minutes. These are the reasons why this essay deserves a straight 6.0 score. Believe it or not, one of the most frequent questions that we receive from students around the world, is how they can get their essays graded. That is essays fiction a good question, actually. Lawrence Writing! Given the fact that there are so many practice tests for essays on science fiction the GRE where you get your Math and lester, Verbal sections graded, there is not even one practice test in the entire world that can grade your AWA score for you. If you are wondering why, it is because it is not at all easy to grade your essay instantaneously.

Think about essays, it. Even on the test day, you will only receive your Math and Verbal scores, but not the AWA score. ETS itself takes about 7-10 days to give you an on ottoman and historiography official report of on science fiction, your AWA score. It is that difficult to assess an essay. Plus, it is required that a human grader reads and grades your essays, if you want an accurate score. Tuition! Which is obviously impossible if you are taking a practice test at home. So what can one do?

Is there no way to get your AWA essays graded? Well thankfully, there are quite a few options that you can consider. We’ve listed down all the available options, and fiction, it is up to you to decide which of them you want to choose. 5 Ways to Get Your AWA Essays Graded. The ETS Score It Now, is bauld the college application a great feature available for on science you to get your essays graded. For a small amount of suggested, $13 dollars, the ETS Essay Grader will grade two of your essays. You can submit any two of your essay responses, and the software will get back to essays on science fiction you with a graded score of your AWA. Now, for most students around the world, and especially for those from the developing world, $13 is quite a lot of money. And that is probably the reason why most students don’t even know that such a facility is what is review of related literature available.

We must agree, that even we at CrunchPrep have never used the service ourselves, or know any student who has, simply because we did not need to. Essays! Our expert tutors, on the other hand, have been grading student essays for free for a long time now. But nevertheless, we’re pretty sure that the lester ETS Score It Now feature will get you an accurate score, because well, it’s ETS who developed it. And there is one more downside with this feature. Essays! The score is all you get, when you submit your essays. No feedback. Leads Essay! Now, you would expect that ETS would give you some valuable tips to improve your score, but unfortunately, that $13 you spend is only going to essays get you a couple of numbers from ETS.

So, unless you don’t need feedback, you are really not improving on the essay, and you have money to sarah lawrence mfa creative writing spend, you should definitely try and consider some other alternatives to this service offered by ETS. Friends, Family, and Experts. Yes. However unbelievable it might seem, your friends can sometimes help you get better marks. They can help you identify the mistakes you did not find obvious enough, and you also get an essays fiction outsider’s opinion on your essays, and therefore on bauld on writing the college essay, your points of view. Now, even though your friends might be untrained, or unaware of the on science fiction GRE AWA grading system, having a second pair of eyes look at your writing can be really beneficial to what finding your flaws. Essays! Plus, you receive feedback then and thesis, there, right on your face, and it is sometimes the essays on science fiction easier way to essays on ottoman historians and historiography learn. But before you let your friends or family judge your essays, you should tell them beforehand that you only had 30 minutes to write your essay, and so they should not expect you to write an award-winning piece. You should also tell them to pay attention to, and on science, then judge you on thesis, the following aspects of your essay: structure, logical flow of ideas, and persuasiveness of examples.

They should ideally not be looking for impressive words or sentence framing, but it is just an on science added bonus. If however, you are too shy to ask your friends or family, try asking an experienced professor at your college, preferably a professor in linguistics or someone who is really good at formal, written English language. These professors not only give you an accurate assessment of your essays, but will also give you valuable insights as to where exactly you can improve your writing skills. When you don’t have access any professors or wise friends who can help you evaluate your AWA essays, the best option you are left with, is you. Self-evaluation, though most of the time not recommended, can be a really useful option for you. There are hundreds of essays on ottoman, mock essays on the internet, and fiction, with a simple google search, you can get access to various essays for the college application essay the GRE. Essays On Science Fiction! Even the ETS website has a few sample answers for essays, and the same questions have sample answers which are purposefully written to mirror a 6.0, or a 5.0 level essay, for example. So, if you can compare your response with those on the internet, you can roughly estimate whether your answer is lawrence mfa creative writing tuition closer to the 4.0 or the 5.0 sample.

If you can do this a lot of times, you will begin to see a definite pattern, which can help you estimate your average AWA score. Also, most mock essays usually have an on science explanation at on ottoman historians and historiography, the end, which explain why they have been given their respective scores. This really helps you see if your essay is lacking in similar ways. This sounds rather difficult, and on science fiction, it actually a really complex and time taking process, which is why you should try and take this approach as a last measure; if you cannot find any other alternative helpful enough. If you are an internet geek, you would probably agree that sometimes, internet strangers are really helpful in on ottoman nature. There are many GRE forums like Urch, PaGaLGuY, etc, where you will find hundreds, if not thousands, of GRE experts and aspirants, who wouldn’t mind lending a hand. Essays Fiction! Thousands of GRE aspirants visit these forums every single day, and if you can post your essay and lester b. pearson essay, ask for some feedback, more often than not, someone will provide you with the necessary assistance.

While this someone may or may not be an expert, it often helps to essays on science fiction have a second opinion from sarah mfa creative tuition, someone in essays on science your niche. Alright. We’ve saved the best for the last. GMATAWA.com is probably the most fantastic resource out there, when it comes to grading your essays. It was developed to grade GMAT AWA essays, but rest assured, there’s not much difference between GMAT and GRE AWA essays. The basic structure of essays is the same everywhere, and this website is suggested really helpful in on science fiction grading your essays. The grading happens instantaneously, and as soon as you submit your essay, you will receive a composite AWA score, along with various metrics on which your essay has been graded. We, at CrunchPrep, assure you that, other than ETS Score It Now , this is probably the most accurate AWA rater you will see, and education essay, you can expect a similar AWA score on on science, your exam as well.

So, make full use of this feature, and assess your writing strengths and weaknesses. However, you should remember that the website allows you to grade only 10 essays per email address, so choose wisely which essays you will be sending. So, those are the lester five ways that you can get your AWA scores graded. Most often, more than one of the resources mentioned above will definitely be helpful to you. And even if none of them works well for you, we are here to on science help you with essay grading. Just send us an email , and we will grade your essays for free. And by the way, remember this: Only two things can make you a better writer – Practice, and Feedback. The essay graders are aware that you only get 30 minutes to write each AWA essay and suggested, they also know that you won’t be able to cover every possible argument, reason and essays, rebuttal. Education Leads To Success! Hence they do not expect you to write a super long detailed analysis of the issue or argument given to you.

Remember that most GRE test takers won’t be able to find time to cover everything they would like to cover on the test. So, how long should your AWA essay be? We see students wondering about this all the time and we know you would like to know about it too. ETS has not spoken out about the ideal length of an essay, and there is no word on the word limit as such. But there seems to be a pattern that appears on GRE sample essays that come along with the ETS official guide to the GRE. When closely observed, there is a significant increase in the number of words from a 5.0 graded essay and a 6.0 graded essay. The reality is, longer essay is usually better. On Science! To analyze further on this topic, we have done a bit of research, and found out an interesting relation between essay length and the final score. If you look at the statistics below, you will have to concur with me. longer essays usually score better on every essay topic. If you are a long-essay fan and insist to lester pen a high scoring AWA essay on essays, the GRE, you should write anywhere between 500-600 words.

Don’t ask us why. The research shows that’s how it is, and education leads essay, if it true for a sample of 500 students, it must be true on a larger scale as well. A column chart with average word count for essays from 500 students. As you can see, the longer the on science essay, the higher the grades. Notice that a 5+ point essay has length exceeding 500 words. Another interesting fact is, it seems as if 600 is an upper limit for word count. If you go beyond 600 words, you can see how the scores go down. This isn’t surprising, though.

Almost no student on this planet can write a perfect 800 word essay under pressure in thesis 30 minutes. If someone is shooting for a high word count, they are surely sacrificing on quality. So, it’s safe to say that 500-600 is what you should be looking at. If you’d like to know more about the essays GRE essay length , we’ve done a separate post on leads to success, that. Go check it out now. How can I improve my writing? The difference between a normal essay and a great essay, is the way it is fiction written. Normal essays are lifeless, and they bore readers a few lines into the story.

But on the other hand, great essays meticulously use persuasive language, and lawrence mfa creative writing, gain the fiction reader’s attention. In addition to writing compelling reasons and connecting stories, you should also include powerful vocabulary, if you want to get a perfect score. Essays On Ottoman Historians And Historiography! Since a lot of students who take the GRE are non-native speakers, they will not be able to naturally write essays that sound truly professional. So, here are some of the words and phrases you should be using when you write your AWA essays. You might have seen these words countless times in books, newspapers, or magazines. But it is on science time for you to include them in your writings, and make your essays sound professional. Supporting words – for instance, for example, to illustrate, to education leads essay demonstrate, such as, particularly, specifically, notably. Additional support moreover, furthermore, in addition, similarly, in the same way, with respect to, as well as. Putting s ame idea in on science a different way in other words, to put it simply, in view of is review, this, with this in on science fiction mind, to put it differently, that is to say. Opposing words by contrast, on the other hand, in comparison, on the contrary, instead, though, while, despite, although.

Consequential words as a result, accordingly, thereupon, thence, thus, because, for this reason, in historians and historiography effect. Time indicating words immediately, formerly, currently, meanwhile, eventually, first, second, finally, previously, henceforth, in on science due time, subsequently. Certainty words without doubt, most importantly, indubitably, undoubtedly, needless to say. Comparison words in comparison, however, likewise, even so, nevertheless, nonetheless, all the tuition same. Positive words magnificent, grandeur, magnanimous, phenomenal, marvelous, prodigious, formidable, notable, glorious, wonderful, paramount, sublime, flamboyant. Negative words unfounded, doubtful, questionable, oversimplified, problematic, unconvincing, unacceptable, biased, unreliable, defective, presumptuous, vague, unwarranted, weak.

A gainst the point of view words – one cannot deny that, to on science be fair, it could be argued that, granted, admittedly, a stark contrast, as contrasted with, on second thoughts. Concluding words in summary, consequently, hence, in closing, in on writing application conclusion, therefore, ultimately, to summarize, on fiction, the whole, for the aforementioned reasons. Ultimately, it is the content of the essay that really matters. If you are able to write an astounding essay, you really don’t need any advanced words or phrases. But since it is a herculean task for many students, especially the non-native students, to write a perfectly professional essay in under 30 minutes, it would definitely help if some of of related, these words are included. But at the same time, students should be careful enough to essays on science fiction not simply scatter these words across the essay as they please. These words and phrases should really fit in the context of the lester b. pearson essay essay, and the sentences must smoothly integrate into one another. Hence, refrain from using these words and phrases improperly, and on science, learn when and where to suggested thesis use them in your AWA essay.

So, that’s about it. We have come to an end of this epic guide to essays on science ace the analytical writing section on the GRE. We have discussed some invaluable strategies that you could use to improve your writing skills, and thereby get a perfect score on the AWA section. Alex from United States just started a trial About 2 minutes ago.

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Science fiction essays

Tips to Help You Publish Your Personal Essays. Personal essays are often written because authors have a need to answer a life question. Sometimes, though, they are written specifically for a particular market. On Science! And, either way, there is a growing market for suggested, personal essays. It is composed of literary magazines, newspapers, popular magazines, trade and professional journals, thematic anthologies with writings by selected authors and book-length collections by individual authors. Most authors of essay collections and most authors of work included in anthologies have first published their work widely in periodic publications. Essays! For instance, the 1994 essay collection Paper Trail by Michael Dorris includes essays that first appeared in a range of publications: Family Circle, TV Guide, Ladies Home Journal, Parents , the New York Times , the Los Angeles Times, Center for on writing application, Disease Control, College English, Booklist, Hungry Mind Review, and Three Penny Review among others.

Focusing on publishing essay by essays fiction, essay pays off. Concentrating on three areas helps you do this. Read publications that use personal essays to to success, get a first-hand feel for on science fiction, what editors like, where essayists are finding publishers, and how essays are used in periodic literature. Learn to use market directories available at bauld application libraries or for purchase to essays, expand your idea of the leads to success market. Create an organized, continuous submission process to keep your work in the mail to on science fiction, editors. You may want to consider building your publication credits by publishing in essays on ottoman historians local small press and specialized publications first, then in fiction regional or wider circulation ones, and lawrence mfa creative then in essays on science fiction national publications. Since well-known publications get thousands of submissions from which they must select only a very few essays, even after publishing in well-known national venues, many authors continue to publish personal essays in the smaller literary journals. Remember, the value in publishing your personal essay is in sharing your work with people who might be moved by your words and by your experience.

If you want to see your essays published without delay, you must be creative and thorough in sarah lawrence mfa creative your search for places to submit your work. The closer to home you submit your work, the more chance there is of seeing it in print. Your work may actually be of particular interest because it is locally written. Local neighborhood newspaper editors and editors of local literary journals may be more receptive to your work and more willing to fiction, offer guidance if you are a new writer. Lester Essay! Having published locally helps you introduce yourself and your work to editors of publications further from your home base. Find publications that include personal essays.

The best way to find markets for your work is to read as widely as possible, noting which publications regularly feature personal essays. Such publications range from tiny, local newsletters to large-circulation, nationally distributed magazines. Local and special interest publications. Cafes and delis in large towns and cities of all sizes have become distribution points for many free specialty publications. Every week there are new ones and better and better issues of the ones that have been out for a while. Fiction! The interest areas of these publications range widely.

They may cover the local music scene, women in local businesses, the arts, theater, drug dependency recovery, alternative health care, spirituality, retirement, raising families, being gay, motorcycling, eco-wisdom, ethnic news, RV-ing, computing, employment, vacationing and buying or renting homes. I”ve come across a free literary magazine subtitled “a journal of essays on ottoman imaginative trouble.” Each of these publications will most likely have a personal essay or two by authors whose experiences are in line with the publication”s interests. Think about the essays on science fiction life experience essays you have written and about why one or more could be of interest to the editors of one of these publications. You may get paid only in education leads essay copies, but you will get a chance to build up your publication history. Form the on science fiction habit of being continually aware of publications. For instance, when I go to my health clinic, I see an in-house magazine with the bauld personal stories of patients and their doctors. Several times a year, the alumnus magazine from the essays college I attended as an undergraduate arrives in my mailbox with personal stories by alumni and professors and students. A private high school I once taught at has personal essays among its articles and statistics in each year”s annual report. When I work out in a gym, I find industry magazines that might feature someone”s story about how exercise paid off in leads their lives. Essays! When I go to the paint store, I find little publications about home repair with do-it-yourself first-person accounts. The college that I teach at has several newsletters for staff and faculty in addition to the student published newspaper which sometimes uses work by staff and faculty.

Be sure to read editions of on writing the college essay your local town, city, and neighborhood newspapers and see if they solicit and/or publish first-person essays for their living or local scene sections. Weekly or monthly tabloid format newspapers may use personal essays for their back page. Small press literary publications. Many small press literary publications are produced by fiction, universities or by groups of writers supported by endowments and grants. Many of them are famous and long established. Some are very new.

Some are international, some national, others regional, and still others local. Lester! You will certainly want to find many samples of on science small press literary magazines. Browse them in your library, at a large bookstore or in a well-stocked newsstand. You can also find out b. pearson, about them by reading directories. Sometimes one distributor may be involved helping a number of essays on science small press publications get to market. Education Leads Essay! You may be able to essays fiction, find out the distributor”s name from a newsstand owner, and then you can talk directly to the distributor about small press titles and where to find them in your area. In addition, many of these publications have taken to advertising in magazines like Poets and Writers and the New York Times Book Review . Sometimes you will also notice ads for small press literary publications in other small press anthologies. Suggested! Don”t forget to call the English departments of essays local universities, colleges and suggested community colleges to find out if creative writing journals seeking submissions from writers are published in your area. If some of the people you know are writers, be sure to ask to see any small press publications in which they have published their work and publications to essays, which they subscribe. When I was handed a copy of the Georgia Review in which a friend of mine had published an essay, the b. pearson essay publication made a stronger impact on me than it had ever done before. Reading the published work of someone you know brings the possibility of your own publication nearer to essays fiction, home.

It can happen! The mainstream popular press. Browse through news magazines, women”s and men”s magazines, teen magazines, sports magazines, house magazines, hobby magazines, electronics magazines and so on to see if they publish personal essays from thesis, people outside their own staffs. Pay attention to the topics and experiences portrayed in these essays. How do the essays seem to fit the publication”s focus? Would one of your essays be suitable for fiction, that focus? Recently it has become possible to browse through the popular press using on-line computer services. Bauld Application! A computer user can find titles and download sample articles from the bulletin boards.

There are also services that have files from essays on science, special interest magazines, business publications, and major newspapers as well as directories of these publications. If you are online, check your electronic mail services for these electronic newsstands. It is not particularly easy to get your essays published in these national venues, but with a publication history and a close tie-in between your essay topic and the magazine”s focus, you may succeed. Essay collections. Lawrence Mfa Creative Writing! Ask booksellers to essays fiction, direct you to collections by well-known essayists. The booksellers will also know of collections of essays put together by topic. For instance, there are essay collections featuring writers on writing, writers on cross-cultural experiences, Irish writers on of related literature, the experience of being Irish, and daughters on essays on science, the experience of having literary mothers.

These books are not necessarily shelved under the subject “essays”they may be in ethnic studies or women”s studies or men”s movement literature or in the writing section or in sarah mfa creative writing tuition the travel section or even in essays on science literary criticism. Leads! Again, they will contain information about where the collected essays first appeared. University and college bookstores will have excellent collections of essays put out by the college text divisions of major publishers. These will be shelved with the essays on science texts required for students” English course work. Since professors order these books in just the right numbers for their classes, you should use the shelves for bauld, browsing and essays on science fiction then ask the bookseller to lester, order you a copy of any you might want to buy. The bookseller may be able to help you find other titles from publishers” textbook divisions. And, again, these essay collections will list where the essays they include first appeared. Many booksellers print a monthly newsletter that announces new arrivals. Sign up to receive these newsletters. Many new collections of essays are being published and advertised.

By reading the newsletters, you can add to your knowledge of fiction presses publishing personal essay collections, and, by scanning the books, you can learn more about where the authors first published their personal essays. Be sure also to scan book reviews. Small press magazines often contain reviews of anthologies or collections of b. pearson essay essays by smaller regional presses. On Science! Although you shouldn”t overlook the bauld application essay New York Review of Books and the New York Times Book Review section for reviews of collections of essays, state or special interest magazines such as Alaska Magazine and Sierra Magazine , for example, may review books of essays on science essays nor mentioned other places. Bauld The College Essay! Writers on nature and ecology, for on science fiction, example, usually write essays and more often their collections are reviewed in thesis magazines concerned with those topics.

Some presses publish a compilation of each year”s best essays. An important one is essays on science fiction The Best American Essays put out each year by Ticknor and on writing application essay Fields. Each year”s edition includes about twenty-two essays and information on where they were published that year. It also includes a list of other notable essays and where they were published as well as biographical notes on the authors published in the current edition. Those notes often include the names of essays fiction other books and presses. Another yearly anthology is is review of related literature The Pushcart Prize: Best of the Small Presses published by The Pushcart Press in Wainscott, New York. This anthology contains some essays among the creative writing it publishes.

In addition to essays on science fiction, publication information about the essays and biographical notes about the sarah tuition authors, this anthology also includes a list of all the presses featured in past The Pushcart Print Editions . Each edition has an alphabetical index by author”s last name of all works reprinted in earlier editions with notations about whether the work is nonfiction, fiction or poetry. Another collection, Creative Nonfiction is a new twice-yearly anthology from the Department of English at the University of Pittsburgh. If you look for essay collections at a library you may want to search by key word in the title or subject. Try key words like first-person writing, personal narrative, personal experience, and personal essay , in addition to essays . If your library has a directory in the reference section called Essay and General Literature Index , which was begun in 1990 and is published every two years by H.W. Wilson, you can use it to help locate places to essays, submit your essays by suggested thesis, looking up subject headings. For instance, if you look up “trees,” you will find some listings about essays concerning trees in publications you might not have heard of such as American Forests . The Reader”s Guide to Periodical Literature , also published by H.W. On Science! Wilson, is in every library”s reference section. Here, too, you can use a subject head. However, it is essays historians and historiography hard to tell an essay from an article by essays fiction, this index”s descriptions. Some libraries, especially university libraries, have special collections that are of interest to the essayist.

A university library near where I live has a Northwest Collection which features small press books and magazines from the area. Perusing these books and magazines and taking down information about the editors is useful for finding local markets. Sheila Bender is a teacher and the author of a volume of poetry entitled Love From the Coastal Route and coauthor of Writing in a Convertible With the Top Down . She lives in Seattle, Washington. Excerpted from Writing Personal Essays . Copyright 1995 by Sheila Bender. Used with permission of Writer”s Digest Books, a division of is review F#038;W Publications, Inc.

All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the essays on science publisher. 3 thoughts on “ Tips to Help You Publish Your Personal Essays ” Im no expert, but I believe you just made an excellent point. You certainly fully understand what youre speaking about, and I can truly get behind that.

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Science Fiction Essay Examples | Kibin

17 Ways to essays fiction Make Your Resume Fit on One Page. You may look at your resume and think that everything on it is too important to be left off. But let#8217;s get real. You#8217;re looking for an internship or entry-level job, which means you have just a few years experience. Essay? While we#8217;re all about making your experience relevant, there isn#8217;t a single recruiter out essays on science, there who thinks it#8217;s ok to have a resume longer than one page for an internship or entry-level job. You may have plenty of experience for your level, but you don#8217;t have that much experience. Resumes longer than a page are only appropriate for those who have been in their industry, say, 10 years. Sarah Mfa Creative Writing Tuition? So how do you cut down your resume to something readable, while still getting across how awesome you are?

These easy tips will help you easily achieve such a lofty goal. 1. Only talk about on science fiction, relevant experience. Even if you have a ton of bauld on writing application essay, internship experience, it probably doesn#8217;t all need to essays on science fiction be on your resume. Suggested? Read the job description carefully and highlight keywords and skills they#8217;re looking for. Then, look over your experiences and only include the ones that demonstrate your ability in essays on science, those areas. Writing? If you#8217;ve had similar roles at different companies, you probably had some similar tasks. That#8217;s great! It means you have lots of experience in those areas. However, recruiters do not need to read #8220;Strategized social media content for various clients#8221; or #8220;Wrote and distributed press releases#8221; two or three times.

If you had the same responsibilities at two different jobs, only mention the essays fiction one where you had the best results. 3. Leave out education to success, #8220;References available upon request.#8221; Many people will use an entire line (and probably a blank space above it) to write this phrase. If you#8217;re struggling to essays fiction fit your resume to a page, those two lines are valuable real estate. If an historians employer wants references, they#8217;ll request them. It#8217;s rare for an applicant not to have a single reference available, so don#8217;t waste precious resume space with this phrase. Many people choose to write their name across the top of their resume in 13940292 pt font. We get it it#8217;s dramatic, eye catching, etc., etc., but it#8217;s a total waste of space. It#8217;s plenty attention-grabbing to write your name in bold, maybe one or two font sizes larger than the rest of your resume.

Recruiters know they can find your name at fiction, the top of the page, so you don#8217;t need to essay make it so obvious for them. We#8217;ve heard plenty of essays on science, mixed feelings from recruiters on the objective. Some find it helpful, some say it#8217;s a waste of bauld on writing the college essay, space. We happen to side with the latter. Fiction? Let your experience show your objective. If your experience doesn#8217;t seem obviously relevant to the position, then use your bullet points to demonstrate how those roles apply. Review the job description and reshape your bullets to show your relevant skills.

Plus, your cover letter is the perfect place to elaborate on how your experience fits. A #8220;widow#8221; is one word that has it#8217;s own line. In resumes, this is often seen in the #8220;skills#8221; section, and it#8217;s a major waste of space. Try reformatting sections like that to make the most of your space. For example, write your skills on one line and separate them with dots, slashes, or lines. If you do this, however, be careful when uploading to application systems that pull the education leads to success content of essays, your resume into a text box. To Success? The system may mess up your formatting, so be sure to check it over and update it before submitting.

Very rarely is your high school going to be relevant to a position you#8217;re applying for. Unless you went to a very specialized high school, or you know that the recruiter reviewing your application also went to essays fiction your high school, there#8217;s no reason to essays historians include it. Your work experience and college education say a lot more about you than where you went to on science school when you were 16, so just leave this out. 8. Put information about each position on one line. You might like the what of related literature way your resume looks when the company, duration of your position, location, and your title each have their own line. But if it#8217;s pushing your resume over a page, it#8217;s time to move things around. Play around with ways to fit this information on one or two lines. Doing this for each of your positions will save you a ton of space.

9. Format relevant leadership experience under work experience. On Science Fiction? Having a separate #8220;leadership experience#8221; section uses more space than necessary. Evaluate your leadership and sarah lawrence tuition, see which roles are truly relevant to the position you#8217;re applying for. Fiction? Then, move the most relevant ones into your #8220;work experience#8221; section. Cutting out that header and selecting only the roles that are actually relevant will free up some room on what is review of related literature the page. It might seem scary to have tiny margins it#8217;s against on science fiction everything you learned in education leads, school but it actually makes your resume look much more impressive. Try making your margins 0.5#8243; and essays fiction, see how much space you suddenly have.

You can also play around with spacing between bullet points and sections. Single spacing your bullets but putting slightly larger spacing between sections will keep your resume readable without sucking up the space that double spacing does. Just based on the formatting which is all you see at first glance which of these is more likely to catch your eye? Spacing can make a huge difference. 11. Put your contact information on one line. The traditional address format is not your friend when putting together your resume.

Use the same trick we used earlier for essays on ottoman and historiography, putting your skills on one line, and separate your contact information using dots, slashes, or lines. Just because 12 pt font was standard for your college essays doesn#8217;t mean the same goes for your resume. Play around with 11 or 11.5 pt font instead. Fiction? You#8217;ll find that it#8217;s readable and sarah lawrence mfa creative tuition, gives you more room to play with. 13. On Science? Don#8217;t feel pressure to lester b. pearson essay put three bullets. It may look nice to have at on science, least three bullet points under each title you#8217;ve held, but it#8217;s not necessary. If you didn#8217;t have three separate and thesis, relevant roles in each position, then you don#8217;t need three bullets. If two of essays fiction, your bullet points are similar, try combining them into one line. Suggested Thesis? 14.

Use bullet points that make you stand out. Forget the bullets that everyone in that sort of role performed. Only include ones where you had great results (#8220;Increased ticket sales by 200%#8221;) or the context is impressive (#8220;Worked the door for a 500+ person event#8221;). Fiction? 15. Only mention self-explanatory awards. Having awards on your resume is nice, unless you#8217;re using up all your space explaining what they#8217;re for. If the name of an award doesn#8217;t obviously explain what it#8217;s for, and you find yourself adding bullets under it to explain, then just leave it out altogether.

16. Leave off irrelevant experience (yes, again!). Sarah Lawrence? Seriously. Essays On Science? This one is so important, it#8217;s worth repeating. If I#8217;m considering you for what literature, an editorial internship, I don#8217;t need to essays on science fiction know that you were a member of your school#8217;s ballroom dance club. Unless you can clearly show in your bullets how the experience applies to on ottoman historians and historiography the role, don#8217;t include it. 17. Submit it as a PDF unless otherwise specified. Once you#8217;ve made all these changes, save your resume as a PDF. Employers want to essays on science see PDF resumes 99% of the time, so unless the application specifically says to submit it as a Word Document, you should save it as a PDF. Nothing says #8220;careless#8221; like submitting a Word document that highlights typos, and lester b. pearson, you never know if the on science formatting will change on the recruiter#8217;s computer, making it look sloppy and possibly over one page.

Submit a PDF so you know exactly what they#8217;ll see when they open it. Remember, you can always add more to your LinkedIn to cover additional experiences. Make sure you include your custom LinkedIn link in essays historians, the contact section of your resume so employers can easily find out more about you. Fiction? About the author of this article, Christina Madsen. 2 comment on essay “ 17 Ways to Make Your Resume Fit on One Page ” My question on this is that if you aren#8217;t applying to a entry level position or an internship does the lack of introduction summary on your resume still apply?

As I am applying to different jobs and I have heard that most of the time when you write a cover letter, it gets seen by the first person to receive your application but then they discard it and fiction, just keep the resume, sometime being the person who looks at the cover letter will say, #8220;she/he meets the criteria we are looking for based our advertisement#8221; then hands it to the person without the cover letter who actually does the hiring. I am trying to get used to essay the different ways to present a resume at this moment being originally from on science, australia where some things in terms of the application process differs. Thoughts or advice? Thank you. Hi Johanna! That#8217;s a great question. Unfortunately, the suggested thesis short answer is that it#8217;s different for every company. Some recruiters love to read cover letters, others never read them. On Science? I would say that if you#8217;re trying to make your resume fit on one page and have to make a choice between including really great work experience and sarah mfa creative writing, including an objective/summary, go with the experience.

It will show why you#8217;re right for essays on science fiction, the job better than a brief summary. Again, that#8217;s a personal opinion and everyone will have a different view on thesis the matter. But go with your gut and include what you think shows that you#8217;re the essays fiction best candidate! Since forming in essays historians, 2011, FindSpark has become the largest Meetup group for interns and recent grads in the country, hosting over 250 events for more than 25,000 members.

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Fabulous Adventures In Coding Fabulous Adventures In Coding. Eric Lippert#039;s Erstwhile Blog. The standard way to teach beginner OO programmers about on science fiction, classes is to make a metaphor to the real world. And indeed, I do this all the time in this blog, usually to the animal kingdom. Literature. A class in real life codifies a commonality amongst a certain set of objects: mammals, for essays example, have many things in common; they have backbones, can grow hair, can make their own heat, and so on. A class in essays on ottoman historians, a programming language does the same thing: codifies a commonality amongst a certain set of objects via the essays mechanism of inheritance. Lester. Inheritance ensures commonalities because, as we've already discussed, inheritance by definition means all (*) the members of the essays base type are also members of the essays historians and historiography derived type.

Inheritance relationships amongst classes (**) are usually designed to model is a special kind of relationships. A giraffe is essays on science, a special kind of suggested, mammal, so the class Giraffe inherits from the class Mammal , which in turn inherits from Animal , which inherits from essays on science Object . And that's great; this clearly represents is a special kind of relationships. I have always, however, had a problem with the fundamental metaphor of inheritance. Why inheritance? You inherit genetic information, property, and if you're a titular lord, your peerage, from your parents. And if you make a diagram of historians, a class hierarchy, it looks a bit like a family tree in essays fiction, which the derived class is the child of the base parent class. And indeed, people often speak of the base class as the parent class of a child derived class, particularly when speaking to beginners. But the parent-to-child inheritance metaphor is awful . A giraffe is thesis, not a child of essays on science, mammal; a giraffe is lester b. pearson, a child of Mr. and Mrs. Giraffe.

A child is not a special kind of parent. In reality, you only inherit half your genetic makeup from each parent, and essays on science you can inherit real property from sarah any relation, or for that matter, from any non-relation. In programming languages you only inherit from related types, and essays you inherit all their members (*). Lester Essay. In reality, everyone has two parents (***), but in programming languages some languages allow inheritance from arbitrarily many parents, some allow exactly one. In reality, a single, specific person inherits specific property from a single, specific parent, and two different children can have entirely different inheritances from their parent; in programming languages, the essays on science fiction inheritance relationship does not apply to individual objects, and mfa creative every child inherits exactly the same thing from the essays parents. And in to success, reality you only inherit real property when the decedent is dead ! But wait, it gets worse. The parent-child metaphor is ambiguous in any language that supports both lexical nesting and nominal subtyping of classes: Quick, what type is the on science fiction parent of suggested thesis, type Bstring.Dint ? Is it BT or Bstring or Bint ? That type is on science fiction, lexically inside BT , logically inside of suggested, Bstring , and derived from Bint ; which of those three is its parent ? If you drew a graph showing either lexical or logical containment relationships, it would form a graph that looks every bit as much like a family tree as the graph showing inheritance relationships. And lexical containment allows access to all the properties of the container from the essays fiction contained type, even including not-inherited and normally inaccesible members like private constructors! It is suggested thesis, not at all clear that one kind of essays on science, parentage is actually more parent-like than any other.

As we've seen before, having multiple different parent relationships for a given type can make for some extremely confusing code. We have to what is review literature be extraordinarily careful when writing the specification and the compiler to on science fiction ensure that we unambiguously describe precisely the relationship we wish to sarah tuition describe. I therefore try hard to avoid parent-child metaphors entirely; it is much more clear when writing an example to on science fiction describe the type relationship as base type and derived type, rather than parent type and child type. (*) Excepting constructors and destructors. (**) I'm going to bauld on writing the college application stick to essays fiction talking about class-based inheritance here; my criticisms apply equally well to interface-based inheritance but I don't want to open the can of worms that is all the to success essay subtle differences between class and interface inheritance. And I've never much liked the inheritance metaphor on essays fiction, interfaces anyways; a contractual obligation metaphor is of related literature, better. (***) Assuming that we're talking about members of essays, a sexually reproducing species. all (*) the members of the what is review base type are also members of the derived type A giraffe (derived) is essays fiction, a mammal (base), but a mammel is not (necessarily) a giraffe. Re: you ** comment on inheritance from interfaces, this is a pet hate of leads to success, mine, a class implements the interface, it does not inherit from it. The number of times I've had to essays on science fiction explain this difference to senior devs is quite disturbing.

I think programming would be easier if the terms were all made up words – but still sounded like proper words. Having learned programming very early before I knew most of the more advanced English words, to me it seems inheritance is the perfect word for base/derived class relationships, but no so fitting for essay real life usage for exactly these reasons. Words like class or property to me are first and foremost programming terms. Perhaps we should start designing CPL, the Common Programmer's Language, which defines technical terms unambiguously (e.g. Essays Fiction. doesn't have the essay word 'dynamic'), and has a term for every single concept used by any programmer ever, so that we would be able to essays on science fiction actually speak a language without confusing metaphors or ambiguities? Nah… Nobody would use it.

Actually the thesis term 'inheritance' makes good sense, only it applies to types and not to essays on science objects! The derived itype/i B inherits all members (*) from its base type(s) Asubi/sub just as children inherit their properties from their parents, and each inherited member is essay, inherited from exactly one parent (except weird cases like virtual inheritance, where the member is inherited from essays on science one grandparent through one or more parents). Thus IMO the the college application essay ultimate cause of problems in this particular case is confusion about the type-object distinction. @Kyle members meaning methods, properties, etc. You are confusing with *instances* of the types. @Carl Sixsmith but interfaces inherit from other interfaces (that's the term used in the C# specification). While this is somewhat orthogonal to your discussion, I've always loved this essay by Kragen, which shows exactly how terrible Giraffe extends Animal can be. Quick, what type is the parent of type Bstring.Dint I don't know. Isn't that a good reason not to use this kind of design?

Even with really good names for B and essays on science fiction D, I think it would be difficult for lester b. pearson essay me to grasp what this relationship defines. Sort of like your Smart Pointers Are Too Smart example. Usage of mammals in the example may the problem here. Maybe an asexually reproducing critter would suffice for your examples. @phoog: Yes, that makes more sense then. @Jasper And then, Circle extends Ellipse has a completely different problem. (Less so for essays immutable types, but still a problem) Perhaps parent and child don't refer directly to family relationships, but are themselves computer science jargon for on ottoman and historiography nodes in a tree structure. So the on science fiction parent class is adjacent to essay the child class in the class heirarchy (tree) but it is the one closer to essays the root of the tree. I think that once people are familiar with trees, they don't really find this confusing. While I have no problem with using less loaded/ambiguous terms than parent-child, be wary of trying too hard to be correct when explaining a new concept: it's far easier to correct misunderstandings about specific behavior than to correct confusion/disgust over a far too complicated feature.

When first introducing OO (really class-based, but lets not go *there*!), the essential detail that you *need* to get across, ignoring everything about members, behavior, etc…, is the is-a relation. Using real-world examples that the student is immediately going to map to such relations, despite the fact that they don't actual match Liskov or would be data-driven in a real implementation, is far more helpful than dryly describing the properties of is-a. When the smart student then says later A-ha! But penguins can't fly!, the correct response is the real world is complicated, or So it's probably a bad idea to thesis actually have a 'Bird' base class, not to try to re-explain OO from scratch again! @Carl: Agreed. I've seen even teachers don't understand interface is just a contract declaring what services you need to implement and on science fiction nothing else. What's more? I've seen teacher who told their students to on ottoman and historiography always plan things through base classes and forget the interface too. Essays Fiction. And people wonder why others think OOP is difficult!

Of course that's 10+ years ago and let's hope things would be better now. But this mammal and giraffe metaphor is worst than most for another reason. Because it emphasizes the Giraffe IS a Mammal relationship instead of Giraffe BEHAVES AS a Mammal relationship. This is important when you reach the classical corner cases. While in classic taxonomy it makes sense for whales being mammals, in an OOP world there is no advantage in having whales are mammals instead of fishes (besides, mammal is a completely meaningless category in OOP – unless you consider Sweat() a method you can call :)). Also, classifying objects for Behaviour has the advantage of making structural patterns (adapter, composite and essays and historiography above all decorator) much easier to introduce. You might enjoy Derek Rayside's paper on Aristotle and Object-Oriented Programming. … In reality, you only inherit half your genetic makeup from essays on science fiction each parent, … Not if you are a bacteria.

Perhaps we should downgrade the essays metaphor. Actually I think using animals at essays fiction, all is a much worse sin than whether you talk about child/parent etc.. Newb programmers have most likely learnt (and understood) some basics about what programs do such as paint on screens, read from files. Then trainers and OO intro tutorials start telling tham about essays on ottoman historians and historiography, animals and shapes.. and their confidence is destroyed becuase they haven't a clue what on earth the essays point of an lester, animal class is in the context of code!! Worse still the same trainers use large unhelpful headings such as Polymorhism, Encapsulation and yes I agree Eric even the term inheritence isn't intuitive enough, at essays, least though it's a term they have heard of before and it's that scary! Time and time again new programmers at my company who have done a computer science degree just don't really get OO becuase everything they were taught was so abstract. i use a file importer program to demo OO and it makes sense to them.

it has a concrete real life feel to it. It's a complex enough problem to justify OO but not to complex that it blows their mind. Thought provoking article as always, Eric. Lawrence Writing Tuition. Great comments, also. I agree with Mike G. – I don't think the fiction animal metaphor is very good for beginners: I know it confused me in the beginning because it just did not seem to relate to programming.

I don't mind the literature parent/child terminology, because to me it reflects the tree heirarchy well and the direction of the heirarchy. On Science. For some reason, the terms less derived and more derived' are just not intuitive to suggested me and I end up translating them to is a parent and is a child in my mind. I don't agree with the fiction rant about interfaces being implemented instead of inherited. I like the word inherited for both the base class and the interfaces. The child class is inheriting the method signatures for both base classes and interfaces and inherits the type of both the base classes and interfaces. The implementation to me is separate concept.

If the base is bauld on writing application, completely abastract and virtual the the child class must implement all the methods. If a class already has all the essays on science methods in an interface then it does not have to implement anything. I think it is not the case, that you can't map mammal as parent of giraffe. Real problem is that newbs can't map abstract things which are present in programming environment to of related such relations as in animal kingdom. Fiction. Ok, mammal is quite abstract, but we have some intuition about bauld on writing application, those animal things. For those programming things we do not have any intuition at essays on science, the beginning because there are much more abstract things to grasp, so we should learn by those totally abstract concepts which are present in real software. Your latest blog posts (and possibly earlier too, haven't read enough) could easily make a beautiful book on software. Have you considered making them a book? Did you see INCEPTION before explaining inheritence…. you shouldn't.

Take an orange juice and write this article again. What I like about the animal metaphor is that it is a hierarchy that everybody can instantly understand. If one is trying to come up with an example to relate to a situation, it is trivial to come up with more examples (two classes derived from the same base — giraffe and zebra are both mammals; two classes derived from the same base but with different intermediate derivations — cat and shark are both animals, but cat is a mammal and shark is a fish). If animals aren't a good metaphor, I'd like to know what to essays on ottoman use instead. @Gabe: I think the essays fiction point is not to use an abstract metaphor at suggested, all but to essays fiction use actual real world code examples instead. A few commentors gave examples: file importing and essays on ottoman and historiography graphical example. @DRBlaise: What if you're trying to teach OOP to (junior) high school pupils, who only recently learnt about *procedural* programming?

I am the only guy in my class who knows something about programming, about essays, it works, etc. How would you try to thesis explain OOP to them, if they can't even do simple tasks like basic IO operations or drawing stuff to a form? This will never happen though, we're learning VBA and there's nothing about on science, classes (or modules) in our book, sigh… At least part of the reason that the animal metaphor has problems is that the bilogical taxonomy is essentially in a state of sarah mfa creative writing tuition, being refactored from being based on behaviour and physical characteristics to genetics. Genetically it seems there is no such thing as a fish http://www.telegraph.co.uk/…/QI-quite-interesting-facts-about-fish.html.

@Les – two examples of OOP I would use to teach students, would be games and GUI. Designing or theorizing about an essays on science, OOP game would be something students could really get into and there are all sorts of heirarchies and is a and has a relationships: characters, weapons, inventory, etc. There could even be an animals in the game and you could talk about a heirarchy of animal behaviors in the game versus how real animals are categorized. GUI design is something they can see right in application, from of them and you could talk about objects on the screen: forms, menus, borders, scroll bars, text boxes, drop downs, etc. I love your footnotes. Assuming that we're talking about essays fiction, members of thesis, a sexually reproducing species. @JK The article says Or put another way, if we go back to most recent common ancestor of everything we now call fish (including the incredibly primitive lungfish and hagfish), we find that they also were the ancestor of all four-legged land vertebrates, which obviously aren’t fish at on science, all. This is news? Hasn't this been true of reptiles and birds for ages?

Normal people don't reject paraphyletic groups. While I am a technologist by lester essay, trade, my biggest takeaway from this article is that I spent 11 minutes learning all about the Right Honorable Sir Nigel Tufnel. IMHO, implementation inheritance should almost never be used by the programmer to create a complex set of related classes – and implementation/is-a inheritance is all we get in C# and most other languages, as they lack any convenient constructs for delegation, mixins, etc. On Science. Inheritance should (and is) mainly used as a way to make a complex API more approachable by segmenting it, and lawrence mfa creative tuition enables such nicities as Intellisense – so basically it's what people use to leverage *frameworks* that are large and (hopefully) well-thought-out designs that the user accesses though the OO paradigm. Designing OOP (other than flat classes which organize an API or extend a framework class to gain behavior) should not be an everyday task for the programmer.

As OOP is just a shim (v-tables, etc.) over essays fiction procedural/control-flow languages, it's the basics that are much more important. I've always felt that OO was a solution in search of a problem. I can see that it *might* be a sensible approach for simulation and window systems (OO's roots), but I just don't see OO adding anything other than obfuscation for most programs. Most of the sarah lawrence mfa creative writing worst messes I've seen have stemmed from people trying to fiction apply OO design where it's simply inappropriate. Leads To Success Essay. And don't get me started on essays on science, patterns… Declarative languages get by just fine (let's be honest here, they get by better) with just algebraic data types and type classes (interfaces done properly). A little inaccuracy sometimes saves a ton of explanations. — Anon. 14 Feb 2012 1:29 AM. You might enjoy Derek Rayside's paper on Aristotle and Object-Oriented Programming. Interesting paper. Thanks for pointing at it.

Well *that* didn't work as expected. As mentioned, understanding the parent-child relationship works once you understand trees, but everyone has two biological parents, not just one. The employee-manager relationship might be better, but then… all analogies are flawed. As my Dad says, Don't tell me what something is writing, LIKE, tell me what it IS. My saying is Analogies are like feathers on a snake. (Useless, unhelpful…) It's an anti-analogy analogy. Although I realize that analogies and metaphors are useful teaching tools, but they only essays on science fiction, go so far. And even is a special kind of doesn't always work. Suggested Thesis. I think everyone who tried to declare class Square : Rectangle sooner or later discovered rather grave problems with such an on science, approach.

In fact, I saw in one editions of Stroustroupe's C++ Language his statement that You should neither derive Square from Rectangle nor Rectangle from Square though the what latter has some benefits. There is a conception of on science fiction, Specialization by Constraint which allows easily express Square as a descendant of Rectangle, and in fact can even be made compatible with Liskov's Substitution Principle — but only if you stop using pointers/references, and work with value types only. Bauld The College Essay. Which is, of course, not very great, after all, pointers/references is one of the essays on science fiction greatest inventions in CS.

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How bad is the loss of NSF dissertation improvement grants? Last week, NSF announced they have stopped awarding DDIGs – the on science fiction Doctoral Dissertation Improvement Grants in the divisions of Environmental Biology and Integrative Organismal Systems. How bad is this decision? In the lester essay words of Jane Lubchenco: Dissertation grants may well be the fiction best grants @NSF makes. It's sheer stupidity to zero out this program. https://t.co/ffwZzUikfa. Those are strong words, especially coming from an eminent scientific diplomat accustomed to choosing her words carefully. The Ecological Society of America has asked NSF to reconsider its decision, as have the American Society of Naturalists, Society for the Study of Evolution, and Society for Systematic Biology, in a joint statement. I think NSF is definitely taking this response from essays on ottoman our academic societies seriously, though I don’t know what the odds are that they might change course. I’ve been privy to on science fiction a range of facts and opinions about the cancellation of the DDIG program, while working at bauld La Selva Biological Station at the moment.

There are a bunch of grad students who were getting proposals together, many researchers who once had DDIGs, and fiction those like me who submitted a DDIG, didn’t get funded, but still benefited. Here’s some of the things that were brought up in conversation. Also, the comments in b. pearson essay a post from Dynamic Ecology from last week put this in perspective. Dissertation improvement grants have been important for the training of biologists. Learning how to write competitive proposals is an on science, important skill, and a legitimate external funding program is a very helpful mechanism for on ottoman and historiography training. Many doctoral programs in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology require their students to write DDIG proposals as a part of the comps/prelims to advance to candidacy. The DDIG allows graduate programs to provide training for federal grantwriting in an exercise that rises above intellectual masturbation. Instead of providing a hoop for students to jump through, they are writing a major grant for essays fiction real. In our discipline, there isn’t another kind of program that exists that could substitute for this training role to prepare students to write competitive proposals.

NSF shares this concern that this might change how doctoral programs go about what is review of related literature, training students. In DEB blog, they wrote, “we sincerely hope that graduate training programs will strive to find ways to fiction sustain that culture [of independence and risk-taking].” Submitting a full grant proposal (as opposed to a fellowship application) to sarah lawrence writing tuition a federal agency is a big deal for people new to on science fiction the game. Essays On Ottoman! The DDIG provides graduate students with an avenue of introduction to this experience, removing the activation energy for preparing future proposals beyond graduate school. While NSF doesn’t have enough money to go around, of essays, course, I’m sure they want all capable PIs to essays historians be confident and prepared in their early careers, and the DDIG review experience is important here. One friend said something like, “a DDIG is a tremendous antidote to the imposter syndrome.

At the moment when you’re deep into your dissertation and you begin to doubt whether your work is on science, good and important, you get this external validation that gets you through and launches you into your postdoc.” The money of the award itself matters, but in itself the seal of approval from the National Science Foundation is not insubstantial. I’m not sure what is more important for the recipients – the b. pearson money itself or the line on the CV. Fiction! (I just put a wacky poll on twitter about this. For a non-trivial minority of folks, the bragging rights to what is review of related having a DDIG on on science fiction, their CV is on writing application, more important than the funds. That’s because this is perceived as a sign of grantwriting chops, which is a huge criterion for job search committees. Everybody loves a winner, after all.) When NSF spends money on panels that review dissertation improvement grants, these funds are not merely wasted overhead — they have direct benefits for the students who receive reviews, even those who are not funded. Even if a grad student isn’t planning for essays on science a faculty position, grantcraft is still an important part of doctoral training. I understand it’s NSF’s job to of related fund proposals. However, please keep in mind that NSF charge includes the propagation of broader impacts, which often include the development of the essays on science fiction scientific community and training of junior scientists.

As a grad student, my DDIG proposal wasn’t funded, but the writing tuition reviews were really important, and were an important stepping stone as I was ramping up to write proposals as an assistant professor. Fiction! We can think of the cost of the reviews not as a loss, but as a positive good. Should NSF be paying for helping graduate programs train their students? Well, I think that’s the business NSF is in on writing – they’re paying for graduate training directly with GRFPs, after all. I particularly lament the essays on science loss of DDIGs because they allow graduate students to thesis chart an independent trajectory, which is important for everybody — those heading into academic careers as well as those doing other things after they graduate. If a graduate student is essays on science fiction, being funded by to success, their PI’s grants, then their work will then fall under the umbrella of the project run by the PI. On the essays other hand, if a student writes their own proposal and gets funded to improve their dissertation, they have the essay funds to gain experience and skills in on science fiction a direction that will help them as they continue their career beyond grad school. There is so much talk and concern about how students need to literature be trained for mainstream jobs outside universities (which, oddly enough, academics often call “alternative careers”). Essays On Science! DDIGs allow students a greater chance to finish their PhDs more ready for whatever they are planning. NSF has explained to us that the problem isn’t so much the cost of the grants themselves, but the cost of running the literature program.

They run four panels to evaluate the DDIGs, involving 80 panelists and a big time investment from staff. Then, when a grant is funded, that’s part of a program officer’s portfolio, and it requires reporting and oversight. The awards can be a huge boon to PhD students, but they’re very small compared to the regular awards that program officers oversee every day. With the essays fiction budget cuts at NSF, bringing in more program officers to bauld on writing the college oversee DDIGs doesn’t seem like a likely endeavor, if they’re trying to on science fiction fund projects that result in a big bang for on ottoman historians the buck. In short, while the essays fiction amount of money spent on DDIGs awards is relatively small compared to other awards, they occupy about education, as much time and effort as larger awards. If NSF wants to make the most of the time of their limited staff, are DDIGs the most efficient use of their resources? Compared to other federally supported funding agencies, NSF runs with low overhead, which is laudable. I’m okay with a little more overhead expenses to keep the essays on science fiction DDIGs.

That said, let’s keep in what is review literature mind that NSF was just compelled to make a 11% cut to its budget and clearly this is a difficult task. Essays On Science Fiction! The fat has been trimmed long ago as a result of essays on ottoman historians, budgetary stagnation, and these cuts are going into fiction, bone. Lots of other important things are being cut, too. NSF needs to continue to fund big and bold science. As our nation is continuing to disinvest from lester b. pearson scientific research and on science higher education, we would drive ourselves into irrelevance if we invest our dwindling resources into to success essay, low-risk research resulting in incremental advances. To use their buzzword, we need to continue to on science fiction pursue transformational projects.

Funding transformational research doesn’t necessarily mean that we need to pour more money into large projects run by established PIs. Essays On Ottoman! Some of our biggest groundbreaking research comes from doctoral students, and essays on science fiction it’s quite possible for NSF to fund DIGG proposals that offer a chance to thesis revolutionize how we see the world. This is a huge point that is raised by the DEB blog. I would take this point even further — that DDIGs offer an opportunity to pursue a much greater number of essays, high-risk and potentially transformative projects at is review literature relatively low cost. If NSF is serious about the mission for transformative work, then maybe investing heavier into on science fiction, low-cost awards for graduate students might reap greater rewards? Another aspect is how this relates to the long game for congressional allocation. When cut happen, it can’t look like the cuts don’t hurt. If NSF keeps funding graduate students at as they always have, then this doesn’t help send a message to leads to success Congress that cuts have consequences. Also, if the essays on science fiction small awards are maintained as the big awards are cut, then that would steadily convert NSF into an agency that funds rinky-dink awards instead of 6-figure and 7-figure awards. It’s playing ball with the Republican agenda to shrink science into irrelevance. We can’t let NSF cut back big awards to PIs but then keep funding students — in the long run that diminishes science for everybody.

We also should be asking whether the funds distributed through the DDIG program really are the cats’ pajamas. Remember that these proposals don’t make a dissertation happen — they are dissertation improvement grants. Leads To Success! As far as I know, there isn’t anybody out there who didn’t complete their dissertation because they didn’t get a DDIG. (I surely hope not, at least.) I also don’t think anybody’s dissertation sucked just because they they didn’t get a DDIG, and essays on science fiction I think a grad student would be foolhardy to plan a dissertation based on the presumption that they’ll land a DDIG. So how much can $20,000 improve a project that’s going to happen anyway? Friends pointed out and historiography, that this amount of funding often allows grad students to essays add “….and genomics” to their thesis. It allows PhD students to add a chapter or two to their dissertation, and publish one or two more papers. Thesis! This is clearly good for students, and good for science, but I honestly don’t know how much awesomeness can be added with the essays funds when the dissertation is thesis, still happening regardless.

I haven’t been on one of these panels, but I presume that awesomeness is precisely what the panel is trying to fiction maximize. Sarah Mfa Creative Writing! But on the other hand, I think PhD students are particularly efficient with how they use their research funds, and often have some of the most groundbreaking ideas, so any opportunity to give some more money to grad students might be the best use, right? It’s also possible to think this isn’t a bad call, given the budgetary circumstances. While dissertation improvement grants are going away (unless the outcry and appeals work), this doesn’t mean that NSF isn’t funding doctoral students anymore. There are still going to be funds for 1000 graduate fellowships (which, unfortunately, is fiction, half of the number we are used to). So when Lubchenco said that NSF isn’t funding dissertation “grants,” that’s technically true, but NSF still is supporting graduate dissertations in a very substantial way with their fellowships. Some other points were raised by people I’ve talked to — since there are funding cuts across other NSF programs, then protecting graduate students from cuts might not spread the pain in what is review of related literature a fair or wise manner; should we maintain funding all this research at the graduate level when it’s so difficult to on science fiction get funded once you’re done being a grad student? If NSF has some kind of parity between funding at to success the graduate level and the PI level, then cutting back on GRFPs, DDIGs, and such does make (some kind of weird) sense.

I think cutting the program’s not a good thing, but then again, I don’t have a fully clear picture of everything that happens at NSF. I’m particularly curious what people who have served as rotators at NSF think, who haven’t been involved in essays on science this decision but have more insight into what it takes to run a panel and oversee funded awards, and suggested thesis what savings are really accrued within NSF from essays on science cutting this program. What do you think? Do you think getting rid of the sarah DDIG program was a mistake? What other areas of NSF do you think might be cut? Is there an on science, angle I’ve overlooked, or do you have a different take?

Leave a Reply, Comment, Opinion, or Remark. You can leave a comment anonymously just by suggested, leaving every field blank. Cancel reply. Great Post- I saw many in the evo/eco community making some of the same points on twitter. Many said that it was the process, not the $$ that was most important.

Summarizing my thoughts responses to on science them: Perhaps this is an opportunity for a more community based program to save $$ and get even more training opportunities. Is Review Literature! If NSF gave societies a block grant and fiction the society ran the program as a community reviewing exercise? Have each applicant review 3 other proposals and then senior researchers contribute 1-2 reviews and run a virtual panel. I am increasingly convinced that we are wasting our time trying to separate the bauld essay top 10% from the top 30%, so I would advocate for setting a bar for “good proposal” and then distributing the funds through lottery (you could weight it to make sure that you are giving out awards to underrepresented groups). Great post, putting all the main discussion points in one place. Re: the long game of congressional allocation, DDIG grants seem like a small enough pot of money that continuing them shouldn’t affect NSF’s ability to fund larger awards all that much.

Hard for me to imagine even a distant future in essays on science fiction which NSF has mostly gotten out of the business of giving out larger awards for the sake of giving out what is review of related, tiny ones. Re: your wacky poll, I’d argue that any students who voted for “bragging rights” on the grounds that faculty search committees really put a lot of weight on on science, DDIG grants were mistaken to do so. Because faculty search committees don’t actually put a lot of weight on DDIG grants (https://dynamicecology.wordpress.com/2017/06/06/nsf-announces-cancellation-of-ddig-program/#comment-59184). Lester! Search committees do care about your ability to essays get (future) grants (unless the position has no research expectation, obviously). Is Review Literature! But whether or not you’ve gotten a DDIG is only one among many lines of evidence they look at when making that projection, and far from the most important one. Of course, one can imagine other reasons why some students might have voted for “bragging rights”. In case you were wondering how much of the funding directed towards grad students has come from core proposals, relative to DDIGs, here’s input from an IOS program officer: GRFP and NRT still exist…funding on PI grants still exists (and makes up 80% of the money spent on grad stu)

Workload costs $$ and the priority was to protect the core programs that fund PI led work where 80% of grad stu support goes.