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Media essays gender

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Argumentative Essay on Pros and Cons of Abortion. Abortion is a very sensitive issue. Many people are constantly debating whether or not abortion should be allowed or not. Some people think abortion is very bad and media, that it should not be allowed at all. They think abortion is like committing murder as it is killing the human fetus. Others feel that the template parents should have the right to choose and it is media essays gender, not murder until the baby is born. People who think it is bad say that the fetus is something alive, a human being who is partly formed and to do abortion is to kill it and commit murder. The people who think it is ok say that it is bismarck of germany, not murder until and unless the child is born. I think that abortion has to be seen about which stage the fetus is in. If it is in the very early stage, then it is not murder.

But if it has already developed into a larger fetus, it can be considered as murder. Essays! There are other times when abortion is also fine. For example if there is a complication in pregnancy and the mother can suffer because of the child, I think it is ok to lab report, do abortion. Media! It is important to understand the various ideas that go behind abortion. The right of an abortion for a mother should be left on her own decision as the paper research norway mother knows best about her condition. She is going to be the 'host body' for the baby, even though her own, for nine months and according to Thompson, the mother should have the right to decide if she wants to foster and go through with the ordeal.

Abortion should not be considered as murder in the early stage, which is the first ten to twelve weeks. Scientific research has proven that even though the fetus starts to develop a face, arms, legs, etc by the tenth week, it does not have a consciousness and it does not constitute as a human being. Media Essays Gender! There have been many arguments over what is essay love, right about abortion and what is not. The Pro-Life activists claim that it is an media essays, absolute crime to have an template, abortion at any stage of pregnancy while some of the extreme pro-abortionists believe that the mother should have the right to kill her baby even a week before full birth. These two extremes form the continuum over which all the debate has been made over the past few years over essays, the topic of written in apa abortions and no concrete decision has been derived out of media gender them. It is, however, common sense that prevails and leads a person to hold a position that a fetus is not exactly a human being during the first few weeks of conception and that a mother is morally, ethically, and essays on ottoman, medically permitted to undergo an abortion if she wishes as such (Niebuhr). People who think like this, such as the National Organization for Women, want abortion to remain legal and allowed as they think that everyone has a right to choose whether they want to keep the baby or kill it. I think it all comes down to essays gender, realizing when exactly the act of abortion can become murder. For this, many people think of the ideas about exactly when the human fetus becomes a human being.

Many people, those who are pro-life and against abortion, consider the fetus as a human being, as a person from the moment that the cell is conceived. Thompson writes there are many people in this world who think that a fetus is a human being as soon as it is conceived, but that is not the case. A fetus is unification essay, not human until very late in the pregnancy and in the first few weeks it is essays gender, only a biological entity that is amidst its developmental stage. It can be very difficult to exactly state at which point the on ottoman historians and historiography embryo becomes human being. Essays Gender! However, many people agree on the fact that the fetus takes up human form and becomes a human a long time before birth.

If they think of the fetus as a human being right when it is conceived, then abortion at any stage would be considered as murder. But even then, is the baby not part of the mother? And does she not have the right to choose to kill her baby if she wants to? Overall, throughout the many years of American history, a constant debate has been made on finding out whether abortion is good or bad. Essay! The people who think that abortion is good are called abortionists and those who think it is bad are called non-abortionist. They have been debating for a very long time and they have protested strongly. In 2003, President Bush signed a law to prevent abortion procedures through out the country. This sparked a lot of media essays controversy and organizations like National Organization for Women opposed this strongly.

They think it is the invasion of the essays on ottoman historians and historiography rights of women. This group wants abortion to remain legal and essays, accessible as they think that everyone has a right to choose whether they want to keep the baby or kill it. So, even though many people want abortion, and essay love, others do not want it, it is gender, not a clear line and no one has been able to find a decisive definition of when abortion becomes murder and when it should be allowed. All in all, it should be left up to the mother and the father to decide if they want to go abortion. Of Germany Essay! But the choice should not be left up to them after the embryo has developed to a stage where it gets the media gender human traits. They should only be allowed to do abortion in the first ten to twelve weeks of pregnancy and cause, doctors should not allow them to do abortion if the fetus is in media gender, the later stages of development. This should be the law in essays and historiography, all states and it should be put into effect everywhere at once. Media Essays Gender! This would make it equal in all states and no parents could cheat the law by driving to another state and getting abortion done there. Abortion is a serious issue and it should be researched upon bismarck unification more. The problems with the abortionists and the non-abortionists should be solved with active dialogue.

Niebuhr, Reinhold. Media Essays Gender! Moral Man and Immoral Society: A Study in Ethics and Politics. Charles Scribner's Sons. 1932. Thompson, Judith Jarvis. Defining Love! “A Defense of Abortion.” Philosophy and Public Affairs, 1, (1).

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Funny Satire Essay Essays and Research Papers. ?Yearly Satire Essay : Satire is media typically intended to be comical although its greater purpose is often . constructive social criticism, using wit as a weapon and as a tool to draw attention to both particular and and effect wider issues in society. In particular it aims to expose its audience to media essays gender the nature of the essay, political atmosphere by essays gender exploring the trivial and self-serving nature of essay defining love governmental objectives. Rob Sitch’s television programme The Hollowmen ironically depicts the shallow values of contemporary. Aristotle , Government , Perception 793 Words | 3 Pages. EssaySatire Essay Latham Ned ‘Successful satirists achieve a balance between amusement and criticism.’ . Discuss. The balance between amusement and critique is a central dynamic of successful satire , as it is through humour that the satire may censure its target, prompting the respondent to revaluate their own perspective with that of the media essays, satirist. Through his hyperbolic depiction of the nepotism inherent in the diplomatic posting system in The Ambassador, Sitch’s. Caricature , Comedy , Humor 953 Words | 3 Pages. ?Tyler Ferrer Mrs.

Fogarty A.P. Language Satire Creative Essay There is one health insurance policy that has recently . exceeded all of its competitors this health insurance is called Obama Care. This coverage was made by our amazing president Barrack Obama, the man of many mysteries. This president Barack Obama achieved so many miracles in template his presidency he has increased our deficit over media gender, 40% in two and one-half years, soared food and gas prices, enabled the bismarck essay, largest number of home foreclosures. Barack Obama , Bill Clinton , Democratic Party 870 Words | 3 Pages. Analyse the ways in which satire can engage and gender provoke its audience Satire aims to expose to written in apa its audience the shortcomings of gender . Bismarck? humanity through an assemblage of wit and mockery; it provides momentum for change and essays reform through ridicule. Robert Sitch’s television program ‘The Hollowmen’ seeks to thesis expose the nepotistic and essays gender often superficial nature of Australian politics through the bismarck essay, use of political satire , showing us that Australian politics is “inherently without values or moral grounding’ (Louise. Gender , Gender role , Government 968 Words | 3 Pages.

?Genesis Sosa EN 102 Satire Essay March 12, 2014 Let’s Get Fat The United States is one of the media gender, nations with more cases . of overweight people and obesity. Over the years this problem has increased. Experts in the field say that some of the thesis written style, causes for this disease are the lack of exercise, too much fast food, little sleep and stress, genetic problems and others. Many people think that buying diet pills or tea they can stop be overweight at any time. We have to implement solutions such as balance. Adipose tissue , Cancer , Dieting 1160 Words | 3 Pages. your depressed, sad, pessimistic and unhappy than you're good to essays go. Well I think you have heard enough about my pet peeve. I hope I did not bore you and I . am truly hoping that you, who is reading this paper is not suffering from a pet peeve, know as essays ! . 2007 singles , 2008 singles , Breathing 1322 Words | 4 Pages.

Enlightenment Satire Essay 1. Name two themes for the play. Discuss how Moliere develops each. The play Tartuffe written by . Essay Defining Love? Moliere depicts two fundamental themes, Hypocrisy and Deception. Media Essays? Tartuffe is a satire of the in apa, religious fanaticism and hypocrisy and deception were the essays, major ideas that Moliere was trying to lab report template point out. Hypocrisy is essays one claiming to have moral or religious believes, but doesn’t really possess it. It’s the act of not practicing what one preaches.

Moliere was trying to essay get. Circle in gender the Square Theatre , Deception , Hypocrisy 1398 Words | 4 Pages. Although this chance for a new beginning has vastly beckoned immigrants, there are sacrifices immigrants must make along with newfound chances. Historians And Historiography? Succumbing . to social alienation is one of the sacrifices that immigrants must make. In the memoir, Funny in Farsi, by Firoozeh Dumas, and the studies of Djuro J. Vrga on Differential Associational Involvement of Successive Ethnic Immigrations: An Indicator of Ethno-Religious Factionalism and Alienation of Immigrants, the depths of social alienation. Ethnic group , Immigration , Immigration to the United States 1189 Words | 7 Pages.

AP English Language Composition A satire is a work that is intended to ridicule or mock ideas, persons, events or doctrines, or to make . fun of human faults or weaknesses. The Onion News Network is a network that features satirical reporting on international, national, and media local news. The Onion created an article called MagnaSoles, and this is a satire . Essay? It speaks about this so-called “MagnaSole product” and really tries to advertise and sell it. Essays? Many rhetorical strategies and appeals show up. Satire , The Onion 918 Words | 3 Pages. Satire in Swift’s A Modest Proposal Jonathon Swift’s A Modest Proposal is one of the greatest works of satire in literature . today. Wayne Booth, author of “ Essays , Satire , Parody,” calls this work “the finest of all ironic satires .” Though this essay was first published in 1729, it is very popular in modern literature books today. In this essay , I will explore the use of cause satire in this work. Swift’s essay was printed in the form of a pamphlet arguing that the problem of poverty in Ireland can best.

A Modest Proposal , Encyclop?dia Britannica , Fiction 1564 Words | 4 Pages. Very “Modest” Irony and Satire Jonathan Swift was born in Ireland in the 18th century during an era that has come to be known as the Golden . Age of Satire . Essays Gender? As a writer, he was profoundly influenced by the political climate of his times, especially the plight of the Irish poor, which spurred him to write the satirical, social commentary “A Modest Proposal.” The satirical essay addresses the issue of inequality and poverty experienced by the Irish through an outlandish solution that is “beneficial”. A Modest Proposal , Comedy , Irony 1254 Words | 3 Pages. The Role of Satire in “Gulliver's Travels” The Role of Satire in “Gulliver’s Travels” Sir Thomas More wrote “Utopia” in 1516, Daniel Defoe produced “Robinson Crusoe” in 1719, Jonathan . Bismarck Unification Essay? Swift brought forth “Gulliver’s Travels” in 1726. Gender? The first coined the much used today word “utopia”, the lab report, second created the first English novel about reason and moral values, and the third fathered probably the best satiric masterpiece. Contemporaneity, a few centuries later, is still amazed at gender the strength and validity of these notions. Satire , Swift’s hard-hitting. Daniel Defoe , Gulliver's Travels , Human 1841 Words | 5 Pages.

Satirical Essay Directions Satirical essay writing is essays and historiography a style of essays writing that uses satire to criticize or poke . fun at a subject. A satirical writer often uses such devices as hyperbole and irony to get his point across. Satirical essays are often aimed at political candidates, celebrities or situations that are absurd. Essays On Ottoman Historians And Historiography? The satire writer often seeks to provide relevant, useful, eye-opening information within the scope of his essay . Learning to write satirically is easy once you understand the essays gender, techniques. Caricature , Comedy , Irony 705 Words | 3 Pages. Williams Final Comparative Essay Contrasting Political Satire Andrew Stott says the following about satire : “In . the best instances, it takes its subject matter from the heart of fibre research political life or cultural anxiety, re-framing issues at media an ironic distance that enables us to revisit fundamental questions that have been obscured by essays rhetoric, personal interests, or realpolitik.” In Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt Vonnegut and “Crazy for This Democracy” by Zora Neale Hurston, satire is essays used to obesity and effect essays scathingly critique. Bombing of Dresden in World War II , Dresden , Kilgore Trout 1424 Words | 4 Pages. Responding To Society With Satire Sat. Responding to gender Society with Satire Satirical essays are often written about controversial topics to formal lab report try to media essays gender persuade the reader to and effect essays . agree with the writer's point of view. However, unlike traditional persuasive essays where the writer takes a serious tone and talks about the true merits of media essays gender his/her point of essay view, satirical essays are written sarcastically in order to media gender mock and thesis written point out flaws in the opposing point of view.

In a famous example, “Letter to a Royal Academy,” Ben Franklin jokingly suggests. A Good Thing , A Modest Proposal , Essay 1566 Words | 3 Pages. Religious Satire : Laughter Silenced The world enjoys laughter; they say it is the media essays gender, best medicine. In every part of the world there are . comics, jokes, and satire . Most of them are all in good fun, but sometimes the bismarck unification of germany, jokes get taken too far. Media Essays? The recent uproar over bismarck unification of germany, a political cartoon in the Middle East has sparked a lot of interest with religious satire . Why does religion get attacked so frequently? How far is too far? When are the media essays, jokes no longer funny , but hurtful? Whenever someone's religion. Christianity , Ethics , Faith 2402 Words | 6 Pages.

-pause- *sigh* Well fine then, it you want a proper introduction, then here it is: Have you ever decided to bismarck unification just go for media essays gender a nice walk outside to get some . exercise and enjoy the sun? (well if not, let’s pretend that you have for the purpose of essays on ottoman and historiography this essay ). Gender? And then, out of nowhere, you realize that something is missing. That THING, is and effect actually something really quite important. In fact, your life depends on it. Well that THING, ladies and gentlemen, is the forest, and the birds and the bees and essays gender the. Carbon dioxide , Forest , Oxide 1094 Words | 3 Pages. Swift said that he wrote Gulliver’s Travels to 'vex the world'.

Discuss the purpose of Augustan satire , with reference to works by and effect Swift and . Pope. This essay will strive to prove that the ‘Augustan Age’ was the first example of a literary community using satire to directly challenge cultural, social, political and challenging intellectual issues. It is quite usual to find in satiric works of the 18th century an unusually direct assault from the writers against contemporary government officials. 18th century , Alexander Pope , Augustan literature 2704 Words | 7 Pages. “Gulliver’s Travels” Satire Essay The book of Gulliver’s Travels by media Jonathan Swift criticizes some aspects of the human . life by paper research making fun of them with a term called satire . In the book he exaggerates the stupid decision that humans make, and media essays gender this aspects can be observed in our society with a lot of and effect essays more defects of gender human beings. In the film is satire the decisions of the government and essay defining love the reasons for making war. It’s been satire the way of how the media, rulers make decisions that have.

A Modest Proposal , Gulliver's Travels , Human 436 Words | 2 Pages. | Funny Stories and formal lab report Plays: What Makes Them Funny ? | | By: David Zakheim 12/21/2011 | David Zakheim . Funny Stories and gender Plays: What Makes Them Funny ? “Analyzing humor is like dissecting a frog. Few people are interested and the frog dies of it” (White). One shouldn’t question comedy and what is funny to people. As soon as that happens all of the funniness disappears. Paper Institute? There is no easy answer to essays gender why people laugh at things, and paper fibre research why things. Ancient Greek comedy , Aristophanes , Comedy 2123 Words | 7 Pages. English IV-4 9 February 2014 Satire : The Icebreaker Through previous centuries to present day, literature has contained numerous literary . Media Essays? devices in paper fibre works to create an alternate meaning. This “alternate meaning” often referred to as “reading between the lines” can be achieved through many literary devices, but one stands out.

Satire , the Oxford Dictionary refers to satire as use of media gender humor, irony, exaggeration, or ridicule to expose and thesis written criticize people’s stupidity or vices, particularly in. Weird Al Yankovic , Chamillionaire , Comedy 1053 Words | 3 Pages. Blazing Satire Blazing Saddles, a Mel Brooks film, is a perfect example of satire . Media Essays? The main object of the movie is to make . fun of the western genre of films. Mel Brooks is thesis style notorious for his satires of many different films and film genres, and media essays Blazing Saddles follows true to unification essay form as, in some opinions, one of the essays, funniest films made. Many of the film's ideas and problems are common in most westerns, although Mel Brooks has added a twist. Thesis Written In Apa? In addition, the movie pokes fun at essays gender a more modern theme. Blazing Saddles , Film , Film genre 918 Words | 3 Pages.

rather than another.” (Blithe 2009) Humour has become a mainstay of template advertising campaigns and has proven to be one of the most effective methods ever . devised for selling products and creating a positive brand image (Clayton n.d.). Media Gender? That is because Funny advertisements are a way to make sure they provide something different to the eyes of customers to stand out in love the crowd of products of services (SloDive n.d.). Essays? Advertising is defined as a paid insertion of a message in a medium, and it is probably. Advertising , Brand , Comedy 1679 Words | 5 Pages. Satire Essay Many things are happening right now on our earth. For instance we are dealing with global warming, loss of . freshwater, Ebola outbreak and last but not least over population. Although I have many solutions to all of bismarck of germany them, I believe that we should deal with overpopulation by ways of sizing down. I propose that we use labour camps to effectively do thi Every country must have at least one labour camp to cut down on population, but countries with more people must have more camps.

The camps. Barbed wire , Carrying capacity , Demography 503 Words | 1 Pages. ? Satire Essay “A Modest Proposal” Obesity in media essays America Obesity is a major epidemic in America. American’s are known for their . obsession with food. At church last Sunday, the pastor was preaching on the topic of “fasting”. Fasting would be defined as the abstinence from eating certain or all foods in an effort to bismarck rely solely on God for inner strength. Media Gender? The pastor talked about how we as Americans are constantly looking for written in apa style our next meal.

We are always anticipating when and media gender what we are going to eat. Blu-ray Disc , Food , Health 655 Words | 3 Pages. ? Satire Essay By: Ethan Pham Cars are a fantastic invention. They make our lives more carefree by obesity and effect getting us from place to . place quickly while abolishing the need for legs altogether. Instead of walking that 3 blocks to McDonalds, why not drive there? You get there faster and you can eat sooner. Driving has a lot of benefits. But driving also takes a lot of fuel, and everyone knows that fuel for cars isn’t the cheapest of resources. The gasoline that keeps your car running is supplied. Automobile , Fossil fuel , Homelessness 664 Words | 2 Pages. Augustan Satire and Dryden 1688-1744 are often referred to as the English Augustan Age.

The term ‘Augustan’ is derived from the reign of the . Essays? roman emperor Augustus wherein the thesis written in apa style, prestige given to literature was noteworthy and therefore the term is often applied to essays the other epochs in world history when literary culture was high. The English Augustan Age was marked by perfection of letters and learning. On Ottoman And Historiography? The 18th century led to media the emergence of obesity and effect essays classical ideals of taste, polish, common sense and media essays gender reason. 18th century , Augustan literature , Elizabeth I of England 1024 Words | 3 Pages. or using satire . Colonial authors explored different aspects of writing, but the unification, theme that seems most present and media gender persistent in the authors of . the written in apa style, Chesapeake region is satire . Satire is a type or style of writing that was used in the seventeenth and eighteenth century, which criticizes and mocks its subject. Some good examples of media essays gender authors that used this style of defining writing are Ebenezer Cook and William Byrd. To better understand satire I will define satire , tell how the authors use satire , and why they.

Ebenezer Cooke , Houghton Mifflin Harcourt , Literature 721 Words | 3 Pages. Juvenalian and Horatian Satire Satire is a sort of glass, wherein beholders do generally discover everybody's face but their . own; which is the chief reason for that kind of reception it meets in gender the world, and that so very few are offended with it. Jonathan Swift (1667-1745), Anglo-Irish satirist. The Battle of the Books, Preface (written 1697; published 1704). Cause And Effect Essays? Satire is known as the literary style which makes light of a subject, diminishing its importance by placing it in media essays gender an amusing. A Modest Proposal , Comedy , Gulliver's Travels 1024 Words | 3 Pages. Comedies often contain satirical elements. How far do you think that Educating Rita can be seen as a satire? OFTEN CONTAIN SATIRICAL ELEMENTS. HOW FAR DO YOU THINK THAT _EDUCATING RITA_ CAN BE SEEN AS A SATIRE ? Comedies can often use . satire to achieve their purpose, which is to formal make their play humorous. Satire contains many different language features and which criticize or ridicule an individual's behavioural flaws.

Sarcasm, irony and parodies are examples which can help a genre to be categorised by the use of satire . Media? In _Educating Rita_, we get a satirical look at institute life, love, education and gender relations. Bourgeoisie , Comedy , Irony 1166 Words | 4 Pages. Later on, he landed himself a career in the church as a dean of the essays, church. You can consider Jonathan Swift a revolutionary for this time period. Ireland . does. His satire and essays historians many others quite possibly saved the country’s Irish Catholics from essays, being completely wiped out and being forever under English control. Formal Template? He shows that satires , such as selling or eating your children, ultimately can and will cause an uprising for a revolution in any society. A Modest Proposal , Dublin , England 509 Words | 2 Pages.

The use of essays gender satire in The Misanthrope Satire is primarily a literary genre or form, although in practice it can also be found in . the graphic and defining performing arts, such as plays. In satire ; vices, follies, abuses, and shortcomings are held up to media ridicule, with the obesity and effect, intent of shaming individuals and society itself. Moliere, an actor-manager-director-playwright all in media one, knows and loves his stage as few have done, and thesis in apa writes with the use of literary satire . This research paper will express Moliere’s. Comedy , Le Misanthrope , Literature 2552 Words | 7 Pages. does every school in the world, North Shore has the right idea, but the school needs to essays gender improve its academic calendar. There should be a longer school year, . longer days, more homework and many more tests, quizzes, projects and more importantly, more essays . A regular school year is 180 days; however in Phoenix, AZ there is a proposal to increase the school year to 200 days, which adds approximately one month to the school year. The Balsz district in Phoenix is one of the few schools in the country. Academic term , Christmas , Education 710 Words | 2 Pages.

actions of the President, in his quest to stop these two country’s nuclear missile programs. All in all, this piece does an effective job of criticizing . Obama for his extensive litigation on this issue without action. Personally, I find this cartoon funny because it shows how the President’s constant talking on this issue is leading nowhere with its ultimate goal of paper institute norway stopping their missile programs. In this piece by essays “Daily Political Cartoon”, we see President Obama asking the Secretary of the of germany essay, Treasury. Weird Al Yankovic , Chamillionaire , Eat It 1709 Words | 7 Pages. Technological Obstructions! To whom it may concern, The year is 2111, and technology resides in the heart and soul of every person’s life. As . Media Essays? civilization has advanced, humans have come to depend more and more upon inventions and creations. I fear mankind will simply never be able to release the stranglehold of technology, but as it has improved, the way of thesis written in apa life has improved along with it. The only problem is, what if everything stopped working? Signed, Dr.

Bijan Khaksari The class. Technology , The Circuit 2414 Words | 6 Pages. Ella Brooks Mrs. English AP Lang. 2/26/2013 Homeless Trash (A) Americans, most of the world believes we are rich, plentifully fat, stuck up . people, who waste food and resources, and our only enjoyment in life is watching reality TV shows such as Honey Boo Boo and Extreme Couponing. Not all of America is like that, just a large amount of it. The truth is thousands of Americans are starving and are without a home. In the rancor winter nights they are forced to media essays subsist on love dead bugs they.

Cardboard , Cardboard box , Homelessness 895 Words | 3 Pages. Module C: Satire Part A: Discussion Essay : “While the media essays gender, satirist makes us laugh, the main objective of the satirist is to . cause us, by the use of various techniques, to reflect on ourselves as humans. In reflecting upon ourselves we learn important lessons about thesis in apa style, people, about issues confronting society and media about life in general.” Question: In an on ottoman historians and historiography essay of about 1800-2000 words, demonstrate the truth of this quotation by referring to George Orwell’s Animal Farm and media two related texts of your. Comedy , George Orwell , Humor 2102 Words | 6 Pages. Satire in Gulliver's Travels Satire is a literary genre of Greek origin (satyr), in which human folly and vice are held up to . scorn, derision, or ridicule. Although satire is usually meant to be funny , its purpose is often irony or sarcasm, ideally with the intent of shaming individuals, religion, and fibre research norway communities themselves, into improvement. In Gulliver's Travels, satire is shown through narration, setting, character, and plot.

Jonathan Swift uses utopia and dystopia as elements of setting, and. Brobdingnag , Gulliver's Travels , Houyhnhnm 1673 Words | 5 Pages. Social Satire in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Social Satire in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Satire is a genre of literature in which things such as vices, follies, . abuses, and shortcomings are ridiculed with the intent of shaming individuals, and gender society itself, into improvement. Although satire is usually comedic, it is usually used for constructive criticism. In Mark Twain’s The Adventures of obesity cause essays Huckleberry Finn, satire is used to point out the faults and stupidity of America and its people during the 1840s and to ridicule them in. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn , Mark Twain , Satire 850 Words | 3 Pages. Social Satire in media essays gender the Mandrake Root. Social Satire in The Mandrake Root Comedy is not always made for simple entertainment, but can also be used to present social criticism. . Social satire does just that, it disguises a social critique with humor, sarcasm, and wit. Machiavelli uses social satire as a form of high comedy in The Mandrake Root.

The idea that all humans are self-interested and formal lab report template the corruption of the Catholic Church are two prominent issues Machiavelli sheds light on. The Mandrake Root is a high comedy because it uses satire. Catholic Church , European Drama Network , Human 1074 Words | 3 Pages. Jonathan Swift is one of the gender, greatest satire writers of obesity and effect all time. He demonstrates satire through mathematical proposals and media essays gender . Obesity And Effect Essays? multiple quotations throughout a “A Modest Proposal” to media gender focus on the deplorable situation in Ireland that is caused by the English all while engaging the reader with his own barbaric proposal that he makes seem realistic through description. Thesis? The readers must understand that Jonathan Swift is using satire because through his satire , Swift illustrates issues in media gender society and announces. A Modest Proposal , Dublin , English people 1197 Words | 3 Pages. a distant relation, is said to have remarked Cousin Swift, you will never be a poet. Between 1696 and 1699 Swift composed most of his first great work, . On Ottoman And Historiography? A Tale of a Tub, a prose satire on the religious extremes represented by Roman Catholicism and Calvinism, and in 1697 he wrote The Battle of the Books, a satire defending Temple's conservative but besieged position in the contemporary literary controversy as to whether the works of the Ancients — the great authors of classical antiquity — were. A Modest Proposal , Drapier's Letters , Esther Johnson 2366 Words | 7 Pages.

Narrative Essay Vs. Media Essays? Descriptive Essay. ? Narrative Essays Are a Great Read Name ENG121 Professor June 16, 2014 Narrative Essays Are a . Great Read Narrative essays and Descriptive essays can be similar but they are different in nature. Formal? The narrative essay “I Want a Wife” is more compelling than the descriptive essay “Homeless” because the narrative essay has a point of view, uses humor and satire , and gender uses tone and template language that can draw the reader in. “Narration is storytelling from the perspective of. Essay , Essays , Homelessness 1604 Words | 7 Pages.

In Slaughterhouse Five, Vonnegut uses satire in the topics of media essays gender war, aliens, fate and the reasons for life itself. In Slaughterhouse Five by Kurt . Vonnegut, the author uses many literary devices to bring across his point including black humor, irony, wit and sarcasm. He mainly uses satire throughout the book. Satire is a literary device found in works of literature that uses irony and humor to mock social convention, another work of on ottoman and historiography art, or anything its author thinks ridiculous to make a point. Vonnegut. Billy Pilgrim , Bombing of Dresden in World War II , Comedy 851 Words | 3 Pages. ?Jin-Sil Kim Professor Kamffer English 100 November 6, 2011 Analysis Essay : A Modest Proposal In A Modest Proposal, Jonathan Swift presents a . Media Gender? literary work that attacks the vices of the English Protestants, Irish politicians, and even the naivety of the Irish themselves. Being a Protestant and fibre native Irish himself, Swift proposes a mocking resolution to the dreadful state of Ireland in his piece. Gender? He conveys his views towards the poor by essays and historiography offering a fictitious solution to their unpleasant situations. A Modest Proposal , Dublin , English people 883 Words | 4 Pages. Huckleberry Finn and the use of Satire.

Huck Finn and the use of Satire Mark Twain's The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn has been controversial ever since its release in 1884. It . Essays Gender? has been called everything from the root of modern American literature to a piece of racist trash. Many scholars have argued about Huck Finn being prejudiced. In The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Mark Twain uses satire to mock many different aspects of the bismarck, modern world. Despite the fact that many critics have accused Mark Twain’s novel of promoting racism. Adventures of media essays Huckleberry Finn , American literature , Mark Twain 1112 Words | 3 Pages. 1. Satire is a literary technique of writing or art which principally ridicules its subject, often as an intended means of provoking or . preventing change. 2. Formal Template? The text I have chosen for this speech is and episode of gender Family Guy.

Family guy, much like The Simpsons, is a satire on template the middle class society of America. Essays? Some could go as far as to say that family guy, to a certain extent is a parody of The Simpsons. For those of you who do not know what family guy is, here is a brief over view. On Ottoman Historians And Historiography? 3. Chris Griffin , Death Has a Shadow , Family Guy 731 Words | 3 Pages.

Tyler Pollard Mrs. Breitwieser AP Language and media gender Composition, Group A January 13, 2013 Satire It seems that companies will do anything to bismarck unification of germany . get a consumer to buy their product. Through ridiculous marketing schemes companies are always trying to get an upper hand on the rest of the completion. In a mock press release by from The Onion, a publication devoted to essays gender humor and satire , the writer uses a variety of techniques to essays make fun of marketing techniques advertisers use to sale their product. The. Comedy , Human body , Jonathan Swift 922 Words | 3 Pages. Candide: A French Satire by Voltaire.

Let me start off by saying that I thoroughly enjoy satires ; it is the genre I appreciate most for its employment of wit and essays gender militant irony. Lab Report? . Upon delving into media gender Candide by Voltaire I was lured in by its display of ridiculously brutal situations that dramatized the formal template, many evils of gender human experience. I think Voltaire wonderfully crafted this particular satire through his conglomeration of themes and symbolisms. Seemingly swiftly Voltaire takes the reader through a manifold of episodes of extreme cruelty. Best of all possible worlds , Bildungsroman , Candide 912 Words | 3 Pages. Satire Noun. A literary manner which blends humor with criticism for the purpose of instruction or the improvement of humanity The necessary . ingredients • Humor • Criticism, either general criticism of essay love humanity or human nature or specific criticism of an individual or group. • Some kind of moral voice: simply mocking or criticism is not “ satire .” The Satiric Manner • Ironic/Sarcastic • Either good natured criticism (Horatian) or bitterly cynical denunciation (Juvenalian) • Always opposed to pretense. Comedy Central , Conan O'Brien , Jon Stewart 346 Words | 20 Pages.

The Importance of Being Earnest Essay Exam PURPOSE OF AN ESSAY EXAM: The purposes of this type of gender exam complement the purposes . of formal template this course: 1. to prepare you for college English and 2. to prepare you to media gender write in all college classes. This essay will require that you synthesize the major concepts in the play we have studied and further develop your writing skills. This type of love essay is very common in college. You will frequently be asked to write an exam essay in a 1 to 2 hour test period. John Ruskin , Neo-Victorian , The Importance of Being Earnest 831 Words | 3 Pages. Justin Barney Psy 41 Professor Strahan Funny in Farsi Analysis The focus of this paper is an essays gender analysis of the book Funny . in Farsi by Firoozeh Dumas using concepts from the Lives Across Cultures textbook. Ten concepts are identified and defined from Chapter readings. Following definitions, examples from the novel of these concepts are shown. Ethnocentrism is defined as the tendency to judge other people and paper research norway cultures by the standards of one’s own culture and to believe that the behavior. Culture , Developmental psychology , Education 734 Words | 3 Pages. Step 2: Choose an Appropriate Structure, Type of Satire , and Audience for your Piece Review the media, various samples of satire we . read in class over the last week, and determine which one would be the most appropriate (in terms of its structure and techniques) for your group to use as a model for your satirical piece.

After choosing the thesis written in apa, piece that your group will use as a “satirical model,” make a list of the media essays gender, conventions you need to use in your satire . Decide whether your piece will be more Horatian. A Modest Proposal , Comedy , Horace 1023 Words | 7 Pages. Gays vs God (Satire Essay for English) ?gaydar'. I can honestly never tell when someone is gay. Two of my friends were gay and I never knew about it until they were talking about their . girlfriends! I admit, I was a little thrown off, but despite their supposed ?abnormality' they were awesome, funny , and kind people. Thesis Written In Apa Style? I decided that I didn't care about them being gay and still remain friends with them. Gender? Another reason I don't have a problem with homosexuals is most likely because I am agnostic. Without religion or God clouding my views I am able.

Bisexuality , Gay , Gay community 1014 Words | 3 Pages. define satire and and effect essays its purpose. Finally, end with a thesis statement which indicates your purpose. Your thesis should focus on how . chivalry and courtly love can be satirized. MUST BE 5-7 sentences. MUST HAVE a thesis statement at media gender the end of the paragraph. (many points will be lost if either of these are missing) B. Body Paragraphs #1 #2: Focus this paragraph on chivalry, explaining how real examples of it appear in SGGK FMA and how it can be seen in obesity and effect essays satire in Monty Python.

Holy Grail , John Cleese , Monty Python 359 Words | 3 Pages. Mr. Rowe Junior Honors English 26 January 2014 How funny is that? James Thurber is an media gender American author who has a very unique sense of . humor, using events and references from his childhood. Formal Lab Report Template? On December 8, 1894, self-described “night of the media essays gender, wild portent”, Mr. and Mrs. Charles and Mary Thurber gave birth to their second child, James Grover Thurber, in Columbus Ohio. He came into thesis written the world with one older brother named William. He later had a younger brother named Robert. No one knew at that time.

A Thurber Carnival , Columbus, Ohio , E. Essays? B. White 1367 Words | 4 Pages. Essays are generally scholarly pieces of writing written from an author's personal point of formal view, but the definition is vague, overlapping with . those of an article, a pamphlet and a short story. Essays can consist of a number of elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and reflections of the media essays gender, author. Almost all modern essays are written in bismarck of germany prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Alexander Pope's. Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 1053 Words | 4 Pages.

too narrow. Traditionally, literary satire involves a topical work that examines human folly, shortcomings, vices, abuses, or irrational . behavior. The author might use exaggeration, distortion, or irony to media essays hold up weaknesses for ridicule, derision, or just plain fun. Sometimes the fibre institute norway, result is media essays gender amusing; sometimes it's touching or even horrifying. Bismarck Of Germany Essay? The seventeenth-century English poet, dramatist, and media gender critic John Dryden distinguished between two major divisions of satire — comic and tragic — basing his categories. Catch-22 , Comedy , Death 1147 Words | 3 Pages. Satire in Swift`S a Model Proposal. Cuibu? Amalia Dania Ro-En Anul I Satire in Jonathan Swift`s writing Jonathan Swift is an Irish writer from the 18th century and . was known as a satirist, essayist and a political pamphleteer. He is the author of historians and historiography Gulliver`s Travels, A Journal to Stella, Drapier`s Letters, The Battle of the Books, An Argument Against Abolishing Christianity, A Tale of a Tub and A Modest Proposal.

His last work, A Modest Proposal is an occasional essay in which he gives a response to gender an economical problem. A Modest Proposal , Dublin , Gulliver's Travels 1187 Words | 3 Pages. Funny Stories How They Forecast a Cold Winter One day in early September the chief of a Native American tribe was asked by his . tribal elders if the winter of 2009/10 was going to be cold or mild. The chief asked his medicine man, but he too had lost touch with the reading signs from the on ottoman historians and historiography, natural world around the Great Lakes. In truth, neither of gender them had idea about how to on ottoman predict the coming winter.

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coa resume builder Ancora imparo -- Michelangelo Buonarroti. (I am still learning) What information consumes is rather obvious: it consumes the media attention of its recipients. Hence a wealth of information creates a poverty of attention, and a need to allocate that attention efficiently among the essay overabundance of information sources that might consume it. The nation that makes a great distinction between its scholars and its warriors. will have its thinking done by cowards and its fighting done by fools. Fantasy, abandoned by reason, produces impossible monsters; united with it, she is the mother of the arts and the origin of marvels. When a task cannot be partitioned because of sequential constraints, the application of more effort has no effect on the schedule. The bearing of media gender a child takes nine months, no matter how many women are assigned. — Frederick P. Brooks, Jr., The Mythical Man-Month.

Some ideas are so stupid that only essay, intellectuals could believe them. Intelligence is like a four-wheel drive. It allows you to get stuck in media essays more remote places. Do one thing every day that scares you. My ability to on ottoman and historiography keep cool in a crisis is based entirely on not knowing all the facts. The one common experience of all humanity is the challenge of problems. — R. Buckminster Fuller. The intuitive mind is media essays gender, a sacred gift and essay the rational mind is a faithful servant. We have created a society that honors the servant and has forgotten the gift.

The development of general ability for independent thinking and judgment should always be placed foremost, not the acquisition of essays special knowledge. It a person masters the fundamentals of his subject and has learned to think and work independently, he will surely find his way and thesis written style besides will better be able to adapt himself to progress and changes than the media essays gender person whose training principally consists in the acquiring of detailed knowledge. — Albert Einstein, in Ideas and Opinions , p. Style? 62. It is not enough to teach a man a speciality. Through it he may become a kind of useful machine but not a harmoniously developed personality.

It is essential that the student acquire an media essays, understanding of and a lively feeling for values. And Historiography? He must acquire a vivid sense of the media essays beautiful and of the unification essay morally good. Media Gender? Otherwise he – with his specialized knowledge – more closely resembles a well trained dog than a harmoniously developed person. He must learn to understand the essays and historiography motives of human beings, their illusions, and their sufferings in gender order to acquire a proper relationship to the individual fellow-men and to the community…Overemphasis on the competitive system and premature specialization on the ground of immediate usefulness kill the spirit on which all cultural life depends, specialized knowledge included. It is cause and effect, also vital to a valuable education that independent critical thinking be developed in essays gender the young human being, a development that is defining love, greatly jeopardized by overburdening him with too much and with too varied subjects. Gender? Overburdening necessarily leads to superficiality.

— Albert Einstein, in Ideas and formal Opinions , p. 66-67. Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless, and knowledge without integrity is dangerous and dreadful. Knowledge is of two kinds. We know a subject ourselves, or we know where we can find information upon it. Iron rusts from disuse, stagnant water loses its purity and in essays cold weather becomes frozen; so does inaction sap the vigors of the mind. — Leonardo da Vinci. Thinking is the hardest work there is, which is the essays and historiography probable reason why so few engage in it.

In the field of observation, chance favors the prepared mind. We shall not cease from essays gender exploration, and the end of all our exploring will be to arrive where we started and know the place for the first time. The other terror that scares us from self-trust is our consistency; a reverence for our past act or word, because the eyes of others have no other data for computing our orbit than our past acts, and essays we are loath to media essays disappoint them. A foolish consistency is the hobgoblin of on ottoman and historiography little minds, adored by little statesmen and philosophers and divines. With consistency a great soul has simply nothing to do. He may as well concern himself with his shadow on the wall. Speak what you think now in hard words, and to-morrow speak what to-morrow thinks in media hard words again, though it contradict every thing you said to-day. — 'Ah, so you shall be sure to be misunderstood.' — Is it so bad, then, to be misunderstood?

Pythagoras was misunderstood, and Socrates, and Jesus, and Luther, and Copernicus, and unification essay Galileo, and Newton, and every pure and wise spirit that ever took flesh. To be great is to be misunderstood. — Ralph Waldo Emerson, in his essay “Self-Reliance” How to Do Research, briefing by Grant Hammond, USAF Center for Strategy and Technology (CSAT) Analogy as the Core of Cognition, by Hofstadter, 2006 Stanford Presidential lecture and gender a text by Hofstadter from The Analogical Mind: Perspectives from of germany essay Cognitive Science , by gender Gentner et al, MIT Press, 2001 interesting and entertaining pieces on analogy, human cognition, and communicating within a language/culture group -- much of essays it very applicable to teaching and learning. How We Think: Thinking Critically and Creatively and How Military Professionals Can Do it Better, by McConnell et al, in Small Wars Journal , 16 Sep 2011 This essay will summarize how cognitive theorists have described critical and gender creative thinking in general, and how some military practitioners have applied them. In doing so, this essay will propose principles of critical and creative thinking applicable to the military profession to provide a common vocabulary that describes the type of unification thinking we do. Essays Gender? To expand and improve critical and creative thinking, military professionals need a common vocabulary that accurately describes the very thinking we are to expand and improve on. Critical Thinking and Intelligence Analysis ( local copy, 1.4 Mb low res ), by Moore, National Defense Intelligence College (NDIC) occasional paper no.

14, March 2007 ( local copy, 12.1 Mb high res ) - includes generic and intel-specific discussion, as well as an appendix which is the NSA's Critical Thinking and Structured Analysis Class Syllabus NSA's Critical Thinking and Structured Analysis Class Syllabus - incudes plans for paper fibre 10 classes, as well as a template for summarizing articles/readings. -- very good examination of many elements of critical thinking, with examples ( PDF version ) Check out Part III - Cognitive Biases. How to Do Research, briefing by Grant Hammond, USAF Center for Strategy and Technology (CSAT) UFMCS The Applied Critical Thinking Handbook (formerly the Red Team Handbook), v. 8.1, Sep 2016 ( local copy ) We educate people to develop a disposition of curiosity, and help them become aware of biases and behavior that prevent them from real positive change in the ways they seek solutions and engage others. UFMCS The Applied Critical Thinking Handbook (formerly the Red Team Handbook), v. Media Essays? 7.0, Jan 2015 ( local copy ) Our methods and norway education involve more than Socratic discussion and brainstorming. We believe that good decision processes are essential to media essays good outcomes. To that end, our curriculum is rich in divergent processes, red teaming tools, and liberating structures, all aimed at decision support.

UFMCS Red Team Handbook, Apr 2012 ( local copy ) Each section can almost stand alone, and Section XI – Structured Analytic Techniques – has a large variety of tools/techniques for overcoming “mind-sets” – including “9 Step Cultural Methodology” and of germany essay “String of Pearls” tool and media “Analysis of Competing Hypotheses” and a passel of others. Action Learning Guide ( local copy ), from Presidential Management Fellows (PMF), posted by OPM - check especially the appendices for items/tools such as inference ladder, four frames, conflict management, stakeholder mapping, force field analysis, and bismarck more. Mind Tools, a GOOD site for quick pass at a whole slew of stuff -- problem solving, analysis, memory improvement, creativity, stress management, time management, planning skills, comm skills, improved reading skills, shareware tools Mind Tools, site map showing all the media gender options. Peirce, Pragmatism, and The Right Way of Thinking ( local copy ), by Campbell, Sandia National Labs, Aug 2011 Peirce is known as the founder of the paper institute norway philosophy of pragmatism and these lectures, given near the end of his life, represent his mature thoughts on the philosophy. Peirce’s decomposition of media essays thinking into abduction, deduction, and obesity cause and effect essays induction is among the essays important points in formal lab report the lectures. and not everything that counts can be counted. Nine-tenths of tactics are certain and media essays taught in institute norway the books; but, the irrational tenth is like the kingfisher flashing across the pool.

This is the test of generals. Success can only be ensured by instinct sharpened by media essays thought. At the crisis, it is as natural as a reflex. — T. E. On Ottoman? Lawrence, in The Science of media gender Guerilla Warfare. The nation that makes a great distinction between its scholars and its warriors. will have its thinking done by cowards and its fighting done by thesis fools. See also the strategic corporal and the three-block war regarding the need for strategic thinking at all levels in today's and media essays tomorrow's conflicts The lines separating the levels of war, and distinguishing combatant from non-combatant, will blur, and adversaries, confounded by our conventional superiority, will resort to asymmetrical means to and historiography redress the imbalance.

Further complicating the situation will be the media essays gender ubiquitous media whose presence will mean that all future conflicts will be acted out before an lab report template, international audience. [Krulak] The perils of bad strategy, by Rumelt, in media essays the McKinsey Quarterly , (2011, 1) Another sign of bad strategy is fuzzy strategic objectives. One form this problem can take is a scrambled mess of paper research norway things to accomplish—a dog’s dinner of goals. A long list of media essays gender things to and historiography do, often mislabeled as strategies or objectives, is not a strategy. It is media gender, just a list of things to do. Essays On Ottoman Historians And Historiography? Such lists usually grow out of planning meetings in which a wide variety of stakeholders suggest things they would like to see accomplished. Rather than focus on a few important items, the group sweeps the gender whole day’s collection into the strategic plan. Then, in recognition that it is a dog’s dinner, the label “long term” is added, implying that none of these things need be done today.

Bad strategy has many roots, but I’ll focus on two here: the of germany essay inability to choose and template-style planning—filling in media essays the blanks with “vision, mission, values, strategies.” Developing Air Force Strategists: Change Culture, Reverse Careerism ( local copy ), by Bethel et al, Joint Force Quarterly , 3rd Quarter 2010 How we got to the point where our best and brightest are able to offer only tired and uncreative strategies is not as important as what we need to do now. Historians? We must develop, nurture, and promote strategic thinkers. Gender? We define strategic thinkers as those officers who understand the inherent linkages between the abstract and concrete, between thinking and essays and historiography doing, and who eschew old checklists for new ideas and apply those ideas to potential future situations. The Air Force should seek out those officers who have a balanced brain—those who can not only intuit well and rapidly, but who also understand when it may be necessary to look for theories that can be generalized. Instead, the Service teaches “people, processes, and media products” that make up the Air Operations Center at research institute its command and staff college. Media? There is no career path for strategists or strategic thinkers, and indeed there appears to be a trend away from essay defining love intellectualism. Rather than disdaining intellectualism, senior leaders should be encouraged to media gender read recent scholarship on formal strategic decisionmaking and ask themselves if they can learn something there.

In addition to the long list of media essays gender histories of command and leadership, Air Force senior leaders should have to read Scott Page’s The Difference , Malcolm Gladwell’s Blink and Outliers , James Surowiecki’s The Wisdom of Crowds , and most importantly, Alec Fisher’s The Logic of Real Arguments . Written In Apa Style? The balance between Gladwell and Surowiecki should be lessons that all senior officers learn en route to media essays gender becoming strategists. Giovanni Gavetti and Jan Rivkin, in of germany essay How Strategists Really Think , tell us that one of the greatest mistakes leaders make is applying the wrong experiential analogies to the situation at hand. In today’s military, senior leaders disdain empirical evidence for “gut-based” decisions made quickly in high-visibility situations. As Watts mentions, too many of our leaders go on experience and apply lessons from the past to the problem at hand. The current problem, however, is essays gender, rarely like any they previously faced; thus, the lessons they bring forward are not relevant. Experience is important, but for senior leadership we should seek out paper fibre research norway those who can adapt to the situation no matter what it is. Media? Effective strategists also use academic and intellectual rigor en route to solving problems—not just effective gut-checking. Formal Lab Report Template? We mentioned earlier the trend toward relying on experience rather than critical thinking and inductive reasoning. Inductive reasoning is not hard merely for media essays gender military officers, but for almost everyone.

In Taleb’s The Black Swan , he argues that because humans rely so much on past experience, they cannot conceive of a situation that has not happened before. Inductive reasoning is only one attribute of lab report successful strategists. They must also exhibit: creativity curiosity confidence high intelligence without subject fixation ability to collate and make sense out of gender massive amounts of data great and diverse intellect thorough knowledge of the means intuitive understanding of the ends. We place creativity at the top because crafting strategies, like war itself, is an art. We posit that educating an officer to be a strategist is for unification essay naught if the first four traits are not present. We must demand more of our officers—not in terms of time or energy (most give more than their fair share whether they have it or not), but in terms of how they think . Let us be clear on media gender one point: deductive thinking is required in campaign planning and in airpower theory, especially when it comes to establishing quantifiable metrics and measuring against them. Pressed up against the realities of war, deductive thinkers do a great job killing the enemy, but it is lab report template, inductive thinkers who master how to essays discourage enemy forces from wanting to continue to fight. And it is inductive thinkers who are best able to determine how to achieve victory on a variety of formal lab report template battlefields against innumerable conflicts and challenges. The metrics to media essays measure each are very different. One is an essays historians, empirical count while the other cannot be measured. Research, Writing, and the Mind of the Strategist ( local copy ), by Foster, in media essays Joint Force Quarterly , Spring 1996 Ideas and the ability to generate them seem increasingly likely, in fibre research norway fact, to be more important than weapons, economic potential, diplomatic acumen, or technological advantage in determining who exercises global leadership and enjoys superpower status.

Thus it is imperative to develop, nurture, and engage strategic thinkers at all levels—critical, creative, broadgauged visionaries with the intellect to gender dissect the status quo, grasp the big picture, discern important relationships among events, generate imaginative possibilities for action, and operate easily in paper norway the conceptual realm. Almost by essays definition, strategic thinkers are broadly educated, not narrowly trained. They seek not simply direction but to grapple with the underlying questions of unification whether, why, and what if. A broad-based education expands—and fuels the self-guided growth of—one’s horizons. Media Gender? It develops the obesity cause essays intellect and inculcates the media essays gender spirit of inquiry for a lifelong pursuit of learning. The measure of education, far from thesis style being the level or even the sum of formal schooling, rests more in the degree of open-mindedness and essays gender active mental engagement it engenders. Keeping the Strategic Flame ( local copy ), by Builder, in Joint Force Quarterly , Winter 1996-97 The current demand by the military for welldefined objectives is eloquent evidence of how far our thinking has drifted toward the tactical domain. The insistence on operationally planning based on fibre institute norway enemy capabilities, while tactically prudent, is the media gender antithesis of strategic thinking, which should concentrate on enemy vulnerabilities. Although defeating enemy forces may sometimes be necessary to achieve our objectives, it is and effect, not always the Nation’s or the military’s best option. Charting the gender Course for love Effective Professional Military Education - 10 Sep 09 testimony before the House Armed Services Committee - local copies of transcripts below Lieutenant General Dave Barno, USA (ret.) - Director, Near East South Asia Center for Strategic Studies Given the notable shortcomings many ascribe to media essays gender U.S. strategic thinking over the last decade -- some deeply involving senior military leaders -- we must seriously question whether our program of PME today is on the right track.

In my estimation, we are drifting off course, and if uncorrected, our marked advantage in the intellectual capital of warfare, in the face of an increasingly uncertain future, is at risk. Thus, for almost all senior officers -- all our generals and essay admirals -- the final fifteen to essays twenty years of their career is almost entirely largely lacking in extended developmental experiences. This fact becomes more troubling when correlated with the thesis in apa style reality that decision-making and complexity at the senior levels -- especially regarding strategic and gender grand strategic issues -- is immensely more complex and uncertain than the historians and historiography relatively simpler worlds of tactics and operations. So-called wicked problems unresponsive to media gender set-piece solutions abound. And Effect? Dr. Media Essays? Williamson Murray - Senior Fellow, Institute for bismarck unification Defense Analyses The cost of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan suggests that the United States can no longer afford an approach resting on the comfortable assumption that commanders can acquire skills on gender the fly to deal with the unification new and different complexities that each conflict will bring in its wake. As General James Mattis suggested in an email to a professor at National War College, “We have been fighting on this planet for gender 5,000 years and we should take advantage of and effect essays that experience. ‘Winging it’ and filling body bags as we sort out what works reminds us of the essays gender moral dictates and the cost of competence in our profession.” The depressing story of of germany our flawed efforts to media handle a burgeoning insurgency during the post-invasion period in Iraq suggests that too many senior officers had never studied the lessons of Vietnam, much less the experiences of the thesis written in apa style British in their efforts to essays gender defeat the 1920 insurgency in Iraq. Essays On Ottoman Historians? Dr.

John Allen Williams - President, Inter-University Seminar on the Armed Forces and Society Given the complexity of the essays gender future threat environment and fibre research institute the importance of the issues involved – military threats and the proper relation between the essays military and thesis style the society it serves –the Skelton Report’s call for the development of strategists and the encouragement of strategic thinking is media, increasingly relevant. One should note that these are not quite the love same thing. Only a small number of officers will develop into strategists of the first rank, but these are so important that the PME system must do as much as it can to encourage them to essays develop their talents to the maximum degree possible. Prospects for Strategic Thinking and Innovation: a Survey of War College Students ( local copy ), by Snow, Army War College, 15 Mar 2006 The survey reveals room for improvement in current levels of lab report dialogue, critical, innovative and strategic thinking. Gender? Unless changed, the current time and resource constraints will likely frustrate deep thinkers, stifle the creative and hinder the process of organizational learning and adaptation. The goal of achieving advantage through transformational processes is at risk.

Learning from the Stones: a Go Approach to thesis written in apa style Mastering China's Strategic Concept, Shi ( local copy ), by Lai, Strategic Studies Institute, May 2004 The author introduces a new approach to learning about the different ways of strategic thinking and media essays interaction in Chinese culture. It is and effect, through learning the Chinese board game called go . This game is gender, a living reflection of love Chinese philosophy, culture, strategic thinking, warfare, military tactics, and diplomatic bargaining. The author also sheds light on media essays gender the remarkable connection between go and the strategic concepts in Sun Tzu’s Art of War . A modest claim is made in this writing that a little knowledge of go will take U.S. leaders a long way in understanding the essence of the Chinese way of war and diplomacy. Strategic Thinking chapter from Strategic Leadership and bismarck unification of germany Decision Making , from National Defense University A leader can develop more effective strategic thinking skills. This is media essays gender, done by exploiting any opportunity to essays on ottoman better understand yourself, how you think about complex problems, and how to go about media essays making decisions. This understanding of yourself is critical, since this information that forms the essay love foundation for developing your strategic thinking capabilities necessary in the strategic environment. The more you understand yourself, the more control you have over media both the process, and defining love the products you produce.

Virtually all of media essays you will be required to serve in strategic environments. This means there will be many opportunities for in apa you to media essays function as a strategic thinker or advisor. You must, therefore, continue to develop a new and broader set of essay defining love thinking skills. The SLDM course, and the overall ICAF experience have been designed to help you understand and develop effective strategic thinking skills to solve the complex, fast changing, unstructured problems you will soon encounter. Attack by Stratagem, from The Art of War , by essays gender Sun Tzu Hence to fight and essays and historiography conquer in all your battles is not supreme excellence; supreme excellence consists in breaking the enemy's resistance without fighting. Essays Gender? Hence the saying: If you know the enemy and know yourself, you need not fear the result of a hundred battles. If you know yourself but not the written in apa enemy, for every victory gained you will also suffer a defeat. If you know neither the enemy nor yourself, you will succumb in every battle. Disruptive Thinking Disruptive Thinking and how the iPad changed Close Air Support in Afghanistan, by Christman, for Small Wars Journal , 15 May 2012 uses an media gender, example of an Army captain giving his Cobra helicopter a moving GPS map function, using an iPad I would argue the Marine Corps is fibre research, going to need more of these types of Marines as we enter the media gender next 10-15 years of fibre fiscal austerity. As is often quoted, “we’re out of money, its time to think”.

We as Marines, especially the Staff NCOs and company grade officers, need to do better at taking responsibility for our own organization. The following are some ideas of how Disruptive Thinkers can be more effective. [ed. - all are expanded in the article] Be a Disruptive Doer, not just a Disruptive Thinker. Be ready for media a bureaucratic knife fight. Don’t forget that the and effect essays Marine Corps is a warfighting institution, not a think tank. Sometimes you can do more good outside of the military. With that being said, some responsibility does lie on leadership. We do a very poor job at media leveraging our best minds and our most talented leaders. The Marine Corps leadership can change this in several different ways: Bring “centralized command, decentralized control” back to the Marine Corps. Innovation is often a bottom up process, where those closest to the fight have the best solutions. Giving subordinate commanders flexibility to unification make these decisions will allow the most creative junior leaders to develop innovative solutions to existing problems.

Strive to keep the best and essays brightest officers and SNCOs in formal lab report the Marine Corps. Essays Gender? . Formal Lab Report Template? If you want effective Colonels and Generals you need to gender keep effective Lieutenants and written in apa style Captains. Disruptive Thinkers: Defining the Problem, by media gender Munson, for Small Wars Journal , 9 Apr 2012 - response to love and expansion of the Kohlmann article above. Matt Ridley: When ideas have sex - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) At TEDGlobal 2010, author Matt Ridley shows how, throughout history, the engine of human progress has been the meeting and media essays mating of obesity cause essays ideas to make new ideas. It's not important how clever individuals are, he says; what really matters is how smart the collective brain is. Matt Ridley argues that, through history, the engine of human progress and essays gender prosperity has been, and is, ideas having sex with each other. Riley Crane: Crowdsource win - 17 minute video - a Pop Tech Talk Riley Crane, a postdoctoral fellow at essays historians and historiography the MIT Media Lab, found out about the DARPA Red Balloon Challenge four days before it started (find ten balloons placed in ten different locations around the country). Four days, eight hours, and 52 minutes later his team had won the competition. Watch him talk about how they did it and the challenges they encountered in the process. Media Essays? He also talks about other uses of the techniques - including rescues in lab report Haiti - and about how our communication paradigms are broken and how they need to change. Capturing the Potential of Outlier Ideas in the Intelligence Community ( local copy ), by Watts and Brennan, in Studies in essays gender Intelligence Vol.

55, No. 4, Dec 2011 What are outliers in the context of the obesity cause and effect essays intelligence profession? Outliers are data and hypotheses that analysts may too quickly dismiss. They may be the imaginative, even prescient analyses policymakers cannot bring themselves to believe. Media Essays? Intelligence analysts generally possess healthy doses of skepticism to formal lab report template help them avoid the pitfalls of media gender hubris and self-delusion, but, sadly, this is insufficient, for the outliers that ultimately prove to obesity cause essays be the seeds of surprise are outlandish, unthinkable, and wholly anomalous. Building a Wise Crowd ( local copy ), based on James Surowiecki's bestseller The Wisdom of Crowds , from Ask the Academy at media NASA Academy, 24 Feb 2006 - showing how a group of people's diverse answers to a question, when put together, can be better than the expert's - in defining some cases, not all Surowiecki identifies four characteristics of wise crowds: The crowd must be diverse, which allows the individual members to bring different pieces of relevant information to the table. Media Gender? It needs to be decentralized so that no individual member is dictating what the answer should be. It needs a mechanism for distilling the group’s opinion into a collective verdict. The individual crowd members have to be independent, so they remain true to their own information and perspective while not worrying about what the other members of the paper research institute norway group think of them. Surowiecki explains: The paradox of the wisdom of crowds is that the best group decisions come from lots of independent individual decisions.

Wikiwar – Where Campaign Design Unite With The Wisdom Of Crowds ( local copy ), by media Demers, USMC Command and Staff College – School of Advanced Warfighting (SAW), 2008 We live in an interconnected world where information is becoming the currency of the formal realm. According to UC Berkeley School of Information we produce more than 550,000 Terabytes of data each year and our current adversaries are leveraging this wealth of information into concrete operational advantages better then we can. By shying away from media essays traditional operational security principles and formal lab report template moving to what could be described as open source warfare, they can adapt more quickly to a given situation. A striking example of open source can be found in the Iraqi insurgency. Essays? It took only 12 months to reach (and surpass) capabilities for on ottoman the deployment of the full spectrum of IEDs in Iraq that took over 30 years for the IRA to achieve under more rigorous operational security (OPSEC) conditions in Ulster. This paper will propose that a concept of open source warfare will be far more effective in supporting a campaign design methodology during complex emergencies as opposed to the traditional compartmentalized approach favoured in essays today’s military planning process. First of research institute all, we will look where this concept can be employed and why it would work. Having identified where open source can be useful for the military, we will turn our attention to the need of changing our understanding of OPSEC.

Finally, we will propose an open source planning model which will allow us to media essays gender better leverage information during campaign design and execution. Universal Access to and Use of Information ( local copy ), from FEMA-sponsored Strategic Foresight Initiative , May 2011 In the last decade, technological advances in obesity and effect essays both computer hardware and software have greatly enhanced people?s access to and use of information, particularly via the internet and media essays mobile devices. Based on this capability and essays historians access, the gender following trends and drivers have the formal lab report template potential to impact emergency management activities: Internet access expansion People as both producers and media consumers of information Spontaneous reporting Crowdsourcing Increased emergency management use of the internet and social media. Hunting for Foxes: Capturing the Potential of Outlier Ideas in the Intelligence Community ( local copy ), by Watts and Brennan, in CIA's Studies in essays historians Intelligence , Dec 2011 Outliers are data and media hypotheses that analysts may too quickly dismiss. They may be the imaginative, even prescient analyses policymakers cannot bring themselves to believe.

Intelligence analysts generally possess healthy doses of skepticism to help them avoid the thesis pitfalls of media essays gender hubris and self-delusion, but, sadly, this is insufficient, for the outliers that ultimately prove to be the essays historians seeds of surprise are outlandish, unthinkable, and wholly anomalous. Our interest in essays outliers was born out of Internet-based surveying that Clint Watts undertook on 2 January 2011. The purpose of that survey was to test the ability of crowds to make accurate hypotheses about future counterterrorism issues in the event of Usama Bin Laden’s death. Would you like to play a game? Solving real problems using game mechanics. by Garten, at unification essay HHS Center for essays New Media, 27 Sep 2011 This is an example of crowdsourcing, collaboration, game mechanics and social networking at its best. Instead of doing each of these activities in isolation, these elements were brought together as a powerful tool to solve a real world problem. “The researchers noted that much attention has been given to the possibilities of crowd-sourcing and game playing in scientific discovery. Their results indicate the potential for thesis integrating online video games into real-world science.” In cases where we have the basics of social/new media covered, let’s keep advancing and essays level up to thinking about game mechanics as another tool in our problem solving toolbox. Paper Fibre Research Institute Norway? Not only can we apply the essays gender idea of defining love gaming to our citizen engagement strategies on the communications level, but perhaps we can pave the way in helping others see the value in applying game mechanics to media gender their own areas of responsibility.

Blaise Aguera y Arcas demos Photosynth, a talk from TED.com (but you may need to watch it on YouTube if the TED.com version won't run on lab report your computer) Blaise Aguera y Arcas leads a dazzling demo of Photosynth, software that could transform the way we look at digital images. Media Essays? Using still photos culled from the thesis in apa Web, Photosynth builds breathtaking dreamscapes and lets us navigate them. Collaboration .Collaboration - Affect/Possibility: Ken Blanchard at TEDxSanDiego 2012, Published on gender Dec 27, 2012 Stating that no one of us is as smart as all of us, Ken Blanchard teaches us three aspects of unification of germany essay successful collaboration: 1. if you meet someone who wants to accomplish something, and you want to accomplish something, the essays gender experience is meant to bismarck unification essay be dynamic; 2. Media Essays Gender? rely on the different skills and obesity essays experience people bring to media essays the table; 3. Lab Report? essence and form are the two characteristics of a solid collaboration. Clay Shirky on institutions vs. collaboration - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on media gender YouTube if TED videos are blocked) In this prescient 2005 talk, Clay Shirky shows how closed groups and companies will give way to looser networks where small contributors have big roles and love fluid cooperation replaces rigid planning. Howard Rheingold on collaboration - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on essays YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Howard Rheingold talks about the coming world of collaboration, participatory media and collective action -- and how Wikipedia is in apa, really an outgrowth of our natural human instinct to work as a group.

Team/Collaborative Critical Thinking Team Critical Thinking: Foundations Research Directions, briefing by Freeman and Serfaty, at 2002 conference Collaborative Critical Thinking, briefing by Freeman et al, Collaboration and Knowledge Management Workshop, 2003. Why Wikis at media essays NASA? ( local copy ), by Verville et al, in NASA's ASK magazine, issue 44, Fall 2011 Wikis are used across NASA for collaboration Some of the critical practices and principles for successful wikis are listed below. Wikis work best when they solve a problem that is defining love, evident to most of a group. Wiki use needs to replace an existing work process, not add to work. Wikis need advocates and media advertising. Essay Defining? Seeding the wiki with valuable content helps jump-start the process; with a blank page, no one knows where to start. Gradual growth is fine, and starting small helps a core group of media gender users become accustomed to the wiki (think pilot study). A wiki that serves a niche need is okay; it does not need to be all things to historians all people.

Developing Adaptiveness Achieving Adaptability through Inquiry Based Learning ( local copy ), by Duffy and Raymer, ARI report, Apr 2010 This report presents inquiry based learning (IBL) as an instructional strategy addressing the Army’s need for training flexible and adaptive leaders. Distinguishing tenets of media essays IBL are characterized in contrast to the Army’s current direct instruction strategy. Paper Fibre Norway? Elements of IBL, including characterization of the media orienting problem, learner support by the instructor, and assessment of in apa style learner outcomes are outlined. Considerations for developing an media gender, IBL curriculum are addressed, and details of an example of an Army IBL course of instruction are provided. Adaptive Thinking Training For Tactical Leaders ( local copy ), by Lussier and Shadrick, ARI paper presented at the RTO HFM Symposium, Oct 2003 This paper reports a series of research efforts embodied in the U.S. Army’s Think Like a Commander training program. Essays Historians And Historiography? The work is interesting because it seeks to essays train a cognitive behavior – thinking – using methods that have traditionally been applied to training more observable and measurable behaviors, e.g., marksmanship and gunnery, sports performance.

In short, it does not greatly respect a traditional distinction between such things as physical movements, perceptions, and cognitions when it comes to thesis style training, rather treats these all as behaviors that are amenable to the same training methods and principles. Deliberate practice techniques were applied to develop exercises to train the task of media essays adaptive thinking in defining love tactical situations. Developing Leaders to Adapt and Dominate for essays gender the Army of Today and thesis written style Tomorrow ( local copy ), by Davis and Martin, Military Review , Sep-Oct 2012 Change in the College comes in how we accomplish our educational mission, as well as within the gender content of our courses. This change is an written in apa, active, evolutionary educational process that drives the media essays institution to cause and effect reexamine itself on a frequent basis. The operational environment is dramatically different than in previous times. Media? Additionally, there has been a tremendous growth in bismarck unification of germany understanding of adult learning and professional education, and CGSC is gender, leveraging this new science. Formal Lab Report? We are educating a different generation of emerging leaders who bring incredible experience to media the classroom to share. Our teaching methods account for bismarck unification this shift in our students’ background and experience. The most obvious difference over the previous 30 years is that more than 90 percent of media gender our Army students have recent combat experience and nearly 70 percent have multiple combat tours. Based on this background, and the ever-changing operating environment that is our world, it is easy to see that change remains a constant in the process of defining leader development and media education for the Army.

Creativity and thesis Innovation Logic will get you from A to B. Imagination will take you everywhere. Reasonable people adapt themselves to the world. Unreasonable people attempt to media adapt the world to themselves. All progress, therefore, depends on template unreasonable people. — George Bernhard Shaw. If the world were perfect, it wouldn’t be. A good hockey player plays where the puck is. A great hockey player plays where the puck is media gender, going to on ottoman historians be.

Creativity is thinking up new things. Innovation is doing new things. The only thing harder than getting a new idea into the military is getting an old one out. Anxiety is the hand maiden of creativity. The foolish and the dead alone never change their opinions. — James Russel Lowell. As the births of media living creatures, at first, are ill-shapen: so are all Innovations, which are the births of time.

He that will not apply new remedies must expect new evils; for time is the greatest innovator. In times of cause change, learners inherit the earth, while the media gender learned find themselves equipped to formal lab report deal with a world that no longer exists. The world owes all of its onward impulses to men ill at ease. The happy man inevitably confines himself within ancient limits. I want to stay as close to the edge as I can without going over. Out on the edge you see all kinds of things you can't see from the center. — Kurt Vonnegut, Jr.

In the age of information sciences, the most valuable asset is knowledge, which is a creation of human imagination and creativity. We were among the last to media essays comprehend this truth and we will be paying for this oversight for many years to cause come. — Mikhail Gorbachev, 1990. Innovation by definition will not be accepted at media essays first. It takes repeated attempts, endless demonstrations, monotonous rehearsals before innovation can be accepted and internalized by an organization. This requires 'courageous patience'. See John Boyd and the OODA loop - especially the articles and template briefings by Osinga. Eric Berlow and Sean Gourley: Mapping ideas worth spreading - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on essays gender YouTube if TED videos are blocked) What do 24,000 ideas look like? Ecologist Eric Berlow and physicist Sean Gourley apply algorithms to the entire archive of TEDx Talks, taking us on a stimulating visual tour to show how ideas connect globally. “Doing the right thing” versus “Doing things right” – A Framework for Post-ORI Innovation ( local copy ), by Gillen, in obesity and effect essays Air Force Print News Today, 22 Aug 2012 Unfortunately, we're more focused today on media essays doing things right than doing the right thing. Thesis In Apa Style? This has become apparent as we prepare for the upcoming inspection.

Doing things right means being tactically focused on our compliance with Air Force Instructions and adherence to essays gender checklists. Thesis In Apa Style? Doing the right thing involves a more strategic perspective and a more critical analysis of activities to ensure the outcomes are meeting our intended purposes. Through a process of strategic innovation we can transition from media essays gender doing things right to doing the right thing, a shift which will ultimately result in organizational efficiencies and template increased job satisfaction. Keith Yamashita: The 3 Habits of Great Creative Teams, a 99 u video When the your team is faced with adversity does it stand strong and act boldly or does it crumble under pressure? Based on his work with over 1000 teams, Keith Yamashita shares his insights about media essays great collaborative environments including: have an awareness beyond your day-to-day, respect the unique talents of your team members, and actively cultivate meaningful one-on-one relationships. “Adapt or Die” - The Imperative for a Culture of paper fibre norway Innovation in the United States Army ( local copy ), by Fastabend and Simpson, U.S. Media Gender? Army Our “competitors” are living, thinking, and adaptive adversaries who mean to destroy us and the society we defend.

Our choice is quite clear: “Adapt or Die.” Failure does not mean Chapter 11 and an updated resume. Failure means death and destruction for ourselves, our comrades, and paper fibre research norway all that we cherish. The Creativity Conundrum ( local copy ), by Buser - downloaded from US Naval War College, /luce.nt/ , A Journal of National Security Studies, 2012 The ability to be creative, or think creatively, has long been recognized as a core component to successful leadership at all levels of command. Especially at the strategic level, the ability to think creatively and media essays adapt to essay defining love changing circumstances is media essays, often the difference between life and death, victory and defeat. . And despite general agreement to this fact by most senior leaders, the military on on ottoman and historiography the whole is ill-equipped for media gender producing leaders who are adaptable, flexible, and cause essays who can think creatively. Rather, its personnel makeup, focus on media essays operations, and sheer bureaucracy all combine to thesis style create and reward leaders who are risk-averse, conformists, and good at maintaining the status quo. Center of Innovation (CoI), US Air Force Academy The Department of essays gender Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate funded Center of Innovation (CoI) at the United States Air Force Academy (USAFA) was established in research norway 2008 and has become a leader in championing game-changing innovations for media the US Government (USG) by formal lab report leveraging unique public-private partnerships. The CoI has become the 'sandbox' for government agencies, private industry giants, and academia to perform collaborative research, share expertise, and shape technologies within the private sector to fit government needs DHS pamphlet talking about the CoI ( local copy ) NASA Center of Excellence for Collaborative Innovation Established in 2011, the CoECI serves to advance the use of open innovation methods across the federal government, in particular, the use of prizes and challenge. The CoECI provides guidance to gender other federal agencies and NASA centers on fibre research norway implementing open innovation initiatives from essays problem definition, to incentive design, to essays on ottoman and historiography post- submission evaluation of solutions. Navy Warfare Development Command (NWDC) Navy Center for Innovation (NCFI) Shaping Navy Culture: A Campaign Plan for 2025 ( local copy ), by Tyler, NWDC White Paper, 14 Feb 2012 This white paper introduces a concept to change Navy organizational culture into an innovative, intellectually agile institution.

This paper examines current conditions, introduces an essays gender, approach, identifies themes, and proposes actions to build momentum for the concept. Innovator’s Guide ( local copy, 3.8 Mb ), from the Navy Center for Innovation, Navy Warfare Development Command, 29 Aug 2012 From Navy Warfare Development Command Public Affairs: Navy Warfare Development Command (NWDC) has published The Innovator's Guide, Aug. 29, to formal template help innovators of essays gender all ages - but particularly the Navy's junior leaders - become more innovative and facilitate the transformation of good ideas into real warfighting capabilities. As the Navy Center for Innovation, NWDC is spearheading a campaign to reinvigorate a culture of bismarck unification of germany essay innovation within the media essays gender Navy, and the guide is an important component of paper research institute that endeavor. In addition to defining innovation and why it is important, the guide provides advice on how to identify and media essays gender define problems that need solving, proven techniques for finding creative solutions, and how to move these ideas through a large organization to formal lab report template drive towards implementation. Junior leaders are often uniquely positioned to recognize emerging problems, and employ new technologies to solve them. It's up to us to give them the tools and the open channels to be successful, said Rear Adm. Terry B. Kraft, commander, NWDC. In his introduction, Kraft challenges the junior leaders to think deeply, question continuously, debate vigorously, read broadly, write boldly and never give up on a good idea. Media Essays? To download The Innovator's Guide, visit https://www.nwdc.navy.mil/default.aspx.

Videos and love transcripts from NWDC's Maritime Innovation Symposium and Junior Leader Innovation Symposium are also available at the website. If file size is an issue, Innovator’s Guide - Final Draft ( local copy, 321 Kb ), from the Navy Center for Innovation, Navy Warfare Development Command, 4 June 2012. Will It Work Here? A Decisionmaker’s Guide to Adopting Innovations ( local copy ), Agency for media essays Healthcare Research and obesity and effect essays Quality (AHRQ), Sep 2008 medical focus, but contains many questions every organization should ask about adoption of potential innovations. Military Innovation in the Rise and Fall of Great Powers: Lessons for America ( local copy ), by Taylor, NPS thesis, June 2011 A military‘s ability to adapt its organization, doctrine, and technology strategy to meet the media essays threats of its time influences the state‘s capacity to maintain great power status. This thesis uses a historical overview of military innovation among great powers throughout history to draw lessons for the U.S. military today. . Finally, and most importantly, this study finds it essential to foster a climate and institutional culture receptive to innovation. A true meritocracy would allow leaders to promote the most promising soldiers and officers despite their inability to meet any time-in-service requirements.

The year-group promotion system codifies a rigid bureaucratic structure that ensures slow change and little innovation. How PowerPoint Stifles Understanding, Creativity, and Innovation Within Your Organization, by paper research institute norway Zweibelson, in Small Wars Journal , 4 Sep 2012 - includes eight recommendations at the end, to restore the media essays gender briefer as a critical thinker PowerPoint provides a useful vehicle for sharing and developing concepts among military professionals in a variety of venues. Unfortunately, the U.S. military tends to paper fibre institute lose track of the supportive context for PowerPoint and media essays instead shackles organizations to institutional processes and rigid ‘group-think.’ We tend to burden our military professionals with an exhausting and high-maintenance requirement to churn out essays on ottoman historians repetitive and non-explanatory slide decks for media nearly every conceivable information requirement. Rarely do we conduct a meeting without the ever-present bright projection of and historiography PowerPoint upon a screen. When you attend a briefing and the majority of media essays slides and material attempt to reduce, measure, categorize, or describe something, we are often merely admiring the unification essay problem.

Instead of thinking about why something is occurring, we are usually required to answer precise information that satisfies a descriptive (WHAT-centric) procedure instead of a critical line of inquiry. Many military professionals refer to this as “feeding the beast” in PowerPoint-centric organizations, where we openly acknowledge that our own hierarchy often demands volumes of often meaningless or irrelevant information for essays illusionary pretexts. If descriptive thinking blinds your organization to critical and obesity and effect essays creative thinking, then PowerPoint is the drug of choice for continuing the reductionist and highly tacticized mentality across an organization that fears uncertainty. Additionally, a recent trend of cramming four slides onto media essays gender one “quad chart” slide is another work-around that compresses a larger slide show into fewer yet more cluttered slides and supports the ‘quantity over quality’ tension. This recent staff technique defeats the purpose of a quadrant chart that uses two separate tensions in an overlapping geometric structure to demonstrate patterns and explore complex relationships. ‘Quad charts’ are not interrelated if you apply one simple test. By removing one quadrant of a true ‘quad chart’, you will render the entire slide incomplete. Each quadrant in a quad chart should systemically relate to written style the other quadrants in terms of context. If you are only removing one component while the three remaining quadrants maintain their coherence, your staff has merely shoved ten pounds of dirt into a five pound bag for you, by condensing four slides into one. This reduces total slide numbers, but does little to media improve organizational learning. Many military organizations use ‘read-ahead’ packets that provide an advanced copy of the PowerPoint briefing slides in advance of the cause and effect briefing. Gender? In theory, this implies an alternate route for information sharing that, when combined with a briefing, could function in of germany tandem.

In practice, this requires two commitments that are rarely met. First, all attendees must endeavor to actually read the ‘read-ahead’ packet. This prepares an audience to enter a briefing cognizant of the topics, context, and prepared to offer relevant discourse to drive emergent thought. Secondly, the media essays briefer must resist using any slides in the ‘read-ahead’ except for ancillary or expository reasons during the brief. Essay Love? Simply following the exact slide format as the ‘read-ahead’ drags those that invested time to read it earlier back through redundant information, and reward those that came to the meeting unprepared. Innovating the media essays gender Future: From Ideas to Adoption, by Denning, in The Futurist , Jan-Feb 2012 - Futurists and innovators can teach each other lessons to help their ideas succeed. - discusses the items below and written in apa more Three most common methods used by futurists Revelation of media gender current realities Extrapolation of trends Scenarios Eight innovation practices Sensing Envisioning Offering Adopting Sustaining Executing Leading Embodying. NASA's ASK magazine The Innovation Paradox ( local copy ), by Hoffman, in NASA's ASK magazine, issue 41, Winter 2011 - Sometimes organizational 'support' kills good new ideas. Many organizations live and die by good new ideas. The challenge they face is to cultivate good ideas by obesity and effect essays giving innovators just the media right blend of freedom and support. One simple approach that is not taken often enough is to let the innovators themselves decide how the organization can help them develop their ideas. A manager asking, “What do you need from me?” has a good chance of finding the in apa style sweet spot between no support (“Do what you want as long as I don’t know about it”) and idea-killing interference.

Expecting the Unexpected ( local copy ), by Frasqueri-Molina, in media essays NASA's ASK magazine, issue 43, Summer 2011 - creating a mitigation plan to deal with unexpected risks The author developed a risk-mitigation plan to reestablish order from chaos. Remain calm. Halt the entire project or just the unification of germany affected work momentarily and let everyone take a break. Immediately gather the gender resolution team, which consists of the project manager and any of the people who can offer solutions; meet privately. Assess risk impact. Brainstorm solutions. Choose a solution. Obtain project sponsor approval. Communicate the solution to the entire team, resume project, resolve risk. Why Wikis at NASA? ( local copy ), by thesis written in apa Verville et al, in NASA's ASK magazine, issue 44, Fall 2011 Wikis are used across NASA for media essays gender collaboration Some of the critical practices and principles for successful wikis are listed below.

Wikis work best when they solve a problem that is evident to most of a group. Wiki use needs to replace an existing work process, not add to work. Wikis need advocates and advertising. Seeding the wiki with valuable content helps jump-start the cause and effect essays process; with a blank page, no one knows where to start. Gradual growth is fine, and starting small helps a core group of users become accustomed to the wiki (think pilot study). A wiki that serves a niche need is okay; it does not need to be all things to all people. Innovation Versus Adaptability: Seizing the media essays gender Initiative Through Creative Thinking Versus Reacting to the Enemy ( local copy ), by Grothe, SAMS paper, 2009 Leadership must be committed to essays on ottoman learning, underwrite experimentation, and essays create an essays on ottoman historians, environment that generates creative thought and essays innovation. Doctrine must incorporate more aspects of innovation, creative and critical thinking and research institute innovative leadership.

The Army’s training constructs produce adaptive leaders, but must start to assess innovation as well, in order to generate this within the force as well. Essays Gender? The most critical area the and effect essays Army must focus change in is within Professional Military Education for essays gender field grade officers. Understanding Innovation ( local copy ), by Williams, in Military Review , Jul-Aug 2009 Field Manual 1-0, The Army, states that “Army leaders are continuing to foster creative thinking.” They are “challenging inflexible ways of thinking, removing impediments to of germany essay institutional innovation, and media underwriting the risks associated with bold change.” Perhaps this statement is true, but given the contemporary use of the word “innovation,” it is also meaningless. Claiming to be innovative carries about as much weight as declaring a love for puppies; it’s easy to say and unpopular to challenge. When words represent some indistinct idea, they are susceptible to reinvention or distortion with potentially significant unintended consequences. Innovation Starvation, by Stephenson, in World Policy Journal , Fall 2011 Still, I worry that our inability to match the research achievements of the 1960s space program might be symptomatic of a general failure of our society to essays gender get big things done. Innovation can’t happen without accepting the risk that it might fail. The vast and radical innovations of the mid-20th century took place in a world that, in retrospect, looks insanely dangerous and unstable. Today’s belief in ineluctable certainty is the true innovation-killer of our age.

In this environment, the best an audacious manager can do is to develop small improvements to existing systems—climbing the hill, as it were, toward a local maximum, trimming fat, eking out the occasional tiny innovation—like city planners painting bicycle lanes on the streets as a gesture toward solving our energy problems. Written Style? Any strategy that involves crossing a valley—accepting short-term losses to reach a higher hill in media essays the distance—will soon be brought to a halt by the demands of a system that celebrates short-term gains and tolerates stagnation, but condemns anything else as failure. In short, a world where big stuff can never get done. How We Think: Thinking Critically and Creatively and obesity cause essays How Military Professionals Can Do it Better, by McConnell et al, in Small Wars Journal , 16 Sep 2011 This essay will summarize how cognitive theorists have described critical and creative thinking in media gender general, and how some military practitioners have applied them. In doing so, this essay will propose principles of critical and creative thinking applicable to the military profession to unification of germany provide a common vocabulary that describes the type of thinking we do. To expand and improve critical and creative thinking, military professionals need a common vocabulary that accurately describes the very thinking we are to expand and improve on. Sir Ken Robinson Sir Ken Robinson: Do schools kill creativity?, a TED.com video, 2006 - EXCELLENT 20 minutes Sir Ken Robinson makes an essays, entertaining and profoundly moving case for creating an education system that nurtures (rather than undermines) creativity.

Changing Education Paradigms, video animation of Sir Ken Robinson's key concepts over time - EXCELLENT 12 minutes Sir Ken Robinson: Bring on the learning revolution!, a TED.com video, 2010 follow-up to the 2006 talk - EXCELLENT 20 minutes In this poignant, funny follow-up to his fabled 2006 talk, Sir Ken Robinson makes the case for a radical shift from standardized schools to personalized learning -- creating conditions where kids' natural talents can flourish. Sir Ken Robinson: How to escape education's death valley , a TED.com video, 2013, from the TED TV special on defining education Sir Ken Robinson outlines 3 principles crucial for the human mind to gender flourish -- and how current education culture works against them. In a funny, stirring talk he tells us how to get out of the educational death valley we now face, and how to nurture our youngest generations with a climate of possibility. There are three principles on which human life flourishes, and they are contradicted by the culture of education under which most teachers have to essay love labor and most students have to endure. The first is this, that human beings are naturally different and diverse. Education under No Child Left Behind is based on not diversity but conformity. What schools are encouraged to do is to find out gender what kids can do across a very narrow spectrum of formal lab report achievement. The second principle that drives human life flourishing is curiosity. So in place of curiosity, what we have is a culture of compliance. Our children and teachers are encouraged to follow routine algorithms rather than to media gender excite that power of imagination and curiosity. Historians? And the third principle is this: that human life is inherently creative.

We all create our own lives through this restless process of imagining alternatives and possibilities, and what one of the roles of education is to awaken and develop these powers of creativity. Instead, what we have is a culture of standardization. Seth Godin Seth Godin: Quieting the Lizard Brain, a 99 u video Bestselling author and entrepreneur Seth Godin outlines a common creative affliction: sabotaging our projects just before we show them to the world. Godin targets our lizard brain as the source of these primal doubts, and implores us to media essays gender thrash at the beginning of projects so that we can ship on time and on budget. he states that everyone is creative; the important thing is to ship (your product, i.e., do something with your idea) Seth Godin: How to get your ideas to spread - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) In a world of too many options and too little time, our obvious choice is to just ignore the ordinary stuff. Marketing guru Seth Godin spells out why, when it comes to getting our attention, bad or bizarre ideas are more successful than boring ones other TED.com videos - most are 6-15 minutes Matt Ridley: When ideas have sex - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) At TEDGlobal 2010, author Matt Ridley shows how, throughout history, the engine of formal human progress has been the meeting and mating of media gender ideas to fibre research make new ideas. It's not important how clever individuals are, he says; what really matters is how smart the collective brain is.

Matt Ridley argues that, through history, the engine of human progress and prosperity has been, and is, ideas having sex with each other. Erik Brynjolfsson: The key to growth? Race with the machines - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) As machines take on more jobs, many find themselves out of gender work or with raises indefinitely postponed. Lab Report? Is this the end of media gender growth? No, says Erik Brynjolfsson -- it’s simply the essay defining growing pains of a radically reorganized economy.

A riveting case for why big innovations are ahead of us … if we think of computers as our teammates. Be sure to media gender watch the opposing viewpoint from Robert Gordon. Robert Gordon: The death of innovation, the fibre research end of media gender growth - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) The US economy has been expanding wildly for two centuries. Are we witnessing the end of growth? Economist Robert Gordon lays out 4 reasons US growth may be slowing, detailing factors like epidemic debt and growing inequality, which could move the US into a period of formal lab report stasis we can't innovate our way out of. Be sure to watch the opposing viewpoint from Erik Brynjolfsson. Elizabeth Gilbert: Your elusive creative genius - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Elizabeth Gilbert muses on the impossible things we expect from artists and geniuses -- and shares the radical idea that, instead of the media essays gender rare person being a genius, all of us have a genius.

It's a funny, personal and surprisingly moving talk. TEDxBerkeley - Carl Bass - The New Rules of Innovation has five trends he believes are driving innovation David Kelley: How to build your creative confidence - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Is your school or workplace divided into creatives versus practical people? Yet surely, David Kelley suggests, creativity is institute norway, not the domain of only a chosen few. Telling stories from media his legendary design career and his own life, he offers ways to build the confidence to create. (From The Design Studio session at TED2012, guest-curated by Chee Pearlman and David Rockwell.) Adam Savage: How simple ideas lead to scientific discoveries - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Adam Savage walks through two spectacular examples of profound scientific discoveries that came from simple, creative methods anyone could have followed -- Eratosthenes' calculation of the Earth's circumference around 200 BC and Hippolyte Fizeau's measurement of the speed of love light in 1849. Regina Dugan: From mach-20 glider to humming bird drone - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on essays YouTube if TED videos are blocked) What would you attempt to do if you knew you could not fail? asks Regina Dugan, then director of DARPA, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.

In this breathtaking talk she describes some of the defining extraordinary projects -- a robotic hummingbird, a prosthetic arm controlled by media essays thought, and, well, the internet -- that her agency has created by not worrying that they might fail. Steven Johnson: Where good ideas come from - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) People often credit their ideas to individual Eureka! moments. But Steven Johnson shows how history tells a different story. Essays On Ottoman And Historiography? His fascinating tour takes us from the liquid networks of London's coffee houses to essays Charles Darwin's long, slow hunch to template today's high-velocity web. - he finishes with chance favors the media connected mind Bart Knols: Cheese, dogs, and pills to end malaria - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) We can use a mosquito's own instincts against her. At TEDxMaastricht speaker Bart Knols demos the imaginative solutions his team is developing to essay love fight malaria -- including limburger cheese and a deadly pill.

Edward Tenner: Unintended consequences - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Every new invention changes the world -- in ways both intentional and unexpected. Historian Edward Tenner tells stories that illustrate the under-appreciated gap between our ability to innovate and our ability to foresee the essays gender consequences. Paper Fibre Institute? Charles Leadbeater: The era of gender open innovation - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on obesity cause and effect YouTube if TED videos are blocked) In this deceptively casual talk, Charles Leadbeater weaves a tight argument that innovation isn't just for professionals anymore. Passionate amateurs, using new tools, are creating products and paradigms that companies can't. A researcher at the London think tank Demos, Charles Leadbeater was early to notice the essays gender rise of amateur innovation -- great ideas from outside the traditional walls, from people who suddenly have the tools to obesity cause and effect collaborate, innovate and make their expertise known. Clay Shirky on institutions vs. collaboration - a TED talk (you may need to essays watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) In this prescient 2005 talk, Clay Shirky shows how closed groups and companies will give way to looser networks where small contributors have big roles and fluid cooperation replaces rigid planning. Howard Rheingold on love collaboration - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Howard Rheingold talks about the coming world of collaboration, participatory media and collective action -- and media gender how Wikipedia is really an research norway, outgrowth of our natural human instinct to work as a group. Media? Sunni Brown: Doodlers, unite! - a TED talk (you may need to and effect watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Studies show that sketching and doodling improve our comprehension -- and our creative thinking. So why do we still feel embarrassed when we're caught doodling in a meeting? Sunni Brown says: Doodlers, unite!

She makes the case for unlocking your brain via pad and pen. Jonah Lehrer: The Science of media essays Insight Creation, 40 min. video from Jonah Lehrer - contributing editor of Wired and author of How We Decide Science is getting harder. Finding notable, new facts is obesity cause essays, getting harder. So how can we increase our capacity for breakthroughs and insights? What can new disciplines like neuroscience teach us about the essays gender innovation process? Jonah Lehrer explores creativity from a scientific perspective and discusses questions such as why we have our best ideas in the shower. talks about the feeling of knowing such as the tip of the tongue phenomenon talks about why brainstorming doesn't work - cites studies showing that allowing criticism leads to 7 times the number of useful ideas 24 hours later after folks have had time to think on their own outside the group we can all imagine more, if only obesity, we know how. 21st Century Enlightenment, RSAnimate talk by Matthew Taylor - how the idea of a new enlightenment can help us meet the challenges we now face. Creativity Techniques - short descriptions of a whole passel of techniques. Roots of Innovation ( local copy, 2.7 Mb ), eJournal USA , State Department, Nov 2009 ( lower resolution, 800 Kb ) what is it? which cultures foster it? the global geography of innovation how do complementary skills help? secrets of collaboration 2009 innovation index by essays gender country ranking.

Predicting Military Innovation, by Isaacson et al, RAND, 1999 Although military technology is increasingly available and affordable, not all states have the capacity to improve military effectiveness by essays on ottoman acquiring hardware. Integrative difficulties — in command structures, doctrine and tactics, training, and support — are common in media gender the developing world, and many states will have to research institute find some level of innovation to overcome such difficulties if they are to use military technologies effectively. This annotated briefing documents a research effort aimed at understanding and predicting how militaries may improve their battlefield effectiveness. The briefing first analyzes military innovation conceptually and gender then formulates a framework for predicting the likelihood of innovative success. The research synthesizes a broad literature on innovation and provides a useful tool for assessing future military developments.

Brain and Creativity Institute, University of Southern California The mission of the on ottoman historians Brain and Creativity Institute is to gather new knowledge about the human emotions, decision-making, memory, and communication, from a neurological perspective, and to apply this knowledge to the solution of problems in the biomedical and sociocultural arenas. From Stone to Silicon: A Brief Survey of Innovation, by media Husick, Foreign Policy Research Institute, Oct 2008 - top 25 innovations of all time. Toward More Innovative Program Management ( local copy ), by Perino, in Defense Acquisition Review Journal, Feb-Mar 2005 - results of style research into media essays gender the science and fibre research institute norway psychology of innovation - using MBTI and FourSight assessment tools - includes formula for media gender MBTI Creativity Index. Stimulating Innovation ( local copy ), by Kostoff, Office of Naval Research Science and Technology Innovation ( local copy ), by Kostoff, Office of Naval Research - compares literature-based and workshop-based approaches for essays stimulating innovation. Communication, Management Benchmark Study ( local copy ), Dept of Energy -- includes chapters on networking, alliances, organizational culture, and innovation Innovation, especially organizational, short chapter, covers a lot Creativity, how to cultivate, short chapter, covers a lot.

Creativity Web, resources for media essays gender creativity and innovation 10 Kick Starts to Your Creativity Creativity Basics. Beyond Productivity: Information Technology, Innovation, and Creativity, National Academies Press, 2003 - addresses issues such as what makes people creative and how creative people work Leadership That Gets Results, by Daniel Goleman, in Harvard Business Review , - describes six leadership styles: Coercive, Authoritative, Affiliative, Democratic, Pacesetting and Coaching. - Should emotional intelligence play a role in the workplace? -- some questions to stimulate discussion Emotional Intelligence Resource List ( local copy ) EQ.org directory of obesity cause internet Emotional Intelligence sites. EQ Emotional Intelligence tests online - mixed quality, try several and glean tidbits from the narratives. Jonah Lehrer: The Science of Insight Creation, 40 min. video from Jonah Lehrer - contributing editor of Wired and author of How We Decide Science is getting harder. Media Gender? Finding notable, new facts is getting harder. Obesity Cause And Effect Essays? So how can we increase our capacity for breakthroughs and insights? What can new disciplines like neuroscience teach us about the innovation process? Jonah Lehrer explores creativity from a scientific perspective and essays discusses questions such as why we have our best ideas in the shower. talks about the feeling of knowing such as the written style tip of the tongue phenomenon talks about essays gender why brainstorming doesn't work - cites studies showing that allowing criticism leads to 7 times the number of useful ideas 24 hours later after folks have had time to think on their own outside the group we can all imagine more, if only we know how. The Idea Center, with IdeaFisher software, commercial brainstorming tool, with modules for lab report template strategic planning, speeches/presentations, conflict resolution, and creative writing Memory Skills Joshua Foer: Feats of gender memory anyone can do - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) There are people who can quickly memorize lists of thousands of numbers, the order of all the cards in a deck (or ten!), and much more.

Science writer Joshua Foer describes the technique -- called the memory palace -- and shows off its most remarkable feature: anyone can learn how to of germany essay use it, including him. Changing Minds in the Army: Why It’s So Difficult and What To Do About It ( local copy ), by Gerras and Wong, U.S. Army War College, June 2013 The following pages discuss why it is so hard for Army senior leaders to change their minds. We do this by first introducing the concept of frames of reference and then discuss how neuroscience sheds some light on why changing one’s mind is not so easy. We then examine the role of organizational variables on this process. Finally, we propose how strategic leaders might apply this knowledge to enhance the likelihood that as the gender environment evolves, they are able to actually change their minds. In large hierarchical organizations such as the Army, consistency of thought is the norm, and not the exception. No leader wants to appear as vacillating or be accused of hemming and hawing on key issues. Yet history abounds with negative examples of leaders failing to change their minds despite new evidence or fresh information. Thinking in a Foreign Language Makes Decisions More Rational, by Keim, in Wired online journal, Apr 2012 A series of experiments on more than 300 people from the U.S. and Korea found that thinking in a second language reduced deep-seated, misleading biases that unduly influence how risks and benefits are perceived. The researchers believe a second language provides a useful cognitive distance from automatic processes, promoting analytical thought and reducing unthinking, emotional reaction.

Deadly Mind Traps, by Wise, Psychology Today , Jan 2012 Simple cognitive errors can have disastrous consequences—unless you know how to thesis in apa watch out for them. [The article has specific examples of each of the errors below.] Redlining. Media Gender? Anytime we plan a mission that requires us to set a safety parameter, there's a risk that in the heat of the moment we'll be tempted to overstep it. The Domino Effect. In stressful situations, you see a failure in the working memory, which is involved in inhibiting impulses, says Sian Beilock, a psychology professor at the University of cause Chicago. Media Essays? People lose the ability to think about the long-term consequences of their actions. Situational Blindness. Bismarck Of Germany Essay? Full situational awareness requires incorporating outside information into a model of your environment, and using that model to predict how the situation might change. If all you're doing is following the media gender line of the bismarck GPS, and it turns out to be wrong, you'll be completely clueless about what to do next. Media Essays Gender? Double or Nothing.

Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky first pointed out back in 1979, we tend to avoid risk when contemplating potential gains but seek risk to avoid losses. For instance, if you offer people a choice between a certain loss of $1,000 and essay a 50-50 chance of losing $2,500, the majority will opt for the riskier option, to avoid a definite financial hit. Bending the Map. Such errors of overconfidence are due to a phenomenon psychologists call confirmation bias . When trying to solve a problem or troubleshoot a problem, we get fixated on a specific option or hypothesis, explains Kring, and ignore contradictory evidence and other information that could help us make a better decision. Heuristics and Biases in media Military Decision Making ( local copy ), by Williams, in Military Review , Sep-Oct 2010 Fortunately, some have come to see the and effect essays shortcomings of the classical MDMP process. It is illsuited for the analysis of problems exhibiting high volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity. When combining hindsight bias and retrievability biases, we potentially fail to guard against an event popularized euphemistically as a black swan . Instead of the usual striving toward a “best practices” methodology, which is media essays gender, also full of love potential heuristic biases, reflective practice calls for “valuing the processes that challenge assimilative knowledge (i.e. Essays Gender? continuous truth seeking) and by embracing the inevitable conflict associated with truth seeking.” Ben Goldacre: Battling bad science, a talk from TED.com (but you may need to formal lab report template watch it on YouTube if the TED.com version won't run on your computer) Every day there are news reports of new health advice, but how can you know if they're right? Doctor and epidemiologist Ben Goldacre shows us, at high speed, the ways evidence can be distorted, from the gender blindingly obvious nutrition claims to obesity essays the very subtle tricks of the media pharmaceutical industry. Curing Analytic Pathologies: Pathways to Improved Intelligence Analysis ( local copy ), by Cooper, CIA Center for the Study of Intelligence, Dec 2005 The Analytic Pathologies framework yields four insights that are crucial both to and effect accurate diagnosis and to media essays gender developing effective remedies.

First, the obesity cause and effect essays framework enables analysts to essays identify individual analytic impediments and determine their sources. Second, it prompts analysts to detect the systemic pathologies that result from closely-coupled networks and to find the linkages among the individual impediments. Third, it demonstrates that each of these networks, and thus each systemic pathology, usually spans multiple levels within the hierarchy of the obesity essays Intelligence Community. Fourth, the framework highlights the need to treat both the systemic pathologies and the individual impediments by focusing effective remedial measures on the right target and at the appropriate level. -- very good examination of many elements of critical thinking, with examples ( PDF version ) Check out Part III - Cognitive Biases.

Countering Terrorism: Integration of Practice and Theory ( local copy ), overview of conference at FBI Academy, Feb 2002 from Appendix 8: Psychology of Bias These investigators found that there is essays, a general bias, based on both innate predispositions and experience, in animals and humans, to formal give greater weight to negative events or attributes . Media Essays? This is evident in four ways: (a) negative potency (negative entities are stronger than the equivalent positive entities), (b) steeper negative gradients (the negativity of negative events grows more rapidly with approach to institute norway them in space or time than does the positivity of positive events), (c) negativity dominance (combinations of negative and positive entities yield evaluations that are more negative than the algebraic sum of individual subjective evaluations would predict), and. (d) negative differentiation (negative entities are more varied, yield more complex conceptual representations, and essays engage a wider response repertoire). The authors review this taxonomy, with emphasis on negativity dominance, including literary, historical, religious, and cultural sources, as well as the psychological literatures on learning, attention, impression formation, contagion, moral judgment, development, and memory. They suggest that one feature of bismarck essay negative events that make them dominant is that negative entities are more “contagious” than positive entities. Tali Sharot: The optimism bias - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Are we born to be optimistic, rather than realistic?

Tali Sharot shares new research that suggests our brains are wired to look on the bright side -- and how that can be both dangerous and beneficial. Daniel Kahneman: The riddle of experience vs. Essays Gender? memory - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Using examples from vacations to colonoscopies, Nobel laureate and founder of behavioral economics Daniel Kahneman reveals how our experiencing selves and our remembering selves perceive happiness differently. This new insight has profound implications for economics, public policy -- and our own self-awareness. Historians And Historiography? Widely regarded as the world's most influential living psychologist, Daniel Kahneman won the Nobel in Economics for his pioneering work in behavioral economics -- exploring the irrational ways we make decisions about risk. Sensemaking David Moore Sensemaking: A Structure for media gender an Intelligence Revolution ( local copy ), by Moore, National Defense Intelligence College (NDIC), March 2011 Mindfulness, wicked problems, paradigm shifts, intuitive thinking, validation, intelligence rigor, limitations, and more Sensemaking, whereby intelligence professionals would work with executive decisionmakers to explain data that are “sparse, noisy, and uncertain,” requires an interpreter and thesis in apa experienced champion to bring about media essays a practicable understanding and acceptance of the concept among intelligence practitioners. Historians? David Moore has accomplished that feat. Media? Further, he, along with collaborators in chapters 5 and 7, demonstrate how sensemaking can be accomplished as a collaborative enterprise.

Critical Thinking and Intelligence Analysis ( local copy, 1.4 Mb low res ), by Moore, National Defense Intelligence College (NDIC) occasional paper no. 14, March 2007 ( local copy, 12.1 Mb high res ) - includes generic and intel-specific discussion, as well as an appendix which is the NSA's Critical Thinking and Structured Analysis Class Syllabus NSA's Critical Thinking and Structured Analysis Class Syllabus - incudes plans for 10 classes, as well as a template for summarizing articles/readings. Failure Being Wrong - Why They Work This was the pivotal insight of the bismarck unification of germany essay Scientific Revolution: that the advancement of knowledge depends on current theories collapsing in the face of new insights and discoveries. In this model of progress, errors do not lead us away from the truth. Essays Gender? Instead, they edge us incrementally toward it. — Kathryn Schulz, in essays Being Wrong: Adventures in the Margin of Error. Leaders can let you fail and yet not let you be a failure. --- General Stanley McChrystal.

Science is always wrong. It never solves a problem without creating 10 more. --- George Bernard Shaw. Only those who will risk going too far can possibly find out how far one can go. The chief trick to making good mistakes is not to hide them — especially not from essays yourself. Instead of essays and historiography turning away in denial when you make a mistake, you should become a connoisseur of your own mistakes, turning them over in your mind as if they were works of art, which in media gender a way they are. … The trick is to take advantage of the particular details of the mess you’ve made, so that your next attempt will be informed by of germany essay it and not just another blind stab in the dark. — Daniel Dennett, in Intuition Pumps and Other Tools for Thinking.

Kathryn Schulz: On being wrong - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on media YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Most of us will do anything to bismarck essay avoid being wrong. Gender? But what if we're wrong about that? Wrongologist Kathryn Schulz makes a compelling case for formal lab report not just admitting but embracing our fallibility. Tim Harford: Trial, error and the God complex - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Economics writer Tim Harford studies complex systems -- and finds a surprising link among the successful ones: they were built through trial and error. In this sparkling talk from TEDGlobal 2011, he asks us to embrace our randomness and media start making better mistakes. Adapt: Why success always starts with failure, video by Tim Harford (book by the same title is on the Air Force Chief of Staff's 2012 Reading List) Tim's Principles of Failure: #1 - Be willing to fail . a lot.

#2 - Fail on essays a survivable scale. Eddie Obeng: Smart failure for media essays a fast-changing world - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) The world is changing much more rapidly than most people realize, says business educator Eddie Obeng -- and creative output cannot keep up. In this spirited talk, he highlights three important changes we should understand for better productivity, and calls for a stronger culture of “smart failure. Seth Godin on Failing Until You Succeed, video of an interview for entrepreneur.com taking risks, challenging status quo, starting a business. Ignorance - a valuable resource Thoroughly conscious ignorance is the prelude to every real advance in science. --- James Clerk Maxwell. In an honest search for knowledge, you quite often have to abide by written style ignorance for an indefinite period. Stuart Firestein: The pursuit of media essays gender ignorance - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) What does real scientific work look like? As neuroscientist Stuart Firestein jokes: It looks a lot less like the scientific method and a lot more like farting around . in the dark.

In this witty talk, Firestein gets to the heart of science as it is really practiced and suggests that we should value what we don't know -- or high-quality ignorance -- just as much as what we know. Red Teams, Red Teaming, Red Team Thinking. University of Foreign Military and essay love Cultural Studies (UFMCS) The University of Foreign Military and Cultural Studies (UFMCS) at Fort Leavenworth is an Army-directed education, research, and training initiative for Army organizations, joint organizations, and other government agencies. Red Teaming is a structured, iterative process, executed by highly trained, educated, and practiced team members that provides commanders an independent capability to fully explore alternatives to plans, operations, concepts, organizations, and capabilities in media essays the context of the operational environment and from our partners’ and adversaries’ perspectives. Paper Institute Norway? UFMCS educates Red Team Leaders, Members, and Practitioners; researches best practices for Red Teaming tactics, techniques, and essays procedures; and develops a reach-back capability to provide commanders and staffs alternative perspectives. Thesis Style? Graduates of essays gender Leader and formal lab report template Member courses receive an additional skill identifier (ASI). UFMCS The Applied Critical Thinking Handbook (formerly the media Red Team Handbook), v. 8.1, Sep 2016 ( local copy ) We educate people to develop a disposition of curiosity, and help them become aware of biases and fibre institute norway behavior that prevent them from real positive change in gender the ways they seek solutions and engage others. UFMCS Liberating Structures Handbook ( local copy ) Liberating structures are frameworks that make it possible for people and organizations to create, to do new things, to be innovative. Formal? These are processes or rules that can be put in place to encourage people to be free, creative, and get results, rather than find themselves oppressed, constrained, confined, or powerless. For things to really change, structural elements need to media essays change, too.

Otherwise change is short-lived. Liberating structures are the forms that make it easy for fibre people to be generative together and media essays make a significant impact with their creativity. UFMCS Group Think Mitigation Guide ( local copy ) Our education involves more than Socratic discussion and brainstorming. We borrow techniques, methods, frameworks, and best practices from several sources and norway disciplines to create an education and practical application method that we find to be the best safeguard against individual and media gender organizational tendencies toward biases, errors in cognition, and groupthink. UFMCS The Applied Critical Thinking Handbook (formerly the Red Team Handbook), v. Formal Lab Report Template? 7.0, Jan 2015 ( local copy ) Our methods and education involve more than Socratic discussion and media gender brainstorming. We believe that good decision processes are essential to good outcomes. To that end, our curriculum is lab report template, rich in divergent processes, red teaming tools, and liberating structures, all aimed at essays decision support. Bismarck? UFMCS Red Team Handbook, Apr 2012 ( local copy ) Much of the material directly applies to critical thinking and becoming better at it. Each section can almost stand alone, and Section XI – Structured Analytic Techniques – has a large variety of tools/techniques for overcoming “mind-sets” – including “9 Step Cultural Methodology” and “String of Pearls” tool and media essays “Analysis of Competing Hypotheses” and a passel of others. Seeing Red: Creating a Red-Team Capability for the Blue Force ( local copy ), by Fontenot, Military Review , Sep-Oct 2005 - includes list of Red Team best practices, and a list of why Red Teams sometimes fail. Critical Thinking You want to have a mind that’s open enough to essays accept radical new ideas, but not so open that your brains fall out.

— Michael Shermer, editor of Skeptic Magazine. Minds are like parachutes. They only function when they are open. Imagination is more important than knowledge. For knowledge is limited to media all we now know and understand, while imagination embraces the entire world, and all there ever will be to know and understand. Not everything that can be counted counts, and not everything that counts can be counted. Trying to get people to reason in a way that is thesis written in apa, not natural for them. is like trying to teach a pig to sing. You don't accomplish anything and you annoy the pig. — E. Jeffrey Conklin William Weil.

Men believe what they prefer. If a man will begin with certainties, he shall end in doubts. But if he will be content to begin with doubts he shall end in certainties. My story is proud. The entry of truth with chalk to mark those minds which are capable to lodge and harbour it. For myself, I found that I was fitted for nothing so well as for the study of truth; as having a Mind nimble and media essays gender versatile enough to catch the obesity cause and effect Resemblances of Things (which is the chief point) and at the same time steady enough to fix and distinguish their Subtler Differences; as being gifted by media essays Nature with Desire to seek, patience to Doubt, fondness to Meditate, slowness to assert, readiness to consider, carefulness to dispose and set in order; and as being a man that neither affects what is new nor admires what is old, and that hates every kind of Imposture. So I thought my Nature had a kind of familiarity and Relationship with Truth. — Francis Bacon, On the Interpretation of Nature , 1603. See red team thinking , especially the formal UFMCS Red Team Handbook.

Improve Your Critical Thinking, resources at Coping.us - includes summaries/lists of many methods and theories Overview of Critical Thinking Critical Thinking Model of Problem Solving Watch out for Common Fallacies Online Resources for media Improving Critical Thinking. A Way to Teach Critical Thinking Skills so Learners Will Continue Using Them in Operations ( local copy ), by Griffin and McClary, in obesity cause essays Military Review , Nov-Dec 2015 However, despite both instructors and students enjoying the critical thinking classes, many graduates were failing to think critically where it mattered most—on the job. Media Gender? The first key is to establish an effective talent management program at the earliest possible opportunity, preferably from the start. Until an paper research institute norway, organization gets talent management right, with a high degree of person-job and person-organization fit, it will have very limited success with its other functions. Media Essays Gender? The second key to teaching critical thinking skills is to ensure the organizational climate values critical and obesity and effect essays innovative thinking. Building upon, and made possible by, a talent management program, an organization demonstrates its commitment to these values by expecting and rewarding critical thinking and innovation. Two Faces of media gender Critical Thinking for the Reflective Military Practitioner ( local copy ), by Paparone, in Military Review , Nov-Dec 2014 Critical thinking has become quite the catchphrase. Yet, there is little published in military circles demonstrating a philosophical examination of what critical thinking means; hence, my intent here is to start that conversation.1 My argument calls upon two faces of critical thinking—a metaphor that conveys a dualistic approach toward a more reflective military practice. Education for and effect Critical Thinking ( local copy ), by Williams, in Military Review , Jan-Feb 2013 A better strategy for the Army’s PME is to gender adopt an paper fibre institute, educational philosophy that focuses less on knowledge and content and more on the ability to question and argue. Critical thinking means the ability to construct and defend an argument using reason, applying intellectual standards of epistemic responsibility, and recognizing and countering logical fallacies as we see them in others and ourselves.

If we pay attention to our doctrine, this shift in thinking about gender professional education is a strategic imperative. We now accept as common knowledge that military operations defy rules, calling them instead “human endeavors, characterized by the continuous, mutual adaptation of give and take, moves, and countermoves among all participants.” We agree that war is obesity cause, about identifying and solving ill-defined problems where experts can and do disagree on the range of solutions. Essays? The problem is obesity and effect, that we have a PME system that relies on an educational approach in media essays which instructors are guides for each new class to rediscover the same hackneyed truths as their predecessors. Mission command requires that we do more than allow for minor heresies. It demands that we develop “heretics”—leaders capable of challenging convention to create imaginative solutions regardless of the operational environment. An inquiry-based educational approach is the best way to develop these “heretics” because it is about questioning, and good questioners unequivocally make better thinkers. Army Leadership Development and Leadership ( local copy ), by Hinds and Steele, in unification essay Military Review , Jan-Feb 2012 Colonels, lieutenant colonels, and chief warrant fives were also surveyed about what skills were lacking for recent [PME] graduates. Media Essays Gender? The most common response was “appropriate critical thinking and problem solving skills.”

Developing Creative and Critical Thinkers ( local copy ), by Allen and Gerras, in Military Review , Nov-Dec 2009 This article presents a definition of strategic thinking and then focuses on the two key antecedents of essay defining love strategic thinking—creative and critical thinking—and presents the Army War College approach to educating students in these skills. . Given these challenges and obstacles, how do we make Army leaders better at creative and critical thinking? First, we must teach leaders the knowledge, skills, and terminology associated with thinking competencies. These are acquirable intellectual skills. As suggested earlier, the best way to media gender teach thinking skills to Army leaders is to provide context-dependent skill development. Critical Thinking and the Development of Innovative Problem Solvers ( local copy ), by essay Drew, Naval War College, 14 Feb 2005 Integrating critical thinking into officer development requires the shifting of knowledge focused classes to self-study, teaching and using argument/concept mapping to reveal student’s reasoning, and using the Universal Intellectual Standards as the basis of gender feedback on their reasoning. UFMCS The Applied Critical Thinking Handbook (formerly the Red Team Handbook), v. 8.1, Sep 2016 ( local copy ) We educate people to develop a disposition of curiosity, and help them become aware of biases and behavior that prevent them from real positive change in the ways they seek solutions and engage others. UFMCS Liberating Structures Handbook ( local copy ) Liberating structures are frameworks that make it possible for people and organizations to create, to do new things, to be innovative. These are processes or rules that can be put in place to encourage people to be free, creative, and get results, rather than find themselves oppressed, constrained, confined, or powerless. For things to really change, structural elements need to change, too. Otherwise change is short-lived. Liberating structures are the forms that make it easy for people to be generative together and make a significant impact with their creativity.

UFMCS Group Think Mitigation Guide ( local copy ) Our education involves more than Socratic discussion and bismarck essay brainstorming. We borrow techniques, methods, frameworks, and media essays gender best practices from several sources and essays historians and historiography disciplines to create an media essays gender, education and defining practical application method that we find to be the best safeguard against individual and organizational tendencies toward biases, errors in cognition, and essays groupthink. UFMCS The Applied Critical Thinking Handbook (formerly the Red Team Handbook), v. Thesis In Apa Style? 7.0, Jan 2015 ( local copy ) Our methods and education involve more than Socratic discussion and brainstorming. We believe that good decision processes are essential to good outcomes. To that end, our curriculum is rich in divergent processes, red teaming tools, and liberating structures, all aimed at decision support. UFMCS Red Team Handbook, Apr 2012 ( local copy ) Much of the material directly applies to critical thinking and becoming better at it. Each section can almost stand alone, and Section XI – Structured Analytic Techniques – has a large variety of media tools/techniques for overcoming “mind-sets” – including “9 Step Cultural Methodology” and “String of Pearls” tool and thesis written in apa style “Analysis of Competing Hypotheses” and a passel of others. Critical Thinking and Intelligence Analysis ( local copy, 1.4 Mb low res ), by Moore, National Defense Intelligence College (NDIC) occasional paper no.

14, March 2007 ( local copy, 12.1 Mb high res ) - includes generic and intel-specific discussion, as well as an appendix which is the NSA's Critical Thinking and Structured Analysis Class Syllabus NSA's Critical Thinking and Structured Analysis Class Syllabus - incudes plans for 10 classes, as well as a template for summarizing articles/readings. Critical Thinking issue of essays Military Intelligence Professional Bulletin ( local copy ), July-September 2006 This issue of MIPB focuses on the integration of lab report template critical thinking and scientific inquiry throughout the military intelligence curricula. It is essays, our contention that critical thinking and problem solving skills are best taught in learning environments that encourage students to consistently engage in formal lab report the implementation of the scientific method. To do this, instructors come to see themselves less as the source of knowledge and more as facilitators of learning. Media Essays? Although most courses within USAIC include practical exercises, many continue to include hours of cause essays lecture, followed by objective tests. Unfortunately, most students do not long retain much of what they have memorized.

Conversely, retention increases dramatically when they use what they have learned to conceptualize and to solve problems. Therefore, critical thinking can be integrated into the curriculum by adjusting teaching styles so that students are challenged to media gender reflect on lab report concrete learning experiences (a lecture, a film, a field trip), ask questions, pose hypotheses, and test those hypotheses against reality. When students are encouraged to media essays gender use the formal scientific method on media a regular basis, they become actively engaged in critical thinking; and as a result, they will become more sophisticated and effective decisionmakers. Team/Collaborative Critical Thinking Team Critical Thinking: Foundations Research Directions, briefing by Freeman and Serfaty, at obesity 2002 conference Collaborative Critical Thinking, briefing by essays Freeman et al, Collaboration and Knowledge Management Workshop, 2003. Integrating Critical Thinking in the Curriculum of the unification essay Command and General Staff College ( local copy ), by Doyle, CGSC, 2008 The Command and General Staff College endeavors to instill critical thinking as a skill practiced by its graduates. To this end the college has introduced the media essays gender concept of critical thinking as a class within the core curriculum. Students must take a “critical thinking test” both before and after the block of core instruction, and numerous graphic training aids line the classroom walls in on ottoman and historiography an attempt to media reinforce these ideas. However, it remains questionable whether or not the template concepts of critical thought, that are taught by the school, have made their way into the course work and class structure within the college.

This thesis will contend that to create critical thinkers CGSC must incorporate the tenets of critical thinking throughout its curriculum and course design. Grading rubrics for papers and tests, exam questions written to gender steer answers in style a certain “correct” direction all to a degree contradict the tenets of critical thought, yet exist within the course of media essays gender study. Ideally, CGSC can stand as a seminal experience in the development of officers. An experience akin to that found in civilian graduate level education can be attained, but it will require a cultural revolution within the faculty to transition from a model based on obesity and effect essays training to a model based on gender education. Psychology of Intelligence Analysis ( local copy ), by Heuer, 1999, for CIA -- very good examination of template many elements of critical thinking, with examples ( PDF version ) [from the introduction] Dick Heuer's writings make three fundamental points about the cognitive challenges intelligence analysts face: The mind is media gender, poorly wired to deal effectively with both inherent uncertainty (the natural fog surrounding complex, indeterminate intelligence issues) and induced uncertainty (the man-made fog fabricated by denial and deception operations). Even increased awareness of cognitive and other unmotivated biases, such as the tendency to see information confirming an already-held judgment more vividly than one sees disconfirming information, does little by itself to help analysts deal effectively with uncertainty. Tools and techniques that gear the analyst's mind to essay defining love apply higher levels of critical thinking can substantially improve analysis on complex issues on which information is essays, incomplete, ambiguous, and often deliberately distorted.

Key examples of such intellectual devices include techniques for unification of germany structuring information, challenging assumptions, and exploring alternative interpretations. Curing Analytic Pathologies: Pathways to Improved Intelligence Analysis ( local copy ), by Cooper, CIA Center for the Study of media gender Intelligence, Dec 2005 The Analytic Pathologies framework yields four insights that are crucial both to accurate diagnosis and to developing effective remedies. First, the framework enables analysts to identify individual analytic impediments and determine their sources. Second, it prompts analysts to detect the systemic pathologies that result from closely-coupled networks and to fibre institute find the linkages among the individual impediments. Third, it demonstrates that each of these networks, and thus each systemic pathology, usually spans multiple levels within the hierarchy of the Intelligence Community. Fourth, the media essays framework highlights the need to thesis style treat both the systemic pathologies and the individual impediments by focusing effective remedial measures on the right target and at the appropriate level.

Thinking and gender Writing: Cognitive Science and Intelligence Analysis ( local copy ), by Sinclair, CIA Center for the Study of Intelligence, Feb 2010 revision of 1984 monograph We are, in bismarck fact, better at generating problems than at solving them. Gender? Rarely can we say unequivocally that we have solved a problem, particularly if it is defining, a hard one. Rather we keep plugging away at it heuristically. Essays Gender? Often enough we manage to satisfice—to achieve a “best-possible” solution so that we can take up something else. Template? The problem has not gone away and we do not really delude ourselves that it has. But being realists (i.e., heuristic individuals to essays gender the core), we accept the results and live with them—recognizing that sometime we may find ourselves returning to the problem once more. As I have noted, this is defining love, a sloppy way of gender doing business, but we sell ourselves short if we do not acknowledge its strengths. It deals as well as anything yet developed with the fact, to use Jerome Bruner’s words, that our “ability to and effect deal with knowledge is hugely exceeded by the potential knowledge contained in man’s environment.”

A Mini-Guide for essays Teaching Critical Thinking, by Bean and Markham, Ira C. Eaker College for Professional Development (ECPD), 2008 This guide is designed to provide general information, strategies and defining a step-by-step process on Critical Thinking, two lesson plans which can be helpful in effectively teaching Critical Thinking, a case study which lends itself to thinking critically to come to a desirable resolution, and lastly, some recommended reading resources for providing a foundation to and assisting instructors in the classroom and with student consultation. A Tradecraft Primer: Structured Analytic Techniques for media gender Improving Intelligence Analysis ( local copy ), posted by CIA, March 2009 This primer highlights structured analytic techniques—some widely used in style the private sector and media gender academia, some unique to template the intelligence profession. It is media essays, not a comprehensive overview of how intelligence officers conduct analysis. Rather, the obesity essays primer highlights how structured analytic techniques can help one challenge judgments, identify mental mindsets, stimulate creativity, and manage uncertainty. Media? In short, incorporating regular use of techniques such as these can enable one to structure thinking for wrestling with difficult questions. CIA Compendium of bismarck Analytic Tradecraft Notes ( local copy ) - CIA has made this edition [1995] of the compendium available to the public to help shed light on how the Directorate of Intelligence meets the daily challenges of essays gender providing timely, accurate, and essays and historiography rigorous analysis to media essays intelligence consumers Critical Thinking: Plugging (or Moving) a Hole in Our Swiss Cheese ( local copy ), by Johns, Assistant U.S. Attorney, 2009 Relying largely on the military’s design, testing and implementation, this paper proposes Critical Thinking (CT) training to augment current Recognition Primed Decisionmaking training (RPD).

CT training reduces normal human decision error in research norway individual and group processes. Individual CT can reduce or, in a specific case, close a hole in the Swiss Cheese model. In a group, CT can also move the hole out of alignment. Combining CT training with Decision Support System improvements has reduced decision error in the military as shown by tests with active duty warfighters in battlefield simulations. Critical Reasoning for Beginners, by the Faculty of Philosophy, University of Oxford - videos, audios, and slides (can play the audio while viewing the slides, and avoid downloading 600+ Mb videos) In this six-week course delivered by media gender Marianne Talbot, you will learn all about arguments, how to identify and evaluate them, and how not to mistake bad arguments for good. Critical Thinking - tools to test/measure The Critical Thinking Rubric, Critical Thinking Project, Washington State University - assesses skill at each step of the fibre research institute problem solving process, including ability of individual to identify and consider influence by the context of the issue Seven dimensions to media essays be assessed: Identifies and thesis written in apa style summarizes the problem/question at essays gender issue (and/or the source's position). Identifies and bismarck of germany presents the STUDENT'S OWN hypothesis, perspective and position as it is important to the analysis of the issue. Identifies and considers OTHER salient perspectives and media gender positions that are important to the analysis. Identifies and assesses the essay love key assumptions . Identifies and essays gender assesses the obesity and effect quality of supporting data/evidence and gender provides additional data/evidence related to the issue. Essays On Ottoman Historians? Identifies and considers the influence of the media essays context on the issue. [they list some sample contexts to consider] Identifies and assesses conclusions, implications and consequences . Holistic Critical Thinking Scoring Rubric, by Facione and Facione California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) Test of paper norway Every Day Reasoning (TER) CRITO ( local copy ), a step-by-step method for creating a critical analysis essay, courtesy of Dr.

David K. Johnson, Massachusetts College of Liberal Arts C - State a C onclusion or claim R - State R easons or evidence meant to essays gender convince the reader . Historians? I - Test the I nference, or argument T - Test the T ruth of the R O - Construct the strongest imaginable O bjections, and respond to them. Active Learning Strategies to Promote Critical Thinking, by Walker, William Paterson University - a good summary of media educational references regarding critical thinking. CriticalThinking.org - with 35 Dimensions of Critical Thought, GOOD series of bismarck short articles on affective and cognitive strategies, incl such items as listening critically. Evaluating Critical Thinking Skills ( local copy ), from U.S. Naval Academy's Center for Teaching and Learning -- criteria-based evaluation guide. Manual of Job-Related Thinking Skills ( local copy ), Department of Homeland Security - including deductive reasoning, reasoning with sets, inductive reasoning about real-world events, and statistical reasoning - includes quizzes throughout. How Critical Thinking Shapes the media essays Military Decision Making Process ( local copy ), by Usry, Naval War College, 2004 A lack of Combatant Commander (COCOM) critical thinking in the Military Decision Making Process (MDMP) is a causal factor in fibre institute norway military failure at media gender the operational level. Love? However, critical thinking can improve the MDMP of the COCOM.

This paper analyzes the effects of critical thinking on the combatant commander’s decision making process by: defining critical thinking; illustrating its impact on intuitive and analytical decisions; demonstrating barriers to critical thinking and proposing practical ways to use critical thinking in essays gender the MDMP. Army officers are increasingly required to operate in situations they have not previously encountered and for which they have not been trained. In these situations, the ability to critically think through a problem, rather than apply previously learned solutions and procedures, is crucial to Army success. This effort began in 2000, with the development of a theoretical model of love critical thinking and the identification of eight high pay-off critical thinking skills for Army Battle Command. Critical Thinking Training for Army Schoolhouse and Distance Learning ( local copy ), ARI Newsletter, August 2003 - High Pay-off Skills to deal with the uncertain - includes a diagram of Conceptual Model of Critical Thinking and expansion on the following High Pay-off Critical Thinking Skills for Army Battle Command Seek a clear statement of the problem. Recognize main point in a message. Visualize plans to see if they achieve goals. Media Essays? Construct a plausible story that ties all incidents together. (. uncovering relationships, exploring alternative explanations of the information and keeping an open mind to detecting patterns) Recognize fallibility and bias in own opinion. Generalize from specific instances to broader classes. On Ottoman? Adopt multiple perspectives in gender interpreting events.

Determine when to seek more information. A Three-Part Theory of Critical Thinking: Dialogue, Mental Models, and Reliability ( local copy ) This chapter can only scratch the surface in trying to respond to these challenges. It is a very brief abridgment of Cohen, Salas, Riedel (2001), which provides more depth and essay defining love detail, but is still only a start. Gender? The research had two main goals: First, to draw a map that links disparate regions of the style critical thinking field, and second, to use the essays map to navigate toward a more insightful theory of written in apa critical thinking, which will support the essays development more effective methods for improving it in Army battlefield command teams. The essence of our theory is that critical thinking skill is bismarck, exemplified by asking questions about media gender alternative possibilities in order to achieve some objective . Asking and answering questions is a skill of dialogue . Alternative possibilities are represented by essays on ottoman historians and historiography mental models . A process of questioning mental models is adopted because of its reliability for achieving the media essays purposes of the participants within the available time. Adaptive Thinking Training For Tactical Leaders ( local copy ), by Lussier and Shadrick, U.S. Army Research Institute, 2004 ARI newsletters Training Small Unit Leader Adaptive Thinking Skills: Lessons Learned from Combat Training Center Exercises ( local copy ) Common Thinking and bismarck unification essay Judgment Problems Observed in Small Unit Leaders Difficulty reacting to media essays gender novel situations – unable or slow to “think on your feet” Overly reactive. Thesis Written? Difficulty in thinking like the enemy Focused on making quick decisions before fully analyzing the situation Inadequate monitoring of the situation or responding to cues in the environment Difficulty translating orders from higher echelons into actions Tunnel vision Overly focused on distracters; not on gender the big picture Difficulty shifting roles (e.g., combat to mediation within the of germany essay same mission) Limited cultural awareness and necessary communication skills (specifically in essays dealing with civilians) Critical Thinking as Dialogue: a New Approach to written Training Critical Thinking ( local copy ), ARI Newsletter, October 2004 (whole issue (3 Mb)) Critical Thinking Training for Army Schoolhouse and Distance Learning ( local copy ), ARI Newsletter, August 2003 - High Pay-off Skills to deal with the media essays uncertain - includes a diagram of Conceptual Model of Critical Thinking and expansion on obesity cause and effect the High Pay-off Critical Thinking Skills for Army Battle Command Training Adaptive Leaders ( local copy ), ARI Newsletter, May 2003 - train a performance - a thinking performance - using the media gender Think Like a Commander vignettes to historians improve ability to media gender identify critical information Tacit Knowledge for Military Leadership ( local copy ), ARI Newsletter, Spring 2001 - Tacit knowledge scores, a better predictor of leadership effectiveness Training Critical Thinking Skills for Battle Command: How to Think, Not What to Think ( local copy ), ARI Newsletter, Spring 2001 - Improve critical thinking to improve battle command tactical performance Training and Assessment of lab report template Decision-Making Skills in Virtual Environments ( local copy ), ARI Newsletter, Spring 2001 - This research showed a linkage between decision-making and situation awareness

James Garrett Shaylyn Romney Garrett - Teaching Critical Thinking in the Middle East, a TEDxDeadSea (independently organized TED event) video They are committed educators whose work in Jordan has focused on promoting critical and creative thinking. Their curriculum, called “Brain Camp,” is an essays, educational intervention that focuses on building eight critical thinking skills with the aim of equipping the rising generation of Jordanians to become creative and effective problem solvers. Center for Critical Thinking, aka Critical Thinking Community includes a library of short articles ranging from Socratic teaching to obesity cause assessing thinking skills Other resources include the media following Valuable Intellectual Traits. Rudyard Kipling, from The Elephant's Child in Just So Stories I keep six honest serving-men. (They taught me all I knew); Their names are What and Why and essay When. And How and Where and Who. [ed. Media Essays? - answering those six questions is often a good place to begin - and why is usually the one that pushes your writing past the knowledge level and demonstrates/reveals your insights]

Occam's Razor, published 1328 (also spelled Ockham) also known as the Law of Parsimony or Principle of Economy or Principle of Simplicity Principle from William of Occam (logician and formal lab report template Franciscan friar, c. 1285-1350 or 1280-1349) -- stating that given multiple theories to explain a set of observations the simplest explanation is to be preferred Pluralitas non est ponenda sine neccesitate or non sunt multiplicanda entia praeter necessitatem - Entities should not be multiplied unnecessarily. Never multiply explanations or make them more complicated than necessary. An explanation should be as simple and direct as possible Einstein's version -- make things as simple as possible - but no simpler modern variation -- Keep It Simple Stupid (KISS) Sherlock Holmes I have already explained to you that what is out of the common is usually a guide rather than a hindrance. In solving a problem of this sort, the grand thing is to be able to reason backward. That is a very useful accomplishment, and a very easy one, but people do not practise it much. In the everyday affairs of life it is more useful to reason forward, and so the essays other comes to paper fibre be neglected.

There are fifty who can reason synthetically for one who can reason analytically. Essays Gender? [in A Study in Scarlet , 1887] How often have I said to you that when you have eliminated the impossible, whatever remains, however improbable , must be the truth? [in The Sign of Four , 1890] That process, said I, starts upon written, the supposition that when you have eliminated all which is impossible, then whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth. Media Gender? It may well be that several explanations remain, in template which case one tries test after test until one or other of them has a convincing amount of support. [in The Case Book of gender Sherlock Holmes , 1927] It is a capital mistake to theorize before one has data. Essays On Ottoman? Insensibly one begins to twist facts to suit theories, instead of essays theories to suit facts. [in The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes , 1892, A Scandal in thesis written in apa Bohemia] I ought to know by this time that when a fact appears to media gender be opposed to a long train of deductions, it invariably proves to be capable of bearing some other interpretation. Essays And Historiography? [in A Study in Scarlet , 1887] Data! Data!

Data! he cried impatiently. I can't make bricks without clay. Media? [in The Adventure of the Copper Beeches , 1892] Maria Konnikova - The Scientific Method of the unification Mind - an RSA video Maria Konnikova reveals how Sherlock Holmes can teach us to optimise not only our own everyday existence, but our broader contributions to society and the lives of those around us. Improving Leadership through Better Decision Making: Fostering Critical Thinking, an Air University research paper Appendix A discusses the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal - which is media essays, composed of a series of five tests inference test - gauges ones’ ability to discern the degree of truth or falsity of inferences drawn from the data that you are given recognition of assumptions test - samples the ability to recognize unstated assumptions in statements deduction test - samples the ability to paper research norway reason properly when given a statement of premise; to recognize the relation of implication between propositions interpretation test - samples the ability to weigh evidence and make valid generalizations evaluation of essays gender arguments test - samples the of germany essay ability to distinguish strong and relevant arguments from ones which are weak or irrelevant Critical Thinking I, lesson plan at SAMS, Leavenworth ( local copy ) Critical Thinking II, lesson plan at SAMS, Leavenworth ( local copy ) Logic Tutor, by Green - FREE online tutorial system on logic. Think Critically about What You Find on the Web Evaluating Internet Resources, by U. Albany Libraries Thinking Critically about Web Resources, from UCLA Library ICYouSee Guide to Critical Thinking About What You See on the Web, from Ithaca College Library Testing the Surf: Criteria for Evaluating Internet Information Resources, by gender Alastair Smith, posted by U. of Houston Markham Nolan: How to separate fact and fiction online, a talk from TED.com (but you may need to watch it on YouTube if the TED.com version won't run on lab report template your computer) By the end of this talk, there will be 864 more hours of video on YouTube and 2.5 million more photos on Facebook and media essays Instagram. So how do we sort through the deluge?

At the template TEDSalon in London, Markham Nolan shares the investigative techniques he and his team use to verify information in real-time, to let you know if that Statue of Liberty image has been doctored or if that video leaked from Syria is legitimate. Science and Reason You want to have a mind that’s open enough to accept radical new ideas, but not so open that your brains fall out. — Michael Shermer, editor of Skeptic Magazine. Even for the physicist the media essays gender description in plain language will be a criterion of the degree of formal lab report template understanding that has been reached. — Werner Karl Heisenberg. This was the essays pivotal insight of the Scientific Revolution: that the advancement of knowledge depends on current theories collapsing in the face of lab report new insights and gender discoveries.

In this model of progress, errors do no lead us away from the truth. Obesity Essays? Instead they edge us incrementally toward it. — Kathryn Schulz, Being Wrong: Adventures in the Margin of Error. How Science Works ( local copy ), by Goodstein, in Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence, Second Edition , Federal Judicial Center, 2000 - compares Francis Bacon’s Scientific Method, Karl Popper’s Falsification Theory, Thomas Kuhn’s Paradigm Shifts, and essays more. Steps of the scientific method (from CDC site) Name the problem or question Form an cause essays, educated guess (hypothesis) of the cause of the problem and make predictions based upon the hypothesis Test your hypothesis by doing an gender, experiment or study (with proper controls) Check and interpret your results Report your results to the scientific community. Baloney Detection Kit, by Michael Shermer, editor of written style Skeptic Magazine ten questions for assessing believability. Scientific Method Man, article in media essays gender Wired , Sep 2004 - discussing verifier approach to problem solution, as used by Gordon Rugg With the verifier approach, Rugg begins by asking experts to essays on ottoman historians and historiography draw a mental map of their field.

From there, he stitches together many maps to form an atlas of the universe of knowledge on the subject. Gender? You look for an area of overlap that doesn't contain much detail, he says. If it turns out there's an adjoining area which everyone thinks is someone else's territory, then that's a potential gap. Essay Love? His approach is media, built on the observation, noted as far back as the defining 1970s, that experts tend to cut to media essays gender the chase. In their zeal to get to an answer, they make many little mistakes. Bismarck Unification Of Germany? (A recent study of gender work published in Nature and British Medical Journal , for research example, found that 11 percent of papers had serious statistical errors.) Experts unknowingly fudge logic to square data with their hypotheses. Or they develop blind spots after years of working in isolation. They lose their ability to take a broader view. If all this is true, he says, think of how much big science is media essays gender, based on flawed intuition. The verifier method boils down to seven steps: 1) amass knowledge of a discipline through interviews and reading; 2) determine whether critical expertise has yet to be applied in the field; 3) look for bias and mistakenly held assumptions in essays the research; 4) analyze jargon to uncover differing definitions of key terms; 5) check for classic mistakes using human-error tools; 6) follow the errors as they ripple through underlying assumptions; 7) suggest new avenues for gender research that emerge from steps one through six.

For more AFSO21 guidance/handbooks/tools/reference/etc. go to the AF Portal and do a search for formal lab report template AFSO21. AFSO21 adopts 8-step problem solving model, by gender Todd, 14th Flying Training Wing Commander's Action Group, 10 Mar 2008 Air Force Smart Operations for the 21st Century, or AFSO21, has adopted a new 8-Step Problem Solving Model to achieve continuous process improvement. This model is based on the OODA Loop and essays historians will make it easier for Air Force members to eliminate waste in the workplace. Air Force Smart Operations for the 21st Century - Playbook, May 2008 - over gender 300 pages of tools for improvement, including the 8-step problem solving process The eight steps are expanded starting on formal lab report page B-1 (pdf page 15) (1) Clarify and Validate the media Problem (Observe) (2) Break Down the Problem and Identify Performance Gaps (Observe) (3) Set Improvement Targets (Orient) (4) Determine Root Causes (Orient) (5) Develop Countermeasures (Decide) (6) See Countermeasures Through (Act) (7) Confirm Results and Process (Act) USAF 8-Step Problem Solving Process template (AFD-090716-101.pdf) with expanded sub-steps and reference to thesis written additional tools. Process and Design Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler. A designer knows he has achieved perfection not when there is nothing left to essays gender add, but when there is nothing left to take away.

— Antoine de Saint-Exupry. Performance Improvement Guide (PIG), US Coast Guard ( local copy ) The PIG is an idea source of tools, processes, and models. Organizational Performance Consultants (OPCs) and the latest Commandant’s Performance Excellence Criteria (CPEC) Guidebook are also valuable leadership and management resources. Design: Thinking not Process, by McCauley, Small Wars Journal , 15 Oct 2011 Senior officers capable of critical and creative thinking are needed more than ever to plan and conduct operations in strategic and operational environments that offer ever-changing uncertainties in essay defining love increasingly complex conditions. Media Gender? Officers who have a broad body of knowledge gained through experience and extensive study and capable of historians and historiography identifying and evaluating potential military response options within the context of a grand strategy are necessary to achieve the goals of the nation.

The development of such officers requires a shift in their extensive focus from the operational and tactical environments to the strategic environment. This is a tremendous undertaking given that by far one spends the majority of one‘s career at those lower levels of war and promotion to senior ranks relies upon excellence in tactical thinking and execution. The aim of the Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff, is to educate strategically minded officers with the ability to view military affairs in the broadest context. Media Essays? This essay posits that integrating design as a process within JOPP is a shortsighted attempt to legislate thinking whereas the more appropriate option would be to love develop officers capable of design thinking. To develop senior officers who possess the requisite worldview, critical and creative thinking must underpin the concept of design. Senior officers must understand the role constraints play within design and how the strategic environment is gender, affected. Two accepted approaches in design thinking, analysis/synthesis and conjecture/analysis, could provide senior officers with the unique perspectives necessary for planning at all levels of historians war. In addition, the unique skills that specific personality types possess that make strategic-thinking and design thinking more inherently natural must be recognized and promoted.

Strategically minded thinkers possess the ability to think critically and creatively. To think critically, one needs the media essays gender ability to break concepts or objects into simpler parts and understand the relationship and organization of the parts relative to the whole. To think creatively, one needs the ability to rearrange the components or ideas into a new whole; in other words, to produce something through imaginative skill. Essays Historians? Although some critical and media gender creative thinkers are naturally gifted, given enough time almost anyone can develop these necessary skills. Unfortunately, for the majority of senior military leaders, time is something that is not in vast supply. In fact, given the relatively short duration of cause essays time that senior officers spend operating in the strategic environment and the even shorter periods they serve in any one position, it is a natural desire to attempt to develop a checklist or shortcut that will guide these officers through the wicked problems rife within complex environments. The Master Planner interview in media essays gender the August 2010 issue of essay defining love Wired Magazine with Fred Brooks, author of The Mythical Man-Month [focused on writing computer code] and The Design of Design Great design does not come from great process; it comes from great designers. The critical thing about the design process is to identify your scarcest resource. You have to make sure your whole team understands what scarce resource you're optimizing. You build a quick prototype and get it in front of users to see what they do with it.

You will always be surprised. Edwin Land, inventor of the Polaroid camera, once said that his method of design was to start with a vision of essays gender what you want and formal lab report template then, one by one, remove the technical obstacles until you have it. . I once argued that every member of a team should be able to see the code of media essays gender every other member, but it turns out that encapsulation works much better. Problem Solving The one common experience of all humanity is the style challenge of problems. — R. Buckminster Fuller. I am enthusiastic over media gender humanity's extraordinary and sometimes very timely ingenuities. If you are in a shipwreck and fibre research institute norway all the boats are gone, a piano top buoyant enough to media keep you afloat may come along and make a fortuitous life preserver.

This is not to obesity cause and effect essays say, though, that the media essays gender best way to design a life preserver is in the form of paper institute norway a piano top. I think we are clinging to a great many piano tops in accepting yesterday's fortuitous contrivings as constituting the essays only means for solving a given problem. — R. Buckminster Fuller. If I had an on ottoman historians, hour to solve a problem and my life depended on the solution, I would spend the first 55 minutes determining the proper question to ask, for once I know the proper question, I could solve the problem in less than five minutes. Intellectuals solve problems; geniuses prevent them. We can't solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them. The biggest problem in the world could have been solved when it was small.

There is always an easy solution to every human problem—neat, plausible, and media gender wrong. If a problem has no solution, it may not be a problem, but a fact - not to on ottoman historians be solved, but to be coped with over time. Problem-Based Learning: Instructor Characteristics, Competencies, and Professional Development ( local copy ), by Cianciolo et al, for U.S. Army Research Institute (ARI), Research Report 1936, Jan 2011 Preparing Soldiers to learn from problem-solving experiences requires that Army instructional practices become more responsive to individual student need, better attuned to operational requirements, and more representative of social learning contexts. To help instructors achieve this goal, the principles for media gender facilitating problem-based learning must be investigated and their implications for professional development explicated. In this research, the instructor characteristics and written in apa style competencies required to implement problem-based learning were explored. Techniques for media gender instructor professional development in civilian and military contexts then were examined to identify best practices. Why We Can't Solve Big Problems, by Pontin, in MIT Technology Review , vol. 115, no.

6 - Nov 2012 Since Apollo 17's flight in 1972, no humans have been back to the moon, or gone anywhere beyond low Earth orbit. Essays Historians? No one has traveled faster than the crew of Apollo 10. (Since the last flight of the supersonic Concorde in 2003, civilian travel has become slower.) Blithe optimism about technology's powers has evaporated, too, as big problems that people had imagined technology would solve, such as hunger, poverty, malaria, climate change, cancer, and essays gender the diseases of old age, have come to seem intractably hard. It's not true that we can't solve big problems through technology; we can. We must. But all these elements must be present: political leaders and the public must care to essay defining love solve a problem, our institutions must support its solution, it must really be a technological problem, and we must understand it. Storytelling as an Instructional Method: Definitions and Research Questions ( local copy ), by Andrews et al, sponsored by AFRL, published in The Interdisciplinary Journal of media gender Problem-based Learning , Fall 2009 - deals with problem-based instruction, scenario-based instruction, case-based instruction, and narrative-based instruction.

AFSO21 adopts 8-step problem solving model, by essay defining love Todd, 14th Flying Training Wing Commander's Action Group, 10 Mar 2008 Air Force Smart Operations for the 21st Century, or AFSO21, has adopted a new 8-Step Problem Solving Model to achieve continuous process improvement. This model is based on the OODA Loop and will make it easier for Air Force members to eliminate waste in the workplace. see AFSO21 section for media gender 8-step problem solving process and other tools. Process explained, narrative format, from handout at Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) Six steps Objective finding Fact finding Problem finding Idea finding Solution finding Acceptance finding. Traditional Six-Step Problem Solving Process Identify and Select the Problem Analyze the Problem Generate Potential Solutions Select and Plan the essay defining love Solution Implement the Solution Evaluate the Solution. Planning Primer, U.S. Media Gender? Army Corps of defining Engineers, 23 pages -- includes discussion of problem-solving process ( local copy ) Planning Manual, U.S. Essays Gender? Army Corps of Engineers, 321 pages -- includes discussion of thesis style problem-solving process ( local copy ) Six-Step Problem Solving Process, as used by Army Corps of gender Engineers Identifying problems and opportunities Inventorying and forecasting conditions Formulating alternative plans Evaluating alternative plans Comparing alternative plans Selecting a plan.

Techniques for Effective Decision Making, by Mind Tools Brainstorming - Generating Options Critical Path Analysis - Planning and Scheduling Complex Tasks Decision Trees - Powerful Quantitative Analysis of Decision Impact Force Field Analysis - Analysis of all Pressures For and paper fibre research norway Against Change PMI - A Powerful Enhancement to Pros and Cons SWOT Analysis - Analysing your Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. Wicked Problems Some problems are so complex that you have to be highly intelligent and well informed just to be undecided about them. — Laurence J. Peter. Battle Command: An Approach to Wickedness ( local copy ), by McHenry, School of Advanced Military Studies, May 2009 There are two broad approaches to media essays addressing ill-structured problems. First, a problem-focused approach which prioritizes a robust knowledge of the style environment from which the problem has emerged. Second, a solution-focused approach that emphasizes the power of proposing solutions as the media vehicle to gain understanding of the ill-structured problem. By providing a robust explanation of ill-structured problems, it can then be shown that existing Army doctrine proves adequate to address and resolve complex operational problems. Command at the Edge of thesis style Chaos ( local copy ), by Schwartz, Naval War College, 28 May 2007 Traditional hierarchical military staff organizations at the operational level of media gender command remain suited for executing status quo and slowly evolving military operations focused on simple problems. However, these same hierarchies are rendered ineffective when faced with complex or wicked problems—an increasingly common occurrence.

Replacing traditional staff structures with flat, self-organizing networks at the operational level of command and war will allow commanders to thesis written in apa efficiently synchronize vast resources and more effectively attack rapidly evolving, complex and wicked problems. The cost to the commander is essays gender, a requirement to essays cede control to the network while retaining command thereof. This paper looks at the limitations of hierarchical organizations, the advantages of gender leveraging self-organizing networks in a contemporary military context, and how such networks should be created and commanded. Formal? Finally, the paper provides recommendations to operational commanders concerning when and how to employ self-organizing networks within operational level staffs. How to Think : Wicked Problems, Reflections from Dr Jack, Combined Arms Center Blog, 11 Nov 2008 The term “wicked problems” was coined by Horst Rittel and essays gender Melvin Webber in 1973 to paper fibre norway describe problems in planning that defy analytical methods for solutions includes Rittle and Webber's 10 criteria for defining a wicked problem - with a brief description of each There are a number of media key implications from the concept of “wicked problems.” One issue is that there must be constant framing and reframing of a wicked problem to identify the second and third order effects of a plan or operation.

A great plan may be only formal, treating a symptom and not the underlying causes of the media problem – potentially making the situation worse. Constant reframing and assessment are necessary to identify this throughout planning and operations. Another issue with “wicked problems” is essays historians, that there are frequently multiple problems and issues within a problem set. The tendency to identify a problem as a familiar and simple problem – looking for simple cause and media gender effect relationship – may mask multiple problems and lead to essays on ottoman and historiography wrong solutions. Wicked problem, entry in Wikipedia - includes descriptions of several strategies to cope witih wicked problems, and media essays gender includes the following list of formal lab report characteristics (from Ritchey, referring to Rittel and media Webber) There is no definitive formulation of a wicked problem (defining wicked problems is itself a wicked problem).

Wicked problems have no stopping rule. Solutions to wicked problems are not true-or-false, but better or worse. There is no immediate and no ultimate test of a solution to a wicked problem. Every solution to a wicked problem is a one-shot operation; because there is no opportunity to learn by trial and essays on ottoman historians error, every attempt counts significantly. Wicked problems do not have an media gender, enumerable (or an exhaustively describable) set of potential solutions, nor is defining love, there a well-described set of permissible operations that may be incorporated into media gender the plan. Every wicked problem is essentially unique. Every wicked problem can be considered to be a symptom of another problem. The existence of a discrepancy representing a wicked problem can be explained in numerous ways. The choice of defining explanation determines the nature of the problem's resolution. The planner has no right to gender be wrong (planners are liable for the consequences of the actions they generate). Sandia research team studies best way to solve wicked problems ( local copy ), Sandia National Labs, 29 Nov 2007 Wicked problems are complex problems that change when you apply a solution.

What’s the best way to essays solve a wicked problem — by working in essays gender a large group sharing ideas via the intranet or as individuals? That’s the question George S. Davidson and his research team at Sandia National Laboratories attempted to resolve this summer. . Unification Essay? “We were amazed at the length and quality of the essays gender responses, both from the people working as a group and those working individually,” Dornburg says. “People were very engaged, often writing long, detailed responses.” She adds that what was most interesting is that the quality of cause and effect essays ideas from the people responding as individuals was “significantly better across all three quality ratings.” Dornburg says the finding that individuals are more successful than groups in computer-mediated brainstorming suggests a time- and cost-saving potential for gender companies. Generally, when electronic group brainstorming is compared to face-to-face brainstorming, it is touted as having the advantages of bismarck unification shorter meetings, increased participation by remote team members, better documentation via electronic recording, and cash savings. But the Sandia research suggests that people working to solve problems on their own might involve less time and, thus less expenses, than electronic group brainstorming. While individuals working alone nominally faired better in this study, Davidson says, the research also indicates that group on-line brainstorming can be effective when ideas are needed from large numbers of people. Pakistan’s FATA – A Wicked Problem ( local copy ), by media McMahon, U.S. Army War College, 17 Mar 2009 - explores a wicked problem through the lens of the cause and effect 10 characteristics of a wicked problem (from Rittel and gender Webber) There is No Definitive Way to Frame a Wicked Problem. We Cannot Understand a Wicked Problem without Proposing a Solution. Formal? Wicked Problems Have No Stopping Rule. Solutions to Wicked Problems are not True-or-False, but Good-or-Bad.

There Is No Immediate and essays No Ultimate Test of love a Solution to a Wicked Problem. Every solution to a Wicked Problem is a “One-Shot Operation.” Wicked Problems Do Not Have an Exhaustible Set of Definable Solutions. Every Wicked Problem is Essentially Unique. Every Wicked Problem is a Symptom of media Another Problem. The Cause of a Wicked Problem can be Explained in obesity and effect Numerous Ways. What Are Wicked Problems? ( local copy ), from Ask the Academy at NASA Academy, 8 Feb 2006 What is a wicked problem? Conklin draws his definition from the work of the gender late urban planner Horst Rittel, who coined the paper fibre research norway term over thirty years ago: You don't understand the problem until you have developed a solution.

Wicked problems have no stopping rule. You simply run out of time or money. Solutions to wicked problems are not right or wrong. They are better, worse, good enough, or not good enough. Every wicked problem is essentially unique and novel. Every solution to a wicked problem is a one-shot operation. Gender? Wicked problems have no given alternative solutions. So where does that leave the project manager?

The short answer — what Conklin calls the Holy Grail of effective collaboration — lies in creating shared understanding about the problem, and shared commitment to unification of germany the possible solutions. Decision Making and Analysis When you get to the fork in the road, take it. Short term thinking drives out essays long term strategy, every time. — Nobel Prize-winning economist Herbert Simon. See also tactical decision games contrasting intuitive and analytic approaches. See also combat leadership , including key historical decisions. U.S. Army War College Strategic Decision Making Paradigms: A Primer for Senior Leaders ( local copy ), by Allen and Coates and and effect essays Woods, U.S. Army War College, 2010 Decision-making frameworks for policy levels are important for media essays strategic leaders to appreciate how they can best influence decisions in their external environment. Thesis Written Style? This article’s purpose is to present some models or frameworks for understanding how strategic leaders can make decisions as well as recognizing how to influence decisions that affect their organizations or institutions.

The following models presented in this article are drawn from the social psychology, organizational behavior, sociology, and public administration literature. Models discussed: Rational Decision Making Model The Behavioral Model (Bounded Rationality) Bargaining Model Participative Decision Making Model Incremental Model Punctuated Equilibrium Theory Polis Model Garbage Can Model (Multiple or Three Streams Model) Strategic Decision Making Paradigms: A Primer for Senior Leaders ( local copy ), by essays Allen and Coates, U.S. Army War College, July 2009 'Strategic decisions entail “ill-structured,” “messy” or “wicked problems” that do not have quick, easy solutions.' How to Make a High-Stakes Decision, by Gallo, on Harvard Business Review Blog Network, 11 May 2011. 21st Century Small Unit Leaders: Developing the Ultimate Smart Power Weapon ( local copy ), by Gideons, paper at Joint Forces Staff College, Joint Advanced Warfighting School (JAWS), 17 June 2011 Globalization and the information age have created an environment in which small unit leaders have operational and strategic importance. The demands of the Irregular Warfare require small unit leaders within the General Purpose Forces to be more culturally aware; intellectually adaptable; seasoned in their decision-making requiring fundamental changes in the way they are educated, trained, and gain experience. This paper will first address how individuals make decisions by comparing and contrasting analytical and intuitive decision-making. Second, it will address the lab report strengths and weaknesses in current training and educational paradigms via an analysis of the Systems Approach to Training. Third will be a proposal for the inclusion of new initiatives for developing small unit leader intuition and adaptability in IW.

Following this are recommendations for inculcating critical thinking and media essays decision-making skills in small unit leaders by adopting methods of instruction found in Outcomes Based Training and in apa Education and Adaptive Leaders Methodology as well as the experiential based learning that immersive training environments provide. Maria Konnikova - The Scientific Method of the Mind - an RSA video Maria Konnikova reveals how Sherlock Holmes can teach us to optimise not only gender, our own everyday existence, but our broader contributions to society and the lives of those around us. TED.com videos - most are 6-15 minutes Dan Gilbert: Why we make bad decisions - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Dan Gilbert presents research and data from his exploration of happiness -- sharing some surprising tests and obesity cause and effect essays experiments that you can also try on yourself. Watch through to the end for a sparkling QA with some familiar TED faces. Tim Harford: Trial, error and the God complex - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Economics writer Tim Harford studies complex systems -- and finds a surprising link among the successful ones: they were built through trial and error. In this sparkling talk from TEDGlobal 2011, he asks us to embrace our randomness and start making better mistakes. Margaret Heffernan: Dare to disagree - a TED talk (you may need to gender watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Most people instinctively avoid conflict, but as Margaret Heffernan shows us, good disagreement is central to progress. She illustrates (sometimes counterintuitively) how the best partners aren’t echo chambers -- and how great research teams, relationships and businesses allow people to deeply disagree.

The former CEO of five businesses, Margaret Heffernan explores the all-too-human thought patterns -- like conflict avoidance and selective blindness -- that lead managers and paper institute organizations astray. Sheena Iyengar on the art of choosing - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Sheena Iyengar studies how we make choices -- and how we feel about the choices we make. At TEDGlobal, she talks about both trivial choices (Coke v. Pepsi) and profound ones, and shares her groundbreaking research that has uncovered some surprising attitudes about our decisions. Kathryn Schulz: On being wrong - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Most of us will do anything to essays gender avoid being wrong. But what if we're wrong about that? Wrongologist Kathryn Schulz makes a compelling case for not just admitting but embracing our fallibility. Malcolm Gladwell on What we can learn from spaghetti sauce - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Tipping Point author Malcolm Gladwell gets inside the food industry's pursuit of the perfect spaghetti sauce -- and bismarck unification of germany essay makes a larger argument about the nature of choice and happiness. Noreena Hertz: How to use experts - and when not to media essays - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) We make important decisions every day -- and we often rely on experts to help us decide. But, says economist Noreena Hertz, relying too much on experts can be limiting and even dangerous.

She calls for essay us to start democratizing expertise -- to listen not only to surgeons and media gender CEOs, but also to shop staff. Barry Schwartz on the paradox of choice - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Psychologist Barry Schwartz takes aim at formal lab report template a central tenet of western societies: freedom of choice. Media Essays? In Schwartz's estimation, choice has made us not freer but more paralyzed, not happier but more dissatisfied. Barry Schwartz: Using our practical wisdom - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) In an intimate talk, Barry Schwartz dives into the question How do we do the right thing? With help from institute norway collaborator Kenneth Sharpe, he shares stories that illustrate the essays difference between following the rules and truly choosing wisely. On Ottoman And Historiography? Eric Berlow: How complexity leads to simplicity - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Ecologist Eric Berlow doesn't feel overwhelmed when faced with complex systems. He knows that more information can lead to a better, simpler solution. Essays? Illustrating the tips and tricks for breaking down big issues, he distills an cause and effect, overwhelming infographic on U.S. Media? strategy in Afghanistan to a few elementary points. George Whitesides: Toward a science of simplicity - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on essay defining love YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Simplicity: We know it when we see it -- but what is it, exactly?

In this funny, philosophical talk, George Whitesides chisels out an answer. James Geary, metaphorically speaking - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on essays YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Aphorism enthusiast and author James Geary waxes on a fascinating fixture of human language: the metaphor. Friend of scribes from Aristotle to Elvis, metaphor can subtly influence the decisions we make, Geary says. Dan Ariely asks, Are we in control of our own decisions? - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Behavioral economist Dan Ariely, the author of paper institute norway Predictably Irrational, uses classic visual illusions and his own counterintuitive (and sometimes shocking) research findings to show how we're not as rational as we think when we make decisions. Dan Ariely: Beware conflicts of interest - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) In this short talk, psychologist Dan Ariely tells two personal stories that explore scientific conflict of interest: How the pursuit of knowledge and insight can be affected, consciously or not, by shortsighted personal goals.

When we're thinking about the gender big questions, he reminds us, let's be aware of our all-too-human brains. Renata Saleci video on (the tyranny of) Choice In this RSAnimate, Professor Renata Salecl explores the paralysing anxiety and dissatisfaction surrounding limitless choice. Does the freedom to be the architects of essay defining our own lives actually hinder rather than help us? Does our preoccupation with choosing and consuming actually obstruct social change? Jonah Lehrer - The Decisive Moment, video of 30 min. lecture, plus 15 minutes QA, given at essays the RSA Jonah Lehrer draws on the latest tools of neuroscience to ask, how does the mind make decisions? And how can we make those decisions better?

Improving Analysis: Dealing with Information Processing Errors ( local copy ), by Rodgers, Warfighter Interface Division, Cognitive Systems Branch, AFRL, Nov 2006 Although humans restrict information in a variety of ways, the focus here is on three specific forms that affect human information processing: (a) the tendency to see patterns where none exist, (b) the tendency to research seek confirmatory evidence, and (c) the media essays use of obesity cause preconceived biases. Media Essays? Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman presented three heuristics, i.e., factors or conditions that humans use to aid decisionmaking: representativeness, availability, and anchoring. They serve to simplify decisionmaking, making it more efficient; but use of these heuristics also can result in inaccurate decisions. Analysis Paralysis: A Case of Terminological Inexactitude ( local copy ), by on ottoman historians and historiography Roberts, Defense ATL , Jan-Feb 2010 In the remainder of this article, I will examine three problematic conditions that are often attributed to analysis paralysis. These are depicted in the figure on the right as overlapping circles, symbolic of the fact that one condition can feed off of another. In the essays spirit of Churchill, I have also concocted somewhat grandiose but descriptive labels for the three conditions: Analysis Process Paralysis, Risk Uncertainty Paralysis, and Decision Precision Paralysis. Critical Thinking: Plugging (or Moving) a Hole in Our Swiss Cheese ( local copy ), by Johns, Assistant U.S. Attorney, 2009 Relying largely on the military’s design, testing and implementation, this paper proposes Critical Thinking (CT) training to augment current Recognition Primed Decisionmaking training (RPD). CT training reduces normal human decision error in essay individual and group processes. Individual CT can reduce or, in a specific case, close a hole in the Swiss Cheese model.

In a group, CT can also move the hole out of alignment. Media Essays Gender? Combining CT training with Decision Support System improvements has reduced decision error in the military as shown by tests with active duty warfighters in battlefield simulations. From Tactical Planning to Operational Design ( local copy ), by Davison, Military Review , Sep-Oct 2008 The three military decision-making models reflect a parallel progression in the evolution of systems thinking. Initially, rational military decisionmaking supported solving well-structured problems such as those found in a mechanistic system. Decision-making primed by defining recognition subsequently evolved to address problems occurring in media essays natural settings with which the decision-maker had experience.

An intuitive decision-making process then emerged to cope with those situations for which decision-makers had no previous experience. Recognition-Primed Decision (RPD) Model The Recogition-Primed Decision Model: an Alternative to thesis the MDMP for GWOT ( local copy ), by gender Bushey and Forsyth, in defining Field Artillery , Jan-Feb 2006 The Recogition-Primed Decision Model ( local copy ), by Ross et al, in Military Review , Jul-Aug 2004 Klein, S. Essays? Wolf, Laura G. Lab Report Template? Militellio, and Carolyn E.Zsambok show that skilled decisionmakers usually generate a good COA [course of action] on their first try. Media Essays Gender? J.G. Johnson and M. Raab replicated this finding, extending it to written in apa style show that when skilled decisionmakers abandon their initial COA in favor of a later one, the subsequent COA’s quality is significantly lower than the first one. Media Gender? Decision Making and the Levels of War ( local copy ), by Killion, in Military Review , Nov-Dec 2000 Recognition-Primed Decision Strategies: First-Year Interim Report ( local copy ), by Klein and Crandall, ARI Research Note 90-91, 1990. Heuristics and unification essay Biases in Military Decision Making ( local copy ), by Williams, Military Review , Sep-Oct 2010 The Army values MDMP as the sanctioned approach for solving problems and gender making decisions.

This stolid template is comforting; we are familiar with it. However, what do we do when our enemy does not conform to our assumptions embedded in obesity cause and effect the process? We discovered early in gender Iraq that our opponents fought differently than we expected. Essays? Fortunately, some have come to see the shortcomings of the classical MDMP process. It is media, illsuited for the analysis of problems exhibiting high volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity. Historians? The Army’s nascent answer, called “Design,” looks promising. As outlined in the new version of FM 5-0, Operations Process, Chapter 3, Design is defined as “a methodology for applying critical and creative thinking to understand, visualize, and describe complex, ill-structured problems and develop approaches to solve them.” Instead of a universal process to solve all types of media gender problems (MDMP), the Design approach acknowledges that military commanders must first appreciate the situation and recognize that any solution will be unique. With Design, the most important task is framing a problem and then reframing it when conditions change. In this article, we will survey three important heuristics to military decision making: availability, representativeness, and anchoring. When combining hindsight bias and retrievability biases, we potentially fail to in apa style guard against media essays, an event popularized euphemistically as a black swan . Bismarck? Instead of the usual striving toward a “best practices” methodology, which is also full of media gender potential heuristic biases, reflective practice calls for fibre research “valuing the processes that challenge assimilative knowledge (i.e. continuous truth seeking) and by embracing the essays gender inevitable conflict associated with truth seeking.”

Battle-Wise: Gaining Advantage in Networked Warfare ( local copy ), by Gompert et al, Center for Technology and National Security Policy, National Defense University, Jan 2005 Battle-Wise: Seeking Time-Information Superiority in Networked Warfare ( local copy ), by Gompert et al, Center for Technology and National Security Policy, National Defense University, July 2006 Chapter One - From Firepower to written in apa Information Power to media essays Brainpower Chapter Two - Cognitive Demands of Networked Warfare Chapter Four - Defeating Networked Adversaries Chapter Five - Integrating Intuition and Reasoning in Action Chapter Six - From Networking Power to Cognitive Power. Net Assessment: A Practical Guide, by historians Bracken, in Parameters , Spring 2006 Net assessment is essays, one of the principal frameworks for analyzing the national security strategy of the United States. On Ottoman? It has been used by the Department of Defense for many years. Media Essays Gender? Understanding net assessment—what it is and what it can do—is important for essays on ottoman two reasons. First, it has general application to many military issues.

Military planners always need to be on the lookout for approaches that can help them do their jobs better. Media Gender? Net assessment should be in that tool kit. Shaping the Next One Hundred Years: New Methods for Quantitative, Long-Term Policy Analysis, by Lempert, Popper, and obesity cause Bankes; RAND report, 2003 A sophisticated reader ought to view with great skepticism the prospect of answering questions about the long-term future. The checkered history of media gender predicting the written future — from the famous declarations that humans would never fly to the Limits to Growth study to claims about the “New Economy” — has dissuaded policymakers from essays gender considering the effects of their decisions more than a few months or years ahead. However, today’s choices will significantly influence the course of the twenty-first century. New analytic methods, enabled by modern computers, may transform our ability to written in apa style reason systematically about the long term. This report reviews traditional methods of grappling with the morrow, from narratives to scenario analysis, which fail to address the multiplicity of plausible long-term futures. The authors demonstrate a quantitative approach to essays long-term policy analysis (LTPA). Robust decision methods enable decisionmakers to lab report examine a vast range of plausible futures and design near-term, often adaptive, strategies to be robust across them. Reframing the question “What will the long-term future bring?” as “How can we choose actions today that will be consistent with our long-term interests?” these methods provide powerful analytic support to humans’ innate capacity for “what-if-ing.” Theory of Effectiveness Measurement ( local copy ), by Bullock, AFIT dissertation, Sep 2006 Effectiveness measures provide decision makers feedback on the impact of deliberate actions and affect critical issues such as allocation of scarce resources, as well as whether to maintain or change existing strategy.

Currently, however, there is media essays, no formal foundation for formulating effectiveness measures. And Effect Essays? This research presents a new framework for effectiveness measurement from both a theoretical and media essays practical view. . Bismarck Essay? Finally, the pragmatic nature of the approach is media essays gender, illustrated by measuring the effectiveness of a notional, security force response strategy in a scenario involving a terrorist attack on formal a United States Air Force base. Cultural Differences Cultural Factors in Complex Decision Making, by Strohschneider, in Online Readings in Psychology and Culture , Center for Cross-Cultural Research, Western Washington University, Bellingham, Washington USA, 2002 Decision Making in Individualistic and essays Collectivistic Cultures, by lab report template Gss, in Online Readings in Psychology and Culture , Center for media Cross-Cultural Research, Western Washington University, Bellingham, Washington USA, 2002. Custer in Cyberspace ( local copy ), by Gompert and Kugler, Defense Horizons number 51, Feb 2006 One of the consequences of the network revolution and corresponding distribution of authority is that many more persons up and thesis in apa down the ranks will be making combat decisions than compared to essays the days of thesis written centralized command and control. Power is migrating from headquarters “to the edge.” Therefore, it is essential to foster battle-wisdom not just for senior officers but also for the junior officers and media essays gender noncommissioned officers leading units in the field. Gladwell, Malcolm. Blink: The Power of Thinking without Thinking . New York: Little, Brown, 2005 Book review of Gladwell's Blink ( local copy ), by Norton, in Naval War College Review , Winter 2006. Future Warfare and on ottoman and historiography the Decline of gender Human Decisionmaking, by Adams, in Parameters , Winter 2001 In short, the military systems (including weapons) now on the horizon will be too fast, too small, too numerous, and of germany will create an media, environment too complex for humans to direct.

Furthermore, the proliferation of essay information-based systems will produce a data overload that will make it difficult or impossible for essays gender humans to formal lab report template directly intervene in decisionmaking. Essays? This is not a consideration for the remote science-fiction future. Weapons and other military systems already under development will function at increasingly higher levels of complexity and responsibility--and increasingly without meaningful human intervention. Extending Naturalistic Decision Making to Complex Organizations: A Dynamic Model of Situated Cognition, by Shattuck and Miller, Naval Postgraduate School, 2006 Naturalistic decision making (NDM) has become established as a methodological and theoretical perspective. It describes how practitioners actually make decisions in essays complex domains. However, NDM theories tend to focus on the human agents in the system. Essays? We extend the historians and historiography NDM perspective to media essays include the technological agents in complex systems and institute introduce the dynamic model of situated cognition. A Literature Review of Analytical and Naturalistic Decision Making ( local copy ), by Zsambok, Beach, and Klein, for Naval Command, Control and media gender Ocean Surveillance Center, Dec 1992 - examines many decision models/strategies.

Experts, expertise, and essay experience ( local copy ), course module from NOAA What do experts do so well that others don't? Recognize patterns Detect anomalies Keep the big picture (situation awareness) Understand the way things work Observe opportunities, able to improvise Relate past, present, and media future events Pick up on very subtle differences Address their own limitations What is an expert? Novice - Lives in fibre norway the moment. Can’t recognize complex relationships. Produces limited options. Routine Expert - Great at everyday stuff, strong procedural knowledge. Runs into trouble when problems are ill-structured or novel. Adaptive Expert - Has a deep comprehension of conceptual structure of the problem domain. Media Essays? 25 hours of well done simulations can achieve the same effect as 2 years of experience (or much more) NASA's ASK Talks with Dr. Gary Klein - use of love storytelling, even internally, to improve decision making and problem solving and development/use of expertise.

Military Decisionmaking Process (MDMP) Implications of Modern Decision Science for Military Decision-Support Systems, by Davis, Kulick, and Egner, RAND, 2005 Military Decision-Making Process (MDMP) ( local copy ), chapter 5 of FM 101-5 Staff Organization and Operations Is It Time to Abandon the Military Decisionmaking Process ( local copy ), by McLamb, in Military Review , Mar-Apr 2002 US Army Decisionmaking: Past, Present, and Future ( local copy ), by gender Paparone, in Military Review , Jul-Aug 2001 How Critical Thinking Shapes the Military Decision Making Process ( local copy ), by Usry, Naval War College, 2004 A lack of essay love Combatant Commander (COCOM) critical thinking in the Military Decision Making Process (MDMP) is a causal factor in military failure at the operational level. Media? However, critical thinking can improve the MDMP of the COCOM. This paper analyzes the effects of critical thinking on the combatant commander’s decision making process by: defining critical thinking; illustrating its impact on intuitive and analytical decisions; demonstrating barriers to critical thinking and proposing practical ways to use critical thinking in the MDMP. Descriptive Models of Military Decision Making ( local copy ), by Klein et al, ARI Research Note 90-93, 1990. Combined Forces Command-Afghanistan Management Decision Model ( local copy ), DoD IG, July 2005 Considering the request for assistance and the proposed application of the MDM, the DoD IG Team created a “universal” model that can be used to assess the capability and capacity of any organization founded on democratic principles and the “Rule of Law.” For the purposes of this model, the definition of in apa “organization” includes the full spectrum of media organizational structures—from a nation-state to thesis written in apa style any type of government-, military-, or business-related entity.

Consequently, the DoD IG Team built the attached model and identified the high-level elements common to media essays gender most organizations that should be considered to establish a viable, stable, and selfsustaining institution. This document, therefore, includes the Management Decision Model, instructions on how to lab report template use the model, and a comprehensive description of the media essays gender various elements embedded in the model’s architecture. Applying Dialectic to Acquisition Strategy ( local copy ), by Peeler, in love Acquisition Review Quarterly , Spring 1997 - includes discussion of Kant's Hierarchy of Reason Hegel's Dialectic Karl Popper Simultaneous Antitheses. General Robert E. Lee and Modern Decision Theory, by Gilster, in AU Review , Mar-Apr 1972, including discussion of battle of Chancellorsville, and brief discussion of Lanchester Equations Bayes’ Theorem Von Neumann-Morgenstern Utility Theorem. Decision Sciences Institute (DSI), multidisciplinary international association dedicated to gender advancing knowledge and improving instruction in all business and related disciplines. Are You a Good Decision Maker? ( local copy ), from SBA -- includes Ten Steps to formal Wise Decision-Making and essays Common Decision-Making Mistakes The Human Side of Decision Making ( local copy ), from cause essays FAA -- brief examination of the human traits that interfere with decision-making.

Ladder of essays gender Inference ( local copy ), from formal template NIH - a model that describes an individual's mental process of media essays gender observing situations, drawing conclusions and taking action War in the Pits: Marine-Futures Traders Wargame ( local copy ), NDU Strategic Forum 61, by essay West Marine generals and colonels vs futures traders in decisionmaking wargame The traders' OODA loop, executed at much higher speed, is ISAA: Information, Sort by media essays Priority, Act, Assess Virtual Stress ( local copy ), in Marines Online , senior Marines vs futures traders in decision making wargame. The Collapse of Decisionmaking and Organizational Structure on institute norway Storm King Mountain ( local copy ), by media essays gender Putnam, USDA Forest Service, 1995 Numerous studies show no matter how many factors are important, the human mind normally can handle only about seven factors (e.g., seven-digit telephone numbers). People are not always aware of which factors dominate their decision process. Although we say “safety first,” this doesn’t mean it’s necessarily first in actual decisions. Also, people are seldom aware of the paper research few factors they actually are processing so tend to be overconfident in their decisionmaking ability. Gender? Studies also show that our linear thinking tends to formal lab report template underestimate hazards, particularly if the hazard is increasing at a logarithmic or exponential rate as can happen on the fireline.

An example would be estimating rates of fire spread. A computer would give the better decision in a heartbeat. People would tend to media essays gender underestimate the rate of spread and have difficulty deciding on of germany an appropriate course of action. Essays Gender? And so it is important to understand the limits of how we process information and common types of errors that can occur. Revisiting the unification of germany essay Abilene Paradox - Is Management of essays Agreement Still an Issue?, by Deiss - brief discussion of the mismanagement of agreement, where nobody in a group wants to do an activity, but the group does it because each member thinks all the fibre institute norway others want to essays do it.

Intuition: an Imperative of Command ( local copy ), by written in apa Rogers, in Military Review - examines relevance of intuition to media essays gender decision making in the context of warfighting on the modern battlefield. Decisionmaking Theory ( local copy ), Marine Corps Doctrine Publication 6 the intuitive approach is bismarck unification of germany, more appropriate for the vast majority of gender typical tactical or operational decisions-decisions made in the fluid, rapidly changing conditions of style war when time and uncertainty are critical factors, and creativity is a desirable trait Note 18. Media Essays Gender? Intuitive decisionmaking more appropriate for the vast majority of tactical/operational decisions: A 1989 study by Gary A. Klein (based on 1985 observations) estimated that decision makers in a variety of disciplines use intuitive methods 87 percent of the time and analytical methods 13 percent of the essays and historiography time. Evidence now suggests that this study was actually biased in favor of analysis . Gender? More recent studies estimate the breakdown at more nearly 95 percent intuitive to 5 percent analytical.

G. A. Institute? Klein, Recognition-Primed Decisions in William B. Rouse (ed.), Advances in Man-Machine System Research (Greenwich, CT: Jai Press, 1989); G. L. Kaempf, S. Wolf, M. Media Essays? L. Thordsen, and G. Klein, Decision Making in the Aegis Combat Information Center (Fairborn, OH: Klein Associates, 1992); R. Pascual and S. Henderson, Evidence of Naturalistic Decision Making in Command and Control in lab report C. Zsambok and G. Klein (eds.), Naturalistic Decision Making , forthcoming publication (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates); Kathleen Louise Mosier, Decision Making in the Air Transport Flight Deck: Process and essays gender Product , unpublished dissertation (Berkeley, CA: University of California, 1990). Decision Making Theory ( local copy ), Naval Doctrine Publication 6, Naval Command and Control The intuitive approach is clearly more appropriate for the fluid, rapidly changing environment of institute combat, when time and media gender uncertainty are critical factors. Naturalistic Decision Making ( local copy ), an attempt to understand how humans actually make decisions in essays complex real-world settings, by essays gender Klein and Klinger, 4 pages, in Human Systems IAC Gateway , vol XI, nbr 3 -- article contrasts naturalistic with recognition-primed decision (RPD) model. A Framework for Military Decision Making under Risks ( abstract ) ( full copy ), by Schultz, School of Advanced Airpower Studies (SAAS) - includes discussion of Eisenhower's decision regarding Operation Market Garden - see especially Chapter 2, Military Decision Making and bismarck of germany essay Prospect Theory - Command Decisions, collection of essays on the key decisions by both sides in media gender both theaters of WW II. Some Commercial Tools Influence Net Modeling tools from SAIC, combining subjective with objective Definitive Software, with tools re: scenarios, risk analysis, decision-making Decisioneering software, with tools for optimizing decisions in complex situations Reason!Able, software for organizing thoughts, analyzing arguments, and building decision skills Rationale ™ , argument mapping software. Decision-Making, by Kent, in AU Review , May-June 1971 - addressing the problems and use of analysis More On Decision-Making, by Blythe, in AU Review , Jan-Feb 1972 - follow-on and paper fibre institute response to above article. Gaming and Decision Theory Coevolution: Studying the Dynamics of media essays Competition, and Gauss: Scenario Translation ( local copy ), by McDonald, of SAIC, at Project Albert International Workshop 5, posted by USMC Warfighting Lab - includes out-thinking, out-doing, reflexive control, OODA loop, recursive anticipation, co-adaptation, adaptive mental model, and more.

Game Theory.net, a resource for educators and students of game theory Stability Modeling and Game-Theoretic Considerations, Los Alamos National Labs ( local copy ) Decision-Theory for Crisis Management, Final Report, ARPA ( local copy ) A Framework for Military Decision Making under Risks ( abstract ) ( full copy ), by Schultz, School of Advanced Airpower Studies (SAAS) -- see especially Chapter 2, Military Decision Making and Prospect Theory. Paradox of Choice Sheena Iyengar on the art of paper institute choosing - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on gender YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Sheena Iyengar studies how we make choices -- and how we feel about the choices we make. Paper Fibre Research Institute Norway? At TEDGlobal, she talks about both trivial choices (Coke v. Pepsi) and media essays profound ones, and shares her groundbreaking research that has uncovered some surprising attitudes about our decisions. Barry Schwartz on the paradox of choice - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Psychologist Barry Schwartz takes aim at paper fibre research a central tenet of western societies: freedom of choice. In Schwartz's estimation, choice has made us not freer but more paralyzed, not happier but more dissatisfied. Renata Salecl - The Paradox of Choice - an RSA video Fusing sociology, psychoanalysis and philosophy, Professor Renata Salecl shows that individual choice is essays gender, rarely based on a simple rational decision with a predictable outcome. Baba Shiv: Sometimes it's good to give up the driver's seat - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Over the thesis written in apa years, research has shown a counterintuitive fact about human nature: That sometimes, having too much choice makes us less happy. This may even be true when it comes to medical treatment. Baba Shiv shares a fascinating study that measures why choice opens the door to doubt, and suggests that ceding control -- especially on life-or-death decisions -- may be the best thing for media essays us. Game Theory .net - a resource for educators and students of game theory - with online interactive materials, syllabi, etc. Courses at Sloan School of Management, available online as part of MIT OpenCourseWare Project - includes syllabi and course materials includes Game Theory for Managers.

Game Theory, from the Stanford Encyclopedia of obesity cause Philosophy. Risk intelligence: How to live with uncertainty, RSA video by Evans Risk intelligence expert Dylan Evans outlines a powerful form of thinking; one where the same intuition seen in media essays gender the best poker players can be effectively transferred to business, politics and everyday life. Daniel Kahneman: The riddle of essays experience vs. memory - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Using examples from vacations to colonoscopies, Nobel laureate and founder of behavioral economics Daniel Kahneman reveals how our experiencing selves and media gender our remembering selves perceive happiness differently. This new insight has profound implications for economics, public policy -- and our own self-awareness. Widely regarded as the world's most influential living psychologist, Daniel Kahneman won the Nobel in cause Economics for media essays his pioneering work in behavioral economics -- exploring the defining love irrational ways we make decisions about risk. Decisionmaking Theory ( local copy ), Marine Corps Doctrine Publication 6 the intuitive approach is media, more appropriate for the vast majority of typical tactical or operational decisions-decisions made in the fluid, rapidly changing conditions of war when time and uncertainty are critical factors, and creativity is lab report, a desirable trait Improving CIA Analytic Performance: Strategic Warning ( local copy ), by media Davis, occasional paper for CIA's Improving CIA Analytic Performance: Strategic Warning - includes discussion of Substantive Uncertainty and Strategic Warning and Analytic Tradecraft for Managing Substantive Uncertainty and Averting Strategic Surprise through Alternative Analysis

Expecting the Unexpected ( local copy ), by Frasqueri-Molina, in NASA's ASK magazine, issue 43, Summer 2011 - creating a mitigation plan to deal with unexpected risks The author developed a risk-mitigation plan to reestablish order from obesity chaos. Media Essays? Remain calm. Halt the entire project or just the affected work momentarily and written in apa style let everyone take a break. Essays Gender? Immediately gather the resolution team, which consists of the project manager and any of the paper fibre institute norway people who can offer solutions; meet privately. Assess risk impact. Essays? Brainstorm solutions. Choose a solution. Obtain project sponsor approval.

Communicate the solution to the entire team, resume project, resolve risk. A Framework for Military Decision Making under Risks ( abstract ) ( full copy ), by Schultz, School of Advanced Airpower Studies (SAAS) - includes discussion of Eisenhower's decision regarding Operation Market Garden - see especially Chapter 2, Military Decision Making and Prospect Theory - Complex vs. Template? Complicated Eric Berlow: Simplifying complexity - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Ecologist Eric Berlow doesn't feel overwhelmed when faced with complex systems. He knows that more information can lead to a better, simpler solution. Media Gender? Illustrating the essays historians tips and tricks for breaking down big issues, he distills an overwhelming infographic on U.S. strategy in essays gender Afghanistan to a few elementary points. Systemic Operational Design: Learning and Adapting in Complex Missions ( local copy ), by de Czege, Military Review , Jan-Feb 2009 Nearly all missions this century will be complex, and the kind of thinking we have called “operational art” is often now required at battalion level. Fundamentally, operational art requires balancing design and planning while remaining open to learning and adapting quickly to fibre norway change. Essays? Design is not a new idea. Command has always entailed responsibility for designing operations while penetrating complexity and framing problems that planners have to solve.

Individual ability to learn effectively, adapt rapidly and essays on ottoman appropriately, and to solve problems has always been self-evidently valuable to commanders. Yet, collectively, a command’s overall quality of media essays design, learning, and adaptation is what determines results. Military leaders may value individual creativity, critical thinking, continuous learning, and adaptability in their staffs and subordinate commanders, but individual traits do not necessarily add up to collective abilities needed for the best outcomes. Complicated versus complex systems. Merely complicated systems are composed of numerous parts and paper institute norway structures, all logically separable from their environment. An example would be the system for deploying units on a time table for an operation like D-day. Such a schedule could be accurately analyzed in the abstract. Gender? Complex systems are made up of dynamic, interactive, and adaptive elements that cannot be separated from interaction with their environments.

The significant elements of complex systems are human beings and their relationships. An example would be the action-reaction interplay of the thesis in apa style various actors in cooperation and contention on D-day. Analysis could never predict the relationships that were the most important part of the flow of events. Where merely complicated systems require mostly deduction and analysis (formal logic of breaking into essays gender parts), complexity requires inductive and paper research institute abductive reasoning for media gender diagnostics and thesis synthesis (the informal logic of essays gender making new wholes of parts). Research Institute Norway? Because the elements of media essays complex systems we care most about are human ones, making sense of relationships requires hypothetical synthesis in the form of maps or narratives. Essay Defining? Such maps and narratives evolve as informal products that reflect a dimly perceived truth at a moment of understanding in essays gender time. To make the best sense of human relationships, interactions, trends, and propensities, military commands have to adopt a habitually skeptical approach to such non-deductive conclusions. Such habituation implies a new intellectual culture that balances design and planning while evincing an appreciation for paper fibre norway the dynamic flow of human factors and a bias toward perpetual learning and adapting. Adding to the Toolkit: Three Conceptual Tradeoffs ( local copy ), by essays Austin, SAMS paper, AY10 This monograph shows how understanding three conceptual tradeoffs of complex versus complicated, complexity at large-scale versus fine-scale, and essay exploration of potential problems versus exploitation of known solutions can help the military practitioner better learn, anticipate and adapt to difficult problems.

It does so by media essays defining the three conceptual tradeoffs and then applying them to Operation Iraqi Freedom for the United States in 2003 and obesity cause and effect essays the Israeli incursion into media gender Southern Lebanon by the Israeli Defense Forces in 2006. These difficult operations involved conventional, guerilla, counterinsurgency and irregular operations that provide two relevant examples to help the military practitioner better prepare for 21st century operations. Being a complicated or complex problem does not imply that one is easier or harder to manage than the other. They are just different. Complicated problems are problems that can be reduced and then reassembled into a whole based solely on their parts. They are understandable, controllable and more predictable than complex problems. Essay Love? Organizations do best with complicated problems when they focus on internal efficiency and optimization. Complex problems are not as predictable due to media essays gender interdependencies and feedback. Organizations that learn, evolve, and adapt with distributed command and control manage them best. Formal Lab Report? Although the ends may be the same, the essays gender ways and means to solve complex versus complicated problems are different. To help understand how organizations orient towards complex problems, the scientist William Ross Ashby created a useful concept called the Law of Requisite Variety.

It states that a problem can only be controlled if the variety of the controller matches the variety of the situation to be controlled. Put another way, the complexity of a task must be matched by essays and historiography the complexity of media essays gender a system trying to perform the task effectively. Much as hierarchically controlled organizations are able to focus on template efficiency and optimization, the more distributed the media gender command and control of an organization, the less efficient it becomes, despite its potential ability to thesis manage more complexity. Media Essays Gender? Hierarchical and distributed command and control systems therefore involve important tradeoffs, each bringing its own unique strengths and weaknesses. TED videos Eric Berlow: Simplifying complexity - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Ecologist Eric Berlow doesn't feel overwhelmed when faced with complex systems. He knows that more information can lead to a better, simpler solution.

Illustrating the tips and tricks for breaking down big issues, he distills an cause and effect essays, overwhelming infographic on U.S. strategy in Afghanistan to a few elementary points. George Whitesides: Toward a science of media gender simplicity - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Simplicity: We know it when we see it -- but what is it, exactly? In this funny, philosophical talk, George Whitesides chisels out an answer. Tim Harford: Trial, error and the God complex - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Economics writer Tim Harford studies complex systems -- and essays on ottoman historians and historiography finds a surprising link among the successful ones: they were built through trial and error. In this sparkling talk from TEDGlobal 2011, he asks us to embrace our randomness and start making better mistakes.

The Decision-Making Process for essays Complex Situations in a Complex Environment, by Benner and Benner, First chapter in Burstein, F. and Holsapple, C.W. Defining? (Eds). Handbook on Decision Support Systems. New York: Springer-Verlag (2008) While all decisions are a guess about the future, as complexity builds upon complexity decision-makers must increasingly rely on their intuition and judgment. This chapter explores the decision-making process for media essays gender complex situations in a complex environment (complex adaptive messes) in norway terms of: laying the groundwork for decision-making, understanding and exploring complex situations, discussing human additive factors, preparing for essays gender the decision process and mechanisms for influencing complex situations. Laying the groundwork introduces the concepts of emergence, the butterfly effect, the tipping point, feedback loops and power laws. Mechanisms for defining love influencing complex situations include structural adaptation, boundary management, absorption, optimum complexity, simplification, sense and respond, amplification, and seeding. The authors forward that decision-makers may be able to construct a strategy that guides problem resolution through a sequence of decisions and essays actions leading toward an acceptable solution. Leading Complex Projects in the DoD ( local copy ), by Meier, in Defense AT L , May-June 2013 [AT L = Acquisition, Technology Logistics] There is a quote from Albert Einstein that is very relevant to complex projects: “Any intelligent fool can make things bigger and more complex. . It takes a touch of genius—and a lot of courage—to move in the opposite direction.” In many cases, it is organizations, agencies, and senior committees that make projects bigger and more complex than they need to be. My hope is paper norway, that this article will provide leaders of complex projects with the data and the courage to reduce complexity and deliver complex projects within scope, cost, and schedule. Leadership and media Systems Thinking ( local copy ), by Reed, in Defense AT L , May-June 2006 [AT L = Acquisition, Technology Logistics] The Department of Defense is a large and complex social system with many interrelated parts. Essay Love? As with any system of this type, when changes are made to one part, many others are affected in a cascading and often unpredictable manner.

Thus, organizational decisions are fraught with second- and third-order effects that result in unintended consequences. “Fire and forget” approaches are rarely sufficient and are sometimes downright harmful. Peter Senge submits, in The Fifth Discipline , that systems thinking provides just the media essays gender type of thesis in apa discipline and media essays gender toolset needed to encourage the seeing of unification of germany essay “interrelationships rather than things, for seeing patterns of change rather than static ‘snapshots.’” Senge argues that this shift of mind is necessary to deal with the complexities of dynamic social systems. Peirce, Pragmatism, and The Right Way of essays gender Thinking ( local copy ), by Campbell, Sandia National Labs, Aug 2011 Peirce is thesis in apa, known as the founder of the philosophy of pragmatism and these lectures, given near the end of his life, represent his mature thoughts on the philosophy. Peirce’s decomposition of thinking into abduction, deduction, and induction is gender, among the important points in the lectures. Adaptive Peircean Decision Aid Project Summary Assessments ( local copy ), by Senglaub, Sandia National Laboratories, Dec 2006 Abstract - This effort's objective was to identify and hybridize a suite of historians and historiography technologies enabling the development of predictive decision aids for media gender use principally in combat environments but also in any complex information terrain.

The technologies required included formal concept analysis for knowledge representation and information operations, Peircean reasoning to support hypothesis generation, Mill’s canons to paper fibre institute begin defining information operators that support the first two technologies and co-evolutionary game theory to provide the environment / domain to assess predictions from the reasoning engines. The intended application domain is the IED problem because of essays its inherent evolutionary nature. While a fully functioning integrated algorithm was not achieved the hybridization and demonstration of the and historiography technologies was accomplished and demonstration of media gender utility provided for a number of ancillary queries. Figure 1 [on PDF page 5] shows a decision making paradigm The reasoning engine is based on C.S. Peirce’s model of scientific inquiry. This philosophical construct provides the foundation for how we as humans reason about research institute norway situations new to us. Essays Gender? This model consists of three reasoning capabilities; Abduction, deduction and induction. A crude way of looking at this suite of written in apa logic is media essays gender, abduction provides plausible hypotheses to explain an bismarck unification, observation, deduction provides a basis for selecting from that set of hypotheses, and induction is the means to validate the hypothesis selected. Bringing Intelligence About: Practitioners Reflect on Best Practices ( local copy ), ed. by media gender Swenson, Joint Military Intelligence College, 2003 Reasoning: The ability to reason is essay defining love, what permits humans to media essays process information and unification essay formulate explanations, to assign meaning to observed phenomena.

It is by media essays reasoning that analysts transform information into intelligence, in fibre research institute norway these three ways: 1. Induction: Inductive reasoning combines separate fragments of gender information, or specific answers to problems, to form general rules or conclusions. For example, using induction, a child learns to associate the color red with heat and heat with pain, and then to generalize these associations to new situations. Cause And Effect Essays? Rigorous induction depends upon demonstrating the validity of causal relationships between observed phenomena, not merely associating them with each other. 2. Deduction: Deductive reasoning applies general rules to specific problems to arrive at media essays conclusions. Analysts begin with a set of essays on ottoman historians and historiography rules and use them as a basis for media interpreting information. Cause And Effect Essays? For example, an analyst who follows the nuclear weapons program of a country might notice that a characteristic series of events preceded the last nuclear weapons test. Upon seeing evidence that those same events are occurring again, the essays gender analyst might deduce that a second nuclear test is imminent. However, this conclusion would be made cautiously, since deduction works best in closed systems such as mathematics, making it of essays historians and historiography limited use in forecasting human behavior. 3. Abduction: Abductive reasoning describes the thought process that accompanies “insight” or intuition. When the gender information does not match that expected, the analyst asks “why?,” thereby generating novel hypotheses to explain given evidence that does not readily suggest a familiar explanation.

For example, given two shipping manifests, one showing oranges and lemons being shipped from Venezuela to Florida, and the other showing carnations being shipped from Delaware to Colombia, abductive reasoning is what enables the analyst to take an on ottoman historians and historiography, analytic leap and ask, “Why is essays gender, citrus fruit being sent to written style the worldwide capital of citrus farming, while carnations are being sent to the world’s primary exporter of that product? What is gender, really going on here?” Thus, abduction relies on the analyst’s preparation and experience to suggest possible explanations that must then be tested. Abduction generates new research questions rather than solutions. Manual of Job-Related Thinking Skills ( local copy ), Department of defining love Homeland Security - including deductive reasoning, reasoning with sets, inductive reasoning about essays real-world events, and formal statistical reasoning - includes quizzes throughout. Statistics and Trace Evidence: The Tyranny of Numbers ( local copy ), by Houck, in Forensic Science Communications , FBI - discusses induction and deduction and their application in establishing evidence - see especially the section How Do We Know All Ravens Are Black? quick definitions at media gender an NIH site listing desired job skills Deductive Reasoning - Able to essays historians apply general rules to specific problems to come up with logical answers, including deciding whether an answer makes sense. Essays Gender? Inductive Reasoning - Able to combine separate pieces of information, or specific answers to problems, to form general rules or conclusions. This includes coming up with a logical explanation for why seemingly unrelated events occur together.

Janusian Thinking and Acting ( local copy ), by Paparone and Crupi, in Military Review , Jan-Feb 2002 The authors maintain that the current U.S. approach to military operations-strategic, operational, and tactical-is too linear for essays today's contemporary operating environment. They argue that future warfighters must move beyond linear thought and action to a realm of thinking and acting that recognizes and accepts paired yet opposite ideas and essays gender actions Instead of ruling out alternative hypotheses, Janusian thinking calls on us to embrace contradictions as naturally occurring phenomena. When we create insights for thinking and acting from the Janusian framework, we achieve remarkable explanatory power over essay defining love the nature of human information processing. The seats of reason? An imaging study of deductive and inductive reasoning, by Goel et al, Dept of Psychology, York U., North York, Ontario, CA -- abstract posted by National Library of Medicine. We carried out a neuroimaging study to test the neurophysiological predictions made by different cognitive models of reasoning. Media Essays Gender? Ten normal volunteers performed deductive and inductive reasoning tasks while their regional cerebral blood flow pattern was recorded using [15O]H2O PET imaging. Style? In the control condition subjects semantically comprehended sets of three sentences. In the essays gender deductive reasoning condition subjects determined whether the third sentence was entailed by the first two sentences.

In the inductive reasoning condition subjects reported whether the third sentence was plausible given the first two sentences. The deduction condition resulted in activation of the left inferior frontal gyrus (Brodmann areas 45, 47). The induction condition resulted in activation of a large area comprised of the left medial frontal gyrus, the left cingulate gyrus, and the left superior frontal gyrus (Brodmann areas 8, 9, 24, 32). Induction was distinguished from deduction by written style the involvement of the medial aspect of the media essays left superior frontal gyrus (Brodmann areas 8, 9). These results are consistent with cognitive models of reasoning that postulate different mechanisms for inductive and deductive reasoning and written style view deduction as a formal rule-based process. PMID: 9175134 [PubMed - indexed for essays MEDLINE] Deductive Logic, by St. George Stock, posted by Project Gutenberg. Counterfactual Reasoning Counterfactual Reasoning: A Basic Guide for on ottoman historians Analysts, Strategists, and Decision Makers ( local copy ), by Hendrickson, The Proteus Monograph Series , Oct 2008 Counterfactual reasoning is the essays gender process of evaluating conditional claims about alternate possibilities and their consequences (i.e., “What If” statements). Obesity? These alternatives can be either past possibilities (e.g., “If the United States had not abolished the essays Iraqi army in 2003, then the Iraqi insurgency would have been significantly smaller in on ottoman 2005”) or future possibilities (e.g., “If Iran had nuclear weapons, then it would provide this technology to Hezbollah”). Counterfactuals are essential to intelligence analysis because they are implicit in all strategic assessments.

Counterfactual claims are widespread among our national security analysts, strategists, and media decision makers. Unfortunately, this is not widely recognized. Furthermore, there is no comprehensive model of thesis written style counterfactual reasoning to gender which anyone may turn if they do become aware of the ubiquitous nature of and effect essays counterfactuals within intelligence and national security. Media Essays Gender? Instead, there are several fragmented approaches in philosophy, logic, history, political science, and psychology. To make matters worse, none of these approaches has been applied to the unique challenges of intelligence and security. In response, this work seeks to demonstrate both the structure and the significance of counterfactual reasoning. Thesis Style? It offers not only the first complete system of media gender counterfactual reasoning (of which this author is aware), but the first one specifically designed to address the domain of intelligence analysis and national security. Furthermore, this work proposes three major claims about the place of counterfactual reasoning in analysis and written style strategy. Therefore, this work is gender, not only intended to essay defining love serve as an media essays, education in counterfactual reasoning, but also as an exhortation to counterfactual reasoning. First Major Proposal (The Strategic Presumption of Counterfactuals): All strategies (and analyses of them) are grounded in a series of counterfactual claims about on ottoman alternate possibilities, their consequences, and the relationships between them.

Second Major Proposal (The Systematic Potential of Counterfactuals): Major extant methods for media essays gender assessing alternate possibilities, their consequences, and written the relationships between them may be viewed as ultimately not distinct, but as aspects of a single process—counterfactual reasoning. Media Essays Gender? Third Major Proposal (The Structural Priority of Counterfactuals): All assessment of alternate possibilities, their consequences, and paper fibre research institute norway the relationships between them should ultimately be conditional (as it is in media counterfactual reasoning). Thinking, Fast and Slow , by lab report Kahneman, 2011 Book review of Thinking, Fast and Slow , by Kahneman ( local copy ), review by Babetski, in media gender CIA Studies in Intelligence Vol. 56, No. 2 Kahneman, who won the 2002 Nobel Prize in Economics for his work with Tversky on bismarck prospect theory, also highlights the essays gender best work of research other researchers throughout the media gender book.

Thinking, Fast and Slow introduces no revolutionary new material, but it is a masterpiece because of the way Kahneman weaves existing research together. Lab Report Template? System 1, or fast thinking, operates automatically and media gender quickly with little or no effort and no sense of voluntary control. System 2, or slow thinking, allocates attention to the mental activities that demand effort, such as complex computations and conscious, reasoned choices about what to think and what to do. On Ottoman Historians And Historiography? Kahneman focuses much of the media book on essay defining the interactions of System 1 and System 2 and the problems inherent in those interactions. Media Essays? Both systems are “on” when we are awake. System 1 runs automatically and effortlessly but System 2 idles, because using it requires effort and is tiring. Cause And Effect? System 1 generates impressions and feelings, which become the source of media gender System 2’s explicit beliefs and deliberate choices. System 1, when it encounters something it cannot quickly understand and did not expect (in other words, a surprise), enlists System 2 to make sense of the anomaly. Paper Research Institute? The alerted System 2 takes charge, overriding System 1’s automatic reactions. System 2 always has the last word when it chooses to assert it. Daniel Kahneman: The riddle of experience vs. memory - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on essays gender YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Using examples from vacations to colonoscopies, Nobel laureate and founder of behavioral economics Daniel Kahneman reveals how our experiencing selves and our remembering selves perceive happiness differently.

This new insight has profound implications for economics, public policy -- and our own self-awareness. Widely regarded as the world's most influential living psychologist, Daniel Kahneman won the Nobel in Economics for his pioneering work in behavioral economics -- exploring the irrational ways we make decisions about risk. Integrating Fast and Slow Cognitive Processes ( local copy ), by Kennedy and Bugajska, for the Naval Research Laboratory, 2010 Human reactions appear to be controlled by two separate types of mental processes: one fast, automatic, and unconscious and the other slow, deliberate, and conscious. With the attention in the literature focused on the taxonomy of the two processes, there is little discussion of how they interact. In this paper, we focus on defining love modeling the slower process's ability to inhibit the fast process. Essays? We present computational cognitive models in which different strategies allow a human to consciously inhibit an undesirable fast response. Gladwell, Malcolm. Blink: The Power of Thinking without Thinking . New York: Little, Brown, 2005 Book review of Gladwell's Blink ( local copy ), by Norton, in Naval War College Review , Winter 2006. Intuition The intuitive mind is a sacred gift and the rational mind is a faithful servant. We have created a society that honors the servant and essays on ottoman historians and historiography has forgotten the gift.

See tactical decision games on the Simuations page, contrasting intuitive and analytic approaches. See also - Recognition-Primed Decision Model - references in the Decision-Making section above. How We Decide ( local copy ), by Schmitt, in media gender Designing TDGs: A Tactical Decision. Games Workbook , Marine Corps University, 26 Apr 1996 Not surprisingly, the and historiography research revealed that proficient decision makers rarely make decisions by concurrent option comparison. Media Essays Gender? Instead they use their intuition to recognize the bismarck essay essence of a given situation and to tell them what appropriate action to take.

In fact, separate studies by Dr. Gary Klein and others conclude that decision makers in media essays a variety of fields use the analytical apaproach to historians decision making less than 10 percent of the time and employ intuitive techniques over 90 percent of the time. Custer in Cyberspace ( local copy ), by Gompert and Kugler, Defense Horizons number 51, Feb 2006 When conditions are complex and dynamic, time is short, and critical information is media essays gender, available, the key to making good decisions is to research institute blend intuition with reasoning—more specifically, reliable intuition with timely reasoning . From The Personal Relevance of Great Campaigns - by essays gender Bird, 22 Feb 2001, Command and General Staff Officer's Course Carl Von Clausewitz explains that events in historians warfare are surrounded by uncertainty, and that there are few universal truths. Because of essays this, leaders must sort through this “fog” to find the truth, often a daunting endeavor that’s permeated by chance. The commander must sift through this information and decide what pieces are relevant and require action. Clausewitz specifically refers to the capability of the mind to essay discriminate information allowing quick, correct decisions. He describes this ability as coup d’oeil, “the quick recognition of a truth that the mind would ordinarily miss or would perceive only after long study and essays reflection .” 2 Napoleon faced such a scenario in bismarck essay the battles of gender Jena-Auerstadt.

With limited information, he turned an defining, entire field army in media place to seek decisive battle with the Prussians and won the day. [ 2 Carl Von Clausewitz, On War , ed. and trans. by formal Michael Howard and Peter Paret, (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1976), p. 100-102. ] Intuition: an Imperative of Command ( local copy ), by Rogers, in gender Military Review - examines relevance of intuition to cause and effect decision making in the context of warfighting on the modern battlefield. Decisionmaking Theory ( local copy ), Marine Corps Doctrine Publication 6 the intuitive approach is more appropriate for the vast majority of media essays typical tactical or operational decisions-decisions made in the fluid, rapidly changing conditions of war when time and uncertainty are critical factors, and creativity is a desirable trait Note 18. Bismarck Unification Of Germany? Intuitive decisionmaking more appropriate for the vast majority of tactical/operational decisions: A 1989 study by media Gary A. Klein (based on 1985 observations) estimated that decision makers in a variety of on ottoman historians and historiography disciplines use intuitive methods 87 percent of the time and gender analytical methods 13 percent of the time. Cause And Effect? Evidence now suggests that this study was actually biased in favor of analysis . More recent studies estimate the breakdown at more nearly 95 percent intuitive to 5 percent analytical.

G. Media? A. Klein, Recognition-Primed Decisions in William B. Rouse (ed.), Advances in Man-Machine System Research (Greenwich, CT: Jai Press, 1989); G. L. Kaempf, S. Wolf, M. L. Thordsen, and G. Klein, Decision Making in the Aegis Combat Information Center (Fairborn, OH: Klein Associates, 1992); R. Pascual and S. Henderson, Evidence of Naturalistic Decision Making in Command and Control in C. Zsambok and G. Essays Historians And Historiography? Klein (eds.), Naturalistic Decision Making , forthcoming publication (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates); Kathleen Louise Mosier, Decision Making in media essays the Air Transport Flight Deck: Process and Product , unpublished dissertation (Berkeley, CA: University of California, 1990). Decision Making Theory ( local copy ), Naval Doctrine Publication 6, Naval Command and Control The intuitive approach is clearly more appropriate for thesis in apa the fluid, rapidly changing environment of combat, when time and uncertainty are critical factors. War in media the Pits: Marine-Futures Traders Wargame ( local copy ), NDU Strategic Forum 61, by West Marine generals and colonels vs futures traders in decisionmaking wargame The traders' OODA loop, executed at much higher speed, is ISAA: Information, Sort by Priority, Act, Assess Virtual Stress ( local copy ), in Marines Online , senior Marines vs futures traders in thesis in apa style decision making wargame. Intuitive people worse at detecting lies, by Young, NewScientist.com, 18 Mar 2002 People who think of themselves as being intuitive make worse lie detectors than those who do not trust in a gut instinct, according to new research. Media? One possible explanation is thesis style, that intuitives in media essays fact rely on common misconceptions about essay love how to spot a liar, he says. Situation Awareness, Situational Awareness To see, to media essays gender hear, means nothing. To recognize (or not to recognize) means everything. Individual Situation Awareness ( local copy ), course module from NOAA Situation Awareness Definition (from Mica Endsley, 1988) Level 1 - Perception of the elements in the environment within a volume of space Level 2 - Comprehension of their meaning Level 3 - Projection of their status in the near future. Situation Awareness Demons: the Enemies of essay love Situation Awareness ( local copy ), course module from NOAA Discusses the eight demons laid out by media essays Endsley et al, in Designing for Situation Awareness Attentional Tunneling Requisite Memory Trap Workload, Anxiety, Fatigue, and Other Stressors (WAFOS) Data Overload Misplaced Salience Complexity Creep Errant Mental Models Out-of-the-Loop Syndrome. Ye Olde Brain, and Its Workings The destiny of every human being is decided by in apa what goes on inside his skull when confronted with what goes on outside his skull. I know you think you understand what you thought I said but I'm not sure you realize that what you heard is not what I meant.

Daniel Amen - Change your brain, change your life, a TEDx talk Change your Brain, Change your Life. Revelations based on studying 63,000 brain images across 90 countries over 20 years. How Brain imaging can change paradigms and our understanding of media healthy life, no matter where we live. Steve Ramirez and Xu Liu: A mouse. A laser beam. Obesity Essays? A manipulated memory - a TED talk (you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked) Can we edit the content of our memories? It’s a sci-fi-tinged question that Steve Ramirez and media essays Xu Liu are asking in their lab at MIT.

Essentially, the pair shoot a laser beam into the brain of a living mouse to activate and manipulate its memory. In this unexpectedly amusing talk they share not only how, but -- more importantly -- why they do this. (Filmed at TEDxBoston.) From Bench to paper fibre institute norway Bunker: How a 1960s discovery in neuroscience spawned a military project, by Bardin, in The Chronicle of Higher Education , 9 July 2012 The man has a machine strapped to his head, an array of electrodes called an essays, electroencephalogram, or EEG, which is recording his brain activity as each image skips by. It then sends the brain-activity data wirelessly to a large computer. The computer has learned what the man's brain activity looks like when he sees one of the visual targets, and, based on that information, it quickly reshuffles the obesity cause and effect images. When the essays man sorts back through the hundreds of formal images—most without structures, but some with—almost all the ones with buildings in them pop to the front of the pack. His brain and media the computer have done good work. Written In Apa? That display was a demonstration of a new technology being developed through a collaboration between the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the military's research arm, and a private company called Neuromatters, which was founded by a team led by media essays the Columbia University bioengineer Paul Sajda. The hope is bismarck essay, that, in the near future, military analysts might use the technology to eliminate worthless images in seconds, speeding up their review of essays satellite images by orders of magnitude. By the looks of it, it's working. Paolo Cardini: Forget multitasking, try monotasking, a talk from TED.com - if TED site is paper fibre institute norway, blocked, you may be able to watch it on YouTube or one of the other sites People aren’t just cooking anymore -- they’re cooking, texting, talking on essays gender the phone, watching YouTube and uploading photos of the fibre research institute awesome meal they just made.

Designer Paolo Cardini questions the efficiency of our multitasking world and makes the case for -- gasp -- monotasking. Amy Cuddy: Your body language shapes who you are, a talk from TED.com - if TED site is blocked, you may be able to watch it on YouTube or one of the other sites Body language affects how others see us, but it may also change how we see ourselves. Social psychologist Amy Cuddy shows how “power posing” -- standing in a posture of confidence, even when we don’t feel confident -- can affect testosterone and cortisol levels in the brain, and might even have an essays gender, impact on our chances for success. Amy Cuddy’s research on body language reveals that we can change other people’s perceptions — and even our own body chemistry — simply by formal lab report template changing body positions. New TED Book: Brain Power, by Tiffany Shlain - announcement includes an media, overview video Discusses items such as the fact that a child's brain has 10 times as many connections as the entire internet. Iain McGilchrist: The divided brain - a Best of the Web talk featured by TED Psychiatrist Iain McGilchrist describes the real differences between the left and right halves of the human brain. It's not simply emotion on the right, reason on the left, but something far more complex and interesting.

A Best of the Web talk from RSA Animate. Scott Fraser: Why eyewitnesses get it wrong, a talk from TED.com (but you may need to watch it on YouTube if the TED.com version won't run on formal template your computer) Scott Fraser studies how humans remember crimes -- and bear witness to media them. In this powerful talk, which focuses on formal lab report a deadly shooting at sunset, he suggests that even close-up eyewitnesses to a crime can create memories they could not have seen. Why? Because the brain abhors a vacuum. Tan Le: A headset that reads your brainwaves, a talk from media TED.com (but you may need to watch it on YouTube if the TED.com version won't run on essays and historiography your computer) Tan Le's astonishing new computer interface reads its user's brainwaves, making it possible to essays control virtual objects, and even physical electronics, with mere thoughts (and a little concentration). She demos the headset, and talks about its far-reaching applications. Rebecca Saxe: How we read each other's minds, a talk from TED.com (but you may need to watch it on essays historians YouTube if the TED.com version won't run on your computer) Sensing the motives and gender feelings of others is paper fibre, a natural talent for humans. But how do we do it? Here, Rebecca Saxe shares fascinating lab work that uncovers how the brain thinks about other peoples' thoughts -- and judges their actions.

Kwabena Boahen on a computer that works like the brain, a talk from TED.com (but you may need to watch it on YouTube if the TED.com version won't run on media essays gender your computer) Researcher Kwabena Boahen is looking for ways to essays on ottoman historians and historiography mimic the brain's supercomputing powers in silicon -- because the messy, redundant processes inside our heads actually make for media a small, light, superfast computer. Diane Benscoter on how cults rewire the brain, a talk from TED.com (but you may need to watch it on YouTube if the TED.com version won't run on your computer) Diane Benscoter spent five years as a Moonie. She shares an insider's perspective on the mind of a cult member, and proposes a new way to think about today's most troubling conflicts and extremist movements. talks about viral memetic infections and compromised emotional immune systems Al Seckel says our brains are mis-wired, a talk from obesity cause essays TED.com (but you may need to watch it on YouTube if the TED.com version won't run on media essays gender your computer) Al Seckel, a cognitive neuroscientist, explores the perceptual illusions that fool our brains. Loads of lab report template eye tricks help him prove that not only are we easily fooled, we kind of like it. Steven Pinker on language and thought, a talk from TED.com (but you may need to essays gender watch it on YouTube if the TED.com version won't run on your computer) In an essay love, exclusive preview of gender his book The Stuff of essays historians Thought, Steven Pinker looks at language and how it expresses what goes on in our minds -- and media how the words we choose communicate much more than we realize.

Keith Barry does brain magic, a talk from TED.com (but you may need to watch it on and effect YouTube if the essays gender TED.com version won't run on your computer) First, Keith Barry shows us how our brains can fool our bodies -- in a trick that works via podcast too. Then he involves the audience in some jaw-dropping (and even a bit dangerous) feats of brain magic. The Secret Powers of Time, video by bismarck unification of germany essay Zimbardo Professor Philip Zimbardo reveals how our individual perspective on time affects our work, health and well-being. Mind Reading Machine on CBS Reads Your Thoughts - (10 out of 10 at guessing what a scanned person is thinking about) – also reading/assessing “intentions” and being able to assess if you’ve been somewhere before (for example, when you were robbing the house) and neural marketing – and brain patterns indicating various emotions. Science Nation - Mind Reading Computer System May Help People with Locked-in Syndrome Imagine living a life in which you are completely aware of the world around you but you're prevented from engaging in it because you are completely paralyzed.

Even speaking is impossible. For an estimated 50,000 Americans this is a harsh reality. It's called locked-in syndrome, a condition in which people with normal cognitive brain activity suffer severe paralysis, often from injuries or an illness such as Lou Gehrig's disease. Boston University neuroscientist Frank Guenther works with the National Science Foundation's Center of essays gender Excellence for Learning in Education, Science and Technology (CELEST), which is made up of eight private and on ottoman historians public institutions, mostly in the Boston area. Media Essays? Its purpose is to synthesize the experimental modeling and technological approaches to research in order to understand how the unification of germany brain learns as a whole system. Gender? In particular, Guenther's research is looking at how brain regions interact, with the hope of melding mind and lab report template machine, and ultimately making life much better for people with locked-in syndrome. Psychology of Intelligence Analysis ( local copy ), by Heuer, 1999, for essays CIA -- very good examination of many elements of critical thinking and essay love mental processes, with examples ( PDF version ) Semiotic Fundamentals of Information Processing in Human Brain ( local copy ), by essays gender Perlovsky, Air Force Research Lab The paper discusses a mathematical nature of thesis in apa style signs and symbols, and relates it to information processing and essays understanding, structure of the mind and brain, learning, and pattern recognition. Videos for Thinking Innovating Many videos from the bismarck of germany following sources are scattered throughout this website.

No endorsement of ideas or opinions is implied for the Air Force or any US Government agency/organization. These are for your personal interests and education only. TED talks - over 1,200 videos, from 3 minutes to 25 minutes, by leading thinkers and developers in many fields of essays gender study TED is formal lab report template, a nonprofit devoted to Ideas Worth Spreading. It started out (in 1984) as a conference bringing together people from three worlds: Technology, Entertainment, Design. Since then its scope has become ever broader. if the TED website copy of the video doesn't play on your computer, cut and essays paste the title of the obesity and effect talk into a search engine to find the YouTube copy or other copy which may play. The RSA (Royal Society for the encouragement of media gender Arts, Manufactures and Commerce) an enlightenment organisation committed to finding innovative practical solutions to today’s social challenges over 400 videos, animations, shorts, and more RSA Animate takes select speeches and adds entertaining animation effects. 99U - Insights on making ideas happen tips, articles, and videos At 99U, Behance's education arm, we focus on what happens after inspiration — researching the forces that truly push ideas to fruition.

Our profiles of cause and effect proven idea makers, action-oriented tips, and annual conference are all designed to help you transform ideas from gender vision to reality. PopTech videos We’re a global community of innovators, working together to expand the edge of essays on ottoman historians change. Miscellaneous Thinking in a Foreign Language Makes Decisions More Rational, by media essays Keim, in Wired online journal, Apr 2012 A series of essay experiments on more than 300 people from the U.S. and Korea found that thinking in a second language reduced deep-seated, misleading biases that unduly influence how risks and benefits are perceived. The researchers believe a second language provides a useful cognitive distance from automatic processes, promoting analytical thought and reducing unthinking, emotional reaction. Learning and media essays Reasoning: The True Heart of the Mind ( local copy ), by Gunning, DARPATech2005 - mention of programs to develop cognitive systems that can reason.

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Kindergarten or Elementary School Teacher. Kindergarten and elementary school teachers prepare younger students for future schooling by teaching them basic subjects such as math and reading. Kindergarten and elementary school teachers typically do the following: Plan lessons that teach students subjects, such as reading and math, and media gender skills, such as studying and communicating with others Assess students to evaluate their abilities, strengths, and weaknesses Teach lessons they have planned to an entire class of students or to smaller groups Grade students’ assignments to monitor their progress Communicate with parents about written in apa style, their child’s progress Work with students individually to help them overcome specific learning challenges Prepare students for standardized tests required by the state Develop and enforce classroom rules to teach children proper behavior Supervise children outside of the classroom—for example, during lunchtime or recess. Kindergarten and elementary school teachers help students learn and apply important concepts. Many teachers use a hands-on approach, such as the media, use of props, to help students understand abstract concepts, solve problems, and develop critical thinking skills. For example, they may show students how to do a science experiment and defining love then have the students do the experiment. They may have students work together to learn how to essays gender, collaborate to solve problems.

Kindergarten and bismarck unification elementary school teachers generally teach kindergarten through fourth or fifth grade. However, in media gender, some schools, elementary school teachers may teach sixth, seventh, and eighth grade. They most often teach students many subjects, such as reading, science, and social studies, which students learn throughout the day. Some teachers, particularly those who teach young students, may teach a multilevel class that includes children who would traditionally be in different grades. They may have the same group of students for several years. Kindergarten and elementary school students spend most of written in apa style their day in one classroom. Teachers may escort students to assemblies; to classes taught by other teachers, such as art or music; or to recess. While students are away from the media essays, classroom, teachers plan lessons, grade assignments, or meet with other teachers and staff. In some schools with older students, teachers work in obesity essays, teams. Each teacher often specializes in teaching one of two pairs of specialties, either English and social studies or math and media science.

Generally, students spend half their time with one teacher and half their time with the other. Some kindergarten and elementary school teachers teach special classes, such as art, music, and physical education. Some schools employ teachers of English as a second language (ESL) or English for speakers of other languages (ESOL). Both of these types of research teachers work exclusively with students who are learning English, often referred to as English language learners (ELLs). The teachers work with students individually or in groups to help them improve their English skills and to help them with assignments they got in essays gender, other classes. Students with learning disabilities or emotional or behavioral disorders are often taught in traditional classes. Essay Love! Teachers work with special education teachers to media essays gender, adapt lessons to these students’ needs and formal lab report monitor the students’ progress.

In some cases, kindergarten and elementary school teachers may co-teach lessons with special education teachers. Some teachers maintain websites to communicate with parents about students’ assignments, upcoming events, and grades. For students in gender, higher grades, teachers may create websites or discussion boards to present information or to expand on a lesson taught in essay, class. Kindergarten and elementary school teachers held about 1.5 million jobs in media essays, 2012. Kindergarten and elementary school teachers work in public and private schools. Written Style! Some private early childhood education programs have preschool classes in addition to gender, kindergarten. Most states have tenure laws, which mean that after a certain number of years of teaching satisfactorily, teachers have some job security.

Seeing students develop new skills and learn information can be rewarding. At the same time, however, teaching also may be stressful. Thesis In Apa! Some schools have large classes and lack important teaching tools, such as computers and up-to-date textbooks. Most teachers are held accountable for their students’ performances on media essays gender, standardized tests, which can be frustrating. Kindergarten and elementary school teachers generally work during school hours when students are present. They may meet with parents, students, and other teachers before and after school.

They often spend time in the evenings and on weekends grading papers and cause and effect essays preparing lessons. Many kindergarten and essays gender elementary school teachers work the traditional 10-month school year, with a 2-month break during the summer. Written In Apa! Some teachers may teach summer programs. Teachers in districts with a year-round schedule typically work 8 weeks in a row, are on break for essays gender 1 week before starting a new schooling session, and also have a 5-week midwinter break. Kindergarten and elementary school teachers must have a bachelor’s degree. In addition, public school teachers must have a state-issued certification or license. All states require public kindergarten and elementary school teachers to have at least a bachelor’s degree in elementary education.

Some states also require kindergarten and elementary school teachers to major in a content area, such as math or science. They typically enroll in their university’s teacher preparation program and also take classes in education and child psychology in addition to those required by their major. In teacher education programs, future teachers learn how to present information to young students and how to work with young students of varying abilities and written style backgrounds. Programs typically include fieldwork, such as student teaching. For information about gender, teacher preparation programs in your state, visit Teach.org. Some states require all teachers to earn a master’s degree after receiving their teaching certification. Teachers in private schools do not need to meet state requirements, such as certifications or licenses. However, private schools typically seek kindergarten and elementary school teachers who have a bachelor’s degree in elementary education. Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations. All states require teachers in public schools to be licensed or certified.

Those who teach in private schools are generally not required to formal lab report template, be licensed. Kindergarten and media elementary school teachers are typically certified to obesity cause and effect essays, teach early childhood grades, which are usually preschool through third grade, or elementary school grades, which are usually first through sixth grades or first through eighth grades. Requirements for certification vary by state. However, all states require at essays gender, least a bachelor’s degree. They also require completing a teacher preparation program and supervised experience in teaching, typically gained through student teaching. Some states require a minimum grade point average. States often require candidates to pass a general teaching certification test, as well as a test that demonstrates their knowledge of the subject they will teach. Essays Historians And Historiography! Although kindergarten and essays elementary school teachers typically do not teach only a single subject, they may still be required to pass a content area test to earn their certification. For information on certification requirements in your state, visit Teach.org. Teachers are frequently required to complete annual professional development classes to keep their license.

Most states require teachers to bismarck of germany, pass a background check. Some states require teachers to complete a master’s degree after receiving their certification. All states offer an media, alternative route to certification for people who already have a bachelor’s degree but lack the education courses required for certification. Some alternative certification programs allow candidates to begin teaching immediately after graduation, under the supervision of an experienced teacher. These programs cover teaching methods and child development. After they complete the program, candidates are awarded full certification. Other programs require students to bismarck of germany essay, take classes in education before they can teach. Students may be awarded a master’s degree after completing one of media essays these programs. For information about alternative certification programs, contact Teach-Now. In order to receive certification, teachers need to undergo a period of fieldwork, commonly referred to as student teaching.

During student teaching, they work with a mentor teacher and essay get experience teaching students in a classroom setting. The amount of essays time required varies by state. Communication skills. Teachers must collaborate with teacher assistants and special education teachers. Obesity Cause And Effect! In addition, they need to discuss students’ needs with parents and administrators.

Creativity. Kindergarten and media essays gender elementary school teachers must plan lessons that engage young students, adapting the lessons to different learning styles. Patience. Formal! Working with students of different abilities and backgrounds can be difficult. Media! Kindergarten and elementary school teachers must respond with patience when students struggle with material. Resourcefulness. Kindergarten and elementary school teachers need to be able to explain difficult concepts in terms that young students can understand. In addition, they must be able to get students engaged in lab report template, learning and adapt their lessons meet students’ needs. Experienced teachers can advance to serve as mentors to newer teachers or to become lead teachers.

In these roles, they help less experienced teachers to improve their teaching skills. With additional education or certification, teachers may become school counselors, school librarians, or instructional coordinators. Some become assistant principals or principals, both of gender which generally require additional schooling in education administration or leadership. The median annual wage for kindergarten teachers was $50,120 in May 2012. The median wage is the essays, wage at which half the workers in an occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $32,450, and the top 10 percent earned more than $78,230.

The median annual wage for elementary school teachers was $53,400. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $35,630, and the top 10 percent earned more than $83,160. Kindergarten and gender elementary school teachers generally work during school hours when students are present. They may meet with parents, students, and paper fibre institute norway other teachers before and after school. They often spend time in the evenings and on weekends grading papers and preparing lessons. Many kindergarten and elementary school teachers work the traditional 10-month school year, with a 2-month break during the summer. Media! Some teachers may teach summer programs. Essays Historians And Historiography! Teachers in districts with a year-round schedule typically work 8 weeks in a row, are on break for 1 week before starting a new school session, and also have a 5-week midwinter break.

Compared with workers in all occupations, kindergarten and elementary school teachers had a higher percentage of workers who belonged to gender, a union in essays, 2012. Employment of kindergarten and elementary school teachers is projected to grow 12 percent from 2012 to 2022, about essays gender, as fast as the essay love, average for all occupations. Growth is expected due to projected increases in enrollment as well as declines in student–teacher ratios. Media Gender! However, employment growth will vary by region. From 2012 to 2022, the student–teacher ratio across schools is expected to decline slightly. This ratio is the and effect essays, number of media students for each teacher in the school.

A decline in template, the ratio means that each teacher is responsible for fewer students, and, consequently, more teachers are needed to teach the media gender, same number of students. In addition, the style, number of students enrolling in kindergarten and elementary schools is expected to gender, increase over the coming decade, and the number of classes needed to accommodate these students will also rise. As a result, more teachers will be required to teach these additional classes of bismarck unification essay kindergarten and gender elementary school students. Although overall student enrollment is expected to essays, grow, there will be some variation by region. Enrollment is expected to media essays, grow fastest in the South and West. In the Midwest, enrollment is expected to hold steady, and the Northeast is projected to have declines.

As a result, employment growth for bismarck of germany kindergarten and elementary school teachers is expected to be faster in the South and media essays West than in the Midwest and Northeast. However, despite expected increases in enrollment, employment growth for kindergarten and paper norway elementary school teachers will depend on state and local government budgets. When state and local governments experience budget deficits, they may lay off employees, including teachers. As a result, employment growth of kindergarten and elementary school teachers may be somewhat reduced by state and essays gender local government budget deficits. A significant number of older teachers are expected to reach retirement age between 2012 and 2022. Love! Their retirement will create job openings for essays new teachers. Written In Apa! However, many areas of the country already have a surplus of teachers who are trained to teach kindergarten and essays gender elementary school, making it more difficult for essay defining love new teachers to find jobs. Teachers of English as a second language (ESL) and special education teachers are in short supply.

Kindergarten and elementary school teachers with education or certifications to teach these specialties should have better job opportunities. Opportunities will vary by region and media essays gender school setting. Unification! Job prospects should be better in the South and West, which are expected to have rapid enrollment growth. Furthermore, opportunities will be better in urban and rural school districts than in suburban school districts. For more information about teaching and becoming a teacher, visit.

For more information about teacher preparation programs, visit. For more information about alternative certification programs, visit.